Soil

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Soil

  1. 1. Soil<br />Jenalyn A. Sampang<br />Celeste R. Desingaño<br />
  2. 2. Loose covering of broken rocky material and decaying organic matter overlying the bedrock of the Earth’s surface.<br />Comprised of minerals, organic matter(called humus) derived from decomposed plants and animals, air and water.<br />Is a renewable resource but for a longer period of time. Depending on climate, it takes 15 years to hundreds of years for the formation of just 1 centimetre soil.<br />Pedology is the study of soil.<br />Soil<br />
  3. 3. The base of life on land.<br />Provides the bulk of the nutrients needed for plant growth.<br />Serves as primary filter of water as it passes through it.<br />Helps decompose and recycle biodegradable wastes.<br />Major component of the earth’s water recycling and water storage processes.<br />Importance of Soil<br />
  4. 4. Soil Profile/Soil Horizon<br />
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  6. 6. Occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species in the future.<br />Due to the following reasons:<br />Creep<br />Erosion<br />Desertification<br />Soil Degradation<br />
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  8. 8. Soil Creep<br />Gradual movement of soil down a slope in response to gravity.<br />
  9. 9. The movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil, from one place to another.<br />Two main agents:<br />Flowing water<br />Wind<br />Erosion may be natural or anthropogenic.<br />Anthropogenic erosion due to farming, logging, construction, overgrazing by livestock, off-road vehicle use, and deliberate burning of vegetation.<br />Soil Erosion<br />
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  11. 11. Two major harmful effects:<br />Loss of soil fertility through depletion of plant nutrients in topsoil.<br />Water pollution, kill fish and shellfish, and clog irrigation ditches, boat channels, reservoir, and lakes.<br />Soil Erosion<br />
  12. 12. Techniques that will limit soil erosion<br />avoiding construction during erosion prone periods<br />intercepting runoff<br />terrace-building<br />use of erosion-suppressing cover materials <br />planting trees or other soil binding plants.<br />
  13. 13. Desertification<br />The formation of deserts by changes in climate or by human-aided processes.<br />
  14. 14. Causes of Desertification<br />Natural causes of desertification:<br />decreased rainfall<br />increased temperatures<br />lowering of water table<br />soil erosion<br />Soil compaction<br />Human-aided desertification <br />Overgrazing<br />Destruction of forest belts (Deforestation)<br />Salinization<br />Exhaustion of the soil by intensive cultivation without restoration of fertility.<br />
  15. 15. Worsening drought<br />Famine<br />Economic losses<br />Lower living standards<br />Environmental refugees<br />Consequences of Desertification<br />

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