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Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
Soil
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Soil

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  • 1. Soil
    Jenalyn A. Sampang
    Celeste R. Desingaño
  • 2. Loose covering of broken rocky material and decaying organic matter overlying the bedrock of the Earth’s surface.
    Comprised of minerals, organic matter(called humus) derived from decomposed plants and animals, air and water.
    Is a renewable resource but for a longer period of time. Depending on climate, it takes 15 years to hundreds of years for the formation of just 1 centimetre soil.
    Pedology is the study of soil.
    Soil
  • 3. The base of life on land.
    Provides the bulk of the nutrients needed for plant growth.
    Serves as primary filter of water as it passes through it.
    Helps decompose and recycle biodegradable wastes.
    Major component of the earth’s water recycling and water storage processes.
    Importance of Soil
  • 4. Soil Profile/Soil Horizon
  • 5.
  • 6. Occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species in the future.
    Due to the following reasons:
    Creep
    Erosion
    Desertification
    Soil Degradation
  • 7.
  • 8. Soil Creep
    Gradual movement of soil down a slope in response to gravity.
  • 9. The movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one place to another.
    Two main agents:
    Flowing water
    Wind
    Erosion may be natural or anthropogenic.
    Anthropogenic erosion due to farming, logging, construction, overgrazing by livestock, off-road vehicle use, and deliberate burning of vegetation.
    Soil Erosion
  • 10.
  • 11. Two major harmful effects:
    Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant nutrients in topsoil.
    Water pollution, kill fish and shellfish, and clog irrigation ditches, boat channels, reservoir, and lakes.
    Soil Erosion
  • 12. Techniques that will limit soil erosion
    avoiding construction during erosion prone periods
    intercepting runoff
    terrace-building
    use of erosion-suppressing cover materials
    planting trees or other soil binding plants.
  • 13. Desertification
    The formation of deserts by changes in climate or by human-aided processes.
  • 14. Causes of Desertification
    Natural causes of desertification:
    decreased rainfall
    increased temperatures
    lowering of water table
    soil erosion
    Soil compaction
    Human-aided desertification
    Overgrazing
    Destruction of forest belts (Deforestation)
    Salinization
    Exhaustion of the soil by intensive cultivation without restoration of fertility.
  • 15. Worsening drought
    Famine
    Economic losses
    Lower living standards
    Environmental refugees
    Consequences of Desertification

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