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Ch.7   cell notes
 

Ch.7 cell notes

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    Ch.7   cell notes Ch.7 cell notes Presentation Transcript

    • CellsChapter 7
    • The size range of cells
    • Why are cells so small?Small cells have a high surfacearea to volume ratio whichallows more stuff to move in andout of the cell
    • CELL THEORY• Living organisms are composed of one or more cells• Cells are the smallest unit of life• Cells come from other cells
    • ALL CELLS HAVE• Plasma membrane – Outer layer• Cytoplasm – Watery stuff inside• DNA – Genetic material
    • TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
    • Prokaryotic Cells• DNA in nucleoid region• No membrane-bound organelles• No nucleus• Small• Bacteria
    • Plasma Membrane aka: The Gate-keeper
    • Overview of an Animal Cell
    • Overview of a Plant Cell
    • Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes Digests macromoleculesBreaks down dead organelles pH ~ 5
    • Formation & Function of Lysosomes
    • The Endomembrane System
    • MitochondriaSite of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
    • Chloroplast Site of PhotosynthesisConverts energy from sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar
    • Central Vacuole: Plant Cells Stores Water Waste Nutrients Makes plant cell turgid
    • Peroxisomes Produce and break down H2O2Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
    • Cytoskeleton • Network of fibers throughout cytoplasm • Gives cell shape • Holds organelles in place • Involved in movement & changing shape
    • Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton Changing shape Cilia movement Flagella movement Organelles move along microtubule or microfilament Ex: Vesicle transport
    • Centrosomes & Centrioles• Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome – Centriole: 9x3 ring of microtubules• Microtubules grow out of centrosome• Most plant cells lack centrioles
    • Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella 9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules Covered in plasma membrane Basal Body Anchors cilia/ flagella to cell 9x3 ring of microtubules
    • WaveBack andforth
    • Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella •Powered by ATP •Dynein arms grip adjacent microtubule •Grip, pull, release – repeat •Results in bending of microtubules
    • Microfilaments (actin filaments)• Pulling force • Part of Extracellular – Muscle contraction Matrix – Cytoplasmic streaming – Support cell membrane – Pseudopodia – Inside of cell membrane
    • Extracellular Matrix
    • Plant Cell Walls• Protects cell • Plasmodesmata• Gives cell shape – Cell to cell communication• Prevents excessive uptake of – Cytoplasm continuous from one cell to H20 other• Primary, secondary walls • Middle lamella cements cells together
    • Cell Junctions in Animal CellsFuses membranes Strong sheets Pass ions and small molecules