Cellular Respiration KEY WORDS: Oxidation Reduction NAD/ NADH FAD/ FADH 2 Cellular respiration Glycolysis Kreb’s cycle Ele...
Food is used to energize ATP
Electrons transfer energy to Energize ATP REDOX REACTIONS Oxidation = Losing electrons Reduction = Gaining electrons TIP: ...
Main Players: Making ATP Food used to make ATP and NADH & FADH 2 Electrons provide energy to pump H+ across  inner mitocho...
Obtaining Energy from Food <ul><li>Organisms extract energy from food over several steps in small “bite sized” pieces </li...
Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in 3 stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Kreb’s cycle </li></ul><ul...
1.  Glycolysis <ul><li>Takes place in the cytoplasm </li></ul>NAD+
A closer look at glycolysis: energy investment phase (Layer 1) Good News!  You don’t need to know the steps of glycolysis!...
A closer look at glycolysis: energy investment phase (Layer 2)
A closer look at glycolysis: energy payoff phase (Layer 3)
A closer look at glycolysis: energy payoff phase (Layer 4)
What’s Happened so far? Glycolysis glucose O 2 Used? Glucose C now Product: ATP # NADH # Glycolysis
What’s Happened so far? Glycolysis pyruvate pyruvate glucose O 2 Used? Glucose C now Product: ATP # NADH # Glycolysis No P...
Electron carriers
Some energy captured as electrons  <ul><li>Energy in food in form of high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons cap...
 
NAD +  as an electron shuttle
After Glycolysis <ul><li>Pyruvic Acid shipped into mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>One carbon is removed as CO 2 </li></ul>...
Pyruvate as a key juncture in catabolism
2.  Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Remaining two carbons removed as CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>For each Acetyl-Co-A: </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 1)
A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 2)
A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 3)
A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 4)
This is what you need to know
What’s Happened so far? Krebs Cycle glucose Original C  of glucose are now ATP NADH FADH 2 Glycolysis 2 pyruvate 2 2 Acety...
What’s Happened so far? Krebs Cycle glucose Original C  of glucose are now ATP NADH FADH 2 Glycolysis 2 pyruvate 2 2 Acety...
3.  Electron Transport Chain (ETC)  <ul><li>Electrons give up energy as passed along </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are passe...
What is oxygen for?  Receives electrons at the end of the  ETC With H +,  forms water
ATP synthase <ul><li>Works like hydro-electric dam </li></ul><ul><li>Large concentration gradient of H+ builds up across t...
*H+ is pumped against its gradient into the mitochondrial matrix. *Energy for active transport comes from electrons
Harnessing energy in small steps allows the cell to get more energy that can be used to do work
Free energy of electrons decreases as they are passed through the ETC
Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis
ATP synthase, a molecular mill
 
Fuel efficiency of metabolism <ul><li>Conventional Power Plant = 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile Engine = 25% </li></ul><...
You need energy to think, to keep your heart beating, to play a sport, and to study this book. This energy is directly sup...
Energy transfer in living things works through redox reactions, in which one substance is _____ by another substance, ther...
_____ and _____ are important not so much for the ATP produced in them, but for their _____. <ul><li>glycolysis ... the Kr...
At most, how many molecules of ATP can be produced per glucose molecule in cellular respiration? <ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><...
We need to breathe because we need <ul><li>both atmospheric nitrogen and the oxygen for energy transformation </li></ul><u...
Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation <ul><li>live off glycolysis alone </li></ul>
Alcoholic Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH Ethanol + CO 2  + NAD+ Vinegar
Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH Lactic Acid + NAD+
Fermentation allows the cycle of glycolysis to continue by regenerating NAD+
Fermentation
An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 1)
An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 2)
Substrate-level phosphorylation
An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 3)
Max of 36 ATP per Glucose
What is all of the ATP used for?
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Ch.9 cellular respiration

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  • NADH, FADH2 carry high energy electrons See why electron carriers are important later
  • General reaction is the same as burning e.g. burning carbohydrates
  • NADH, FADH2 carry high energy electrons See why electron carriers are important later
  • Figure: 07-09 Title: The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Caption: The movement of electrons through the ETC powers the process that provides the bulk of the ATP yield in respiration. The electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are released into the ETC and transported along its chain of molecules. The movement of electrons along the chain releases enough energy to power the pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) across the membrane into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion. It is the subsequent energetic “fall” of the H+ ions back into the inner compartment that drives the synthesis of ATP molecules by the enzyme ATP synthase.
  • Only 2 ATP but better than nothing
  • Only 2 ATP but better than nothing
  • Only 2 ATP but better than nothing
  • Ch.9 cellular respiration

