ACE Security Laminates


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ACE Security Laminates

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. IntroductionIntelligently designing window and glass security into a buildingnecessitates a complex series of compromises.•ACE’s primary design objective is to save lives.•ACE’s goal here as your solution provider is to provide intelligentwindow and glass security design solutions. 2
  3. 3. IntroductionACE’s recommendations areintended for security professionals/architects tasked withimplementing anti-terrorist designcriteria, recognizing that theserequirements need to be balancedagainst design constraints such as;• sustainability• construction and• life-cycle costs• architectural expression• natural hazards protection 3
  4. 4. Threat DefinitionPrimary ThreatA primary threat is a vehicleweapon located along asecured perimeter line.The size of the vehicleweapon considered may varyfrom hundreds to thousandsof pounds of TNT equivalentdepending on the criteriaused. 4
  5. 5. Threat DefinitionThe danger here is to be considered on allsides of the building.Air-blast loads decay speedily with distance;the highest loads are focused at base of theBuilding and decay with height.Ahead of the blast wave debris is picked upand creates hazards to the building and personnel.Cosmetic features such as potted plants, park benches, etc,…actas projectiles. In any typical bomb blast 85% of injuries is dueto flying debris and glass shards. 5
  6. 6. Threat DefinitionSecondary ThreatA secondary threat is a hand carriedweapon placed directly against theexterior envelope.This weapon may becarried in a briefcase,backpack or a bombplaced in a garbagereceptacle. 6
  7. 7. Threat DefinitionExplosive pressures aretypically much greater than theother loads such as violentwinds during severe weatherconditions.Blast waves decay extremelyrapidly with time and space.The pressures producedincrease linearly with the sizeof the weapon, measured inequivalent pounds of TNT, anddecrease exponentially with thedistance from the explosion. 7
  8. 8. Threat DefinitionThe duration of the explosionis extremely short, measuredin milliseconds.Some explosives effects havea longer duration and higherpeck levels.Those types of explosions areindustrial related, i.e. naturalgas, petro-chemical plants. 8
  9. 9. Threat DefinitionEffects of shock waveexpansion and engulfment ofthe building.All three steps happen in lestthat a full second, and maysuffer echo blast effects.Intelligently protecting yourwindows will assistimmensely in saving livesand securing the building. 9
  10. 10. Threat DefinitionSome other air-blast effects tobe aware of include:• Pressure acting on the side of the building facing the explosion is amplified by factors ten times the incident pressure. This pressure is referred to as the reflected pressure.• Since it is not known which sides of the building the explosion will act on, all sides need to be designed for the worst case. 10
  11. 11. Threat Definition• Air-blast pressures have a negative or suction phase following the direct or positive pressure phase.• The negative phase pressures can govern response in low pressure regions causing windows to fail outward. 11
  12. 12. Threat Definition• Rebound of the exterior envelope components following the explosion can pull the façade components off the building exterior.• Rebound refers to the reversal of structural motion due to vibration.• Since the design objective is to protect occupants, failure of dual pane windows in the outward direction may be acceptable provided that the hazards of falling debris post-event and blocked egress points are avoided. 12
  13. 13. Threat Definition• In addition to the propagation of a pressure wave through the air, a proportion of the energy of the weapon is transmitted through the soil. This effect is analogous to a high intensity, short duration earthquake which will add additional stress to window frames causing glass to break away. 13
  14. 14. Threat DefinitionIn the past windows were the mostdefenseless portion of any building.Though it may be impractical to designall the windows to resist a large scaleexplosive attack, it is desirable to limitthe amount of hazardous glass inreducing injuries.Annealed glass windows break at lowpressure and impulse levels. The shardscreated by broken windows areresponsible for a majority of the injuriesincurred due to a large explosive attack. 14
  15. 15. Threat DefinitionDesigning windows with ACE securitylaminates to provide protectionagainst the effects of explosions canbe effective in reducing the glasslaceration injuries.For a large-scale vehicle weapon,this pressure range is expected onthe sides of surroundings buildingsnot facing the explosion, or for smaller explosions where pressuresdrop more rapidly with distance.Generally we do not know which side of the building the attack willoccur on so all sides need to be protected. 15
  16. 16. Threat DefinitionWindow protection should beevaluated on a case by casebasis by a qualified threat riskprofessional.Generic recommendations canbe dangerous. ACE does NOTrecommend some of these.SAFE-Break – in - Frame. 16
  17. 17. Threat DefinitionIn an effort to prevent orlimit glass laceration injuries, several approaches that canbe taken, yet each remainingsystem releases glass.• Blast Curtains• Catch bar Systems• Wet Glazing 17
  18. 18. Threat DefinitionOne industry process is to use a‘wet glazing’ or sealantapproach. This is a processwhere the window film installerwill seal all four side of thewindow in an attempt to adherethe window film to the windowframe.Although this is a window filmindustry practice, ACE will notand cannot endorse or supportthis recommendation as our inhouse testing has proven thismethod to be dangerous andnot provide or limit the potentialof injury. 18
  19. 19. Threat DefinitionACE recommends that windows atemergency exits are to be avoided tofacilitate egress. These windows aretypically market with a RED triangle asshown here. The Emergency Responderadvisory Triangle is widely used andmeasures 4 inches in diameter and placedat the bottom right hand side of thewindow that is unprotected.Presently in North America the government design criteriagenerally specify either the threat or the loading pressure andimpulse that blast mitigating windows need to be designed for.Pressure levels given vary from about 4 psi up to about 40 psidepending on the criteria document. 19
  20. 20. Threat DefinitionThe danger here is that the window film industry has set a 10psithreshold. A 10 psi threshold is unrealistic for the immediate dangersfaced by buildings.ACE is the only product to meet the 10 psi industry standard and weexceed that as our field test performed by MREL. Presently ACE standsalone with 186 psi of Incident Pressure and 1100 reflected Pressure.(MREL Test Report 1999) 20
  21. 21. Threat DefinitionTypically, projectile impact loadsare not considered for air-blasttesting like they are for windloads. ACE finds this rathersurprising as it is welldocumented that shrapnel anddebris are always associatedwith an explosion. Whilewindow film companies promotetheir blast resistant capabilitiesonly ACE addresses the shrapnelassociated with a pipe bomb, ora car/truck bomb. 21
  22. 22. Glass Design• Glass is often the weakest part of a building, breaking at low pressures compared to other components such as the floors, walls, or columns.• Past incidents have shown that glass breakage and associated injuries may extend many thousands of feet in large external explosions.• High-velocity glass fragments have been shown to be a major contributor to injuries in such incidents.• For incidents within downtown city areas, falling glass poses a major hazard to passers-by. At this time, exterior debris is largely ignored by existing presentation. 22
  23. 23. Glass DesignAs part of the damage limitingapproach, glass failure is notquantified in terms of whetherbreakage occurs or not, butrather by the hazard it causes tothe occupants. Two failuremodes that reduce the hazardposed by window glass are:• glass that breaks but is retained by the frame• glass fragments exit the frame and fall within 3 to 10 feet of the window 23
  24. 24. Glass DesignThe glass performance condition is defined based on empiricaldata from explosive tests performed in a cubical space with a 10foot dimension. The performance condition ranges from 1 whichcorresponds to not breaking to 5 which corresponds tohazardous flying debris at a distance of 10 feet from thewindow. Generally a performance condition 3 or 4 is consideredacceptable for buildings that are not at high risk of attack. Atthis level, fragments fly into the building but land harmlesslywithin 10 feet of the window or impact a witness panel 10 feetaway no more than 2 feet above the floor level.• The ACE design goal is to achieve a performance level less than 3a for 90% of the windows. 24
  25. 25. Glass DesignPerformance Protection Hazard Description of Window GlazingCondition Level Level1 Safe None Glazing does not break. No visible damage to glazing or frame.2 Very High None Glazing cracks but is retained by the frame. Dusting or very small fragments near sill or on floor acceptable.3a High Very Low Glass cracks. Fragments enter space and land on floor no further than 1 meter (3.3 feet) from window.3b High Low Glazing cracks. Fragments enter space and land on floor no further than 3 meters (10 feet) from the window.4 Medium Medium Glazing cracks. Fragments enter space and land on floor and impact a vertical witness panel at a distance of no more than 3 m (10 feet) from the window at a height no greater than 2 feet above the floor.5 Low High Glazing cracks and window system fails catastrophically. Fragments enter space impacting a vertical witness panel at a distance of no more than 3 meters (10 feet) from the window at a height greater than 0.6 meters (2 feet) above the floor. 25