    1. 1. Cellular Respiration KEY WORDS: Oxidation Reduction NAD/ NADH FAD/ FADH 2 Cellular respiration Glycolysis Kreb’s cycle Electron transport chain ATP synthase
    2. 2. Food is used to energize ATP
    3. 3. Electrons transfer energy to Energize ATP REDOX REACTIONS Oxidation = Losing electrons Reduction = Gaining electrons TIP: OIL RIG Gradual transfer of electrons provides most energy (ATP) from food
    4. 4. Main Players: Making ATP Food used to make ATP and NADH & FADH 2 Electrons provide energy to pump H+ across inner mitochondrial membrane NAD+/H carry electrons FAD/H 2 carry electrons H+ provide energy for synthesis of ATP O 2 final electron acceptor in ETC Cytosol location of glycolysis Mitochondria location of Kreb’s cycle & ETC ATP Synthase brings together ADP and P to make ATP
    5. 5. Obtaining Energy from Food <ul><li>Organisms extract energy from food over several steps in small “bite sized” pieces </li></ul>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy Energy Energy Energy 6CO 2 +6H 2 O ATP
    6. 6. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in 3 stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Kreb’s cycle </li></ul><ul><li>ETC </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>Takes place in the cytoplasm </li></ul>NAD+
    8. 8. A closer look at glycolysis: energy investment phase (Layer 1) Good News! You don’t need to know the steps of glycolysis! You need to know what goes in and what comes out But here are the steps, FYI…
    9. 9. A closer look at glycolysis: energy investment phase (Layer 2)
    10. 10. A closer look at glycolysis: energy payoff phase (Layer 3)
    11. 11. A closer look at glycolysis: energy payoff phase (Layer 4)
    12. 12. What’s Happened so far? Glycolysis glucose O 2 Used? Glucose C now Product: ATP # NADH # Glycolysis
    13. 13. What’s Happened so far? Glycolysis pyruvate pyruvate glucose O 2 Used? Glucose C now Product: ATP # NADH # Glycolysis No Pyruvate 2 2
    14. 14. Electron carriers
    15. 15. Some energy captured as electrons <ul><li>Energy in food in form of high energy electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons captured when food is broken down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held by electron carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAD, FAD </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 17. NAD + as an electron shuttle
    17. 18. After Glycolysis <ul><li>Pyruvic Acid shipped into mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>One carbon is removed as CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Attach Coenzyme-A  Acetyl-Co-A </li></ul><ul><li>Make one NADH for each pyruvic acid </li></ul>
    18. 19. Pyruvate as a key juncture in catabolism
    19. 20. 2. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Remaining two carbons removed as CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>For each Acetyl-Co-A: </li></ul><ul><li>Make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 NADH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 FADH 2 </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 1)
    21. 22. A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 2)
    22. 23. A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 3)
    23. 24. A closer look at the Krebs cycle (Layer 4)
    24. 25. This is what you need to know
    25. 26. What’s Happened so far? Krebs Cycle glucose Original C of glucose are now ATP NADH FADH 2 Glycolysis 2 pyruvate 2 2 Acetyl CoA formation 2 CO 2 & 2 acetyl CoA 2 Krebs Cycle Total
    26. 27. What’s Happened so far? Krebs Cycle glucose Original C of glucose are now ATP NADH FADH 2 Glycolysis 2 pyruvate 2 2 Acetyl CoA formation 2 CO 2 & 2 acetyl CoA 2 Krebs Cycle 4 more CO 2 2 6 2 Total 6 CO 2 4 10 2
    27. 28. 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) <ul><li>Electrons give up energy as passed along </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are passed between several molecules </li></ul>
    28. 29. What is oxygen for? Receives electrons at the end of the ETC With H +, forms water
    29. 30. ATP synthase <ul><li>Works like hydro-electric dam </li></ul><ul><li>Large concentration gradient of H+ builds up across the mitochondrial membrane </li></ul>
    30. 31. *H+ is pumped against its gradient into the mitochondrial matrix. *Energy for active transport comes from electrons
    31. 32. Harnessing energy in small steps allows the cell to get more energy that can be used to do work
    32. 33. Free energy of electrons decreases as they are passed through the ETC
    33. 34. Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis
    34. 35. ATP synthase, a molecular mill
    35. 37. Fuel efficiency of metabolism <ul><li>Conventional Power Plant = 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile Engine = 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration = 37% </li></ul><ul><li>Majority is lost to heat/movement </li></ul>Total Calories Converted to ATP Average metabolism Fast metabolism
    36. 38. You need energy to think, to keep your heart beating, to play a sport, and to study this book. This energy is directly supplied by _____, which is (are) produced in the process of cellular respiration. <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>NAD + </li></ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul>
    37. 39. Energy transfer in living things works through redox reactions, in which one substance is _____ by another substance, thereby _____. <ul><li>transported ... becoming more energetic </li></ul><ul><li>digested ... becoming more energetic </li></ul><ul><li>reduced ... losing electrons to it </li></ul><ul><li>oxidized ... losing electrons to it </li></ul><ul><li>oxidized ... gaining electrons from it </li></ul>
    38. 40. _____ and _____ are important not so much for the ATP produced in them, but for their _____. <ul><li>glycolysis ... the Krebs cycle ... yield of electrons transported to the ETC </li></ul><ul><li>glycolysis ... the ETC ... yield of electrons transported to the cytosol </li></ul><ul><li>Redox reactions ... fatty acid breakdown ... yield of calories </li></ul><ul><li>The Krebs cycle ... the ETC ... numerous redox reactions </li></ul><ul><li>The Krebs cycle ... the ETC ... fatty-acid breakdown </li></ul>
    39. 41. At most, how many molecules of ATP can be produced per glucose molecule in cellular respiration? <ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>24 </li></ul><ul><li>36 </li></ul><ul><li>75 </li></ul>
    40. 42. We need to breathe because we need <ul><li>both atmospheric nitrogen and the oxygen for energy transformation </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen to donate electrons to </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen to donate phosphate groups to oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen to act as the final acceptor of electrons in the ETC </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen to donate phosphate groups to ADP, making it ATP </li></ul>
    41. 43. Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation <ul><li>live off glycolysis alone </li></ul>
    42. 44. Alcoholic Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH Ethanol + CO 2 + NAD+ Vinegar
    43. 45. Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvate + NADH Lactic Acid + NAD+
    44. 46. Fermentation allows the cycle of glycolysis to continue by regenerating NAD+
    45. 47. Fermentation
    46. 48. An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 1)
    47. 49. An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 2)
    48. 50. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    49. 51. An overview of cellular respiration (Layer 3)
    50. 52. Max of 36 ATP per Glucose
    51. 53. What is all of the ATP used for?

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