  26. 26. Glass DesignThe ideal solution for newconstruction and or windowchange outs is to use ACEsecurity laminated annealed(i.e., float) glass.For insulated units, only the inner pane needs to be laminated.The security laminate holds the shards of glass together in explosiveevents, reducing its potential to cause laceration injuries.Annealed glass is used because it has a breaking strength that isabout one-half that of heat strengthened glass and about one-fourthas strong as tempered glass thus reducing the loads transmitted tothe supporting frame and walls. 26
  27. 27. Energy TransferenceThe effects of explosions on structures are directly related tostress-wave propagation as well as impact and missilepenetration (debris).For explosions close to the targeted object, the pressure-driveneffects occur quickly, on the order of microseconds to a fewmilliseconds. The air-blast loads are commonly subdivided into:(1)loading due to the impinging shock front, its reflections, and the greatly increased hydrostatic pressure behind the front, all commonly denoted as overpressure; and(2) the dynamic pressures due to the particle velocity, or mass transfer, of the air. 27
  28. 28. Energy TransferenceIt is customary to characterize the pressure loadings in terms of scaled range, as given by Z = R/W1/3Z is the scaled rangeR is the radial distance between the explosion center and the targetW is the explosive weight (normally expressed as an equivalent TNT weight).In the scaled-range concept, as long as the value of Z remains the same, the sameparameters for the explosive effects (i.e., peak pressure, positive duration, etc.)should be obtained. 28
  29. 29. Energy TransferenceWhen an explosion impinges on astructural element, a shock wave istransmitted internally at high speed; forexample, dilatational waves (tension orcompression) propagate at speeds of2,700–3,400 m/s in typical concrete and4,900–5,800 m/s in steel.At these speeds, reflections andrefractions quickly occur within thematerial (within milliseconds), and,depending on the material properties,high-rate straining and majordisintegration effects occur. 29
  30. 30. Energy TransferenceFor example, under extremely high shock pressures, concrete, arelatively brittle material, tends to undergo multiple fractureswhich can lead to fragmentation. In steel, under similarconditions, depending on the material properties and geometry,yielding and fracture can be expected, especially if fabricationflaws are present, with fragmentation occurring in some cases.Primary, fragments are produced when a detonating explosive isin contact with a material such as concrete or steel. The initialvelocity of the primary fragments depends in part on thedetonation pressure. Secondary fragments are produced by theeffect of the blast wave on materials not in contact with theexplosive. 30
  31. 31. Energy TransferenceOpenings such as doors and windowsrequire special design considerations ifintrusion of the explosive shock wave is tobe averted, or damage mitigated. Wherehigh levels of blast-effects mitigation aresought, labyrinth (and) entrances, possiblywith blast doors, as well as ventilation blastvalves, can be used.As the energy of the blast wave istransferred from wall to window, fromwindow to window frame, from window frame back to wall, the wallnow takes on an excessive negative pressure adding to the rapiderosion of the wall leading to total collapse. 31
  32. 32. Checker Board ApproachIn situations as described above, should your building not haveblast doors as well as ventilation blast valves, ACE hasdeveloped a systematic approach whereby the glass is protectedand the very same protected glass is used to assist in ‘venting orexhausting’ the shock wave in a technique preventing orminimizing negative pressures that may add to a rapid erosionof the targeted wall. 32
  33. 33. Checker Board ApproachThe Checker Board system iswhere ACE will fasten (anchor)its security laminate on awindow vertically (right and leftsides) leaving the top andbottom free to expand ventingthe blast wave. The adjacentwindow will have the horizontalapplication whereby the top andbottom will be fasten leaving theright and left side open to act asa blast vale. This method wouldbe done to the entire targetedside of the building. 33
  34. 34. Flexibility Is A Must!Utilizing the expertise of materials, adhesive formulation, anddevelopment along with manufacturing capabilities within ACE’sEngineered Protective Systems Group and the materials andblast analytics from the ACE Engineer Research andDevelopment Center (AERDC), a highly innovative product hasbeen brought to market.ACE’s SL14 performs well across a wide temperature range anddiverse environmental conditions. ACE’s SL series of productsare moisture, mold and fungus-resistant, and theenvironmentally friendly product contains no VOCs. 34
  35. 35. Flexibility Is A Must!An exceptionally formulated adhesive system allows the patentpending, (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ACE patent # PAT 2777P-2 US)SL14 to be applied to the interior side of any glass or windowsimply by removing the protective film liner and applying theproduct to the glass. ACE’s SL series is further supported by asimple yet highly sophisticated and effective anchoring system atthe top and bottom or right and left sides of the window frame.Repel, resist, and absorb (RRA) the effects of a bomb blastflexibility is a must. Commonly referred to as Elasticity ofmaterial causes it to resume its original size and shape afterhaving been stretched by an external force. This unheard offeature allows the ACE product to take several blasts withoutdeteriorating. (MREL 1999 test report) 35
  36. 36. Flexibility Is A Must!The ratio of stress to strain, called the elastic modulus, and theelastic limit of a material are determined by the molecular structureof the material.The distance between molecules in a stress-free material depends ona balance between the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion.When an external force is applied, creating stress within the material,the molecular distances change and the material becomes deformed.If the molecules are tightly bound to each other, there will be littlestrain even for a large amount of stress. If, however, as with the ACEproducts the molecules are loosely bonded to each other, a relativelysmall amount of stress will cause a large amount of elasticity. Belowthe elastic limit, when the applied force is removed, the moleculesreturn to their balanced position, and the elastic material goes backto its original shape. 36
  37. 37. Flexibility Is A Must!All materials have some degree of elasticity, but rubber, forexample, is more elastic than metal or wood. Using this theory ACEpatent a process that allows its product to remain soft and flexible,yet resistant as steel. That is why ACE remains unmatched when itcomes to protecting windows from bomb blast and bullets.The danger here is that much of the window tint/film industryattempts to compensate by making thicker films which lackflexibility and remain ridged failing to absorb the blast effect andunable to meet the high 186 psi that ACE has obtained. As anindustry as a whole, the community of window film manufactureshave settled on a 10 psi threshold. Yet the reality of the seriousnessof threats existing call for a true Security Laminate to respond andprovide you with a viable proven solution. That solution is ACE! 37
  38. 38. Blast InjuriesBlast injuries traditionally are divided into 4 categories: primary,secondary, tertiary, and quaternary (or miscellaneous) injuries.• A primary blast injury is caused solely by the direct effect of blast overpressure on tissue. Air is easily compressible, unlike water. As a result, a primary blast injury almost always affects air-filled structures such as the lung, ear, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract.• A secondary blast injury is caused by flying objects that strike people.• A tertiary blast injury is a feature of high-energy explosions. This type of injury occurs when people fly through the air and strike other objects.• Miscellaneous or quaternary blast injuries encompass all other injuries caused by explosions, such as burns, crush injuries, and toxic inhalations. 38
  39. 39. ConclusionACE has demonstrated to be your window security solution.ACE is NOT a window tint/film company, we are a securitycompany focused on protecting the weakest link to buildingsecurity. ACE is your peace of mind.ACE will assist in preventing a blast wave(s) from destroyingyour building.ACE will assist in preventing debris/ projectiles associated with aviolent blast causing injury or death.ACE has the only UL 752 and BMAG Level 1.ACE is familiar with large scale projects.ACE is ready to begin work within 24 hours of a signedagreement. 39
  40. 40. ConclusionACE exceeds industry 10 psi providing you with 186 psi which is 18times stronger & over 110 times stronger due to Echo effectsACE has factory certified trained technicians on the groundACE offers a limited life time warrantyACE has been in business since 1991ACE U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. Patent #PAT 2777P-2 USACE has a proven record with ACE laminate being used in thetheatre of war for example Iraq, Kirgizstan, Lebanon, Angola,Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Greece,Romania, Indonesia, China, USA, Canada, Italy, UK and we areprotecting some of India’s highest racking Politicians. ACE believesthat the TAJ is just and so much so deserving to have ACE protecttheir facilities. 40
  41. 41. DisclaimerIndependent third party testing usingthe UL-752 Ballistics Standard hasestablished that ACEs SL14 securitylaminate is capable of resisting bulletsfrom weapons firing .38 calibre, 9mmFMJ and .357 projectiles.However, at no time does ACEpromote or lead clients to believe thatbullet-proofing or bomb proofing canbe achieved solely with ACE products.ACE encourages potential users toconsider having a risk threatassessment performed by one of ourtrained professionals or a competentindependent security consultant toevaluate your security needs. 41
  42. 42. PO Box 4069Ottawa, ON K1S 2J8tel: 613.237.0000toll free: 1.888.607.0000For access to any of our test reports, contact us at 42