CellsChapter 7
The size range of cells
Why are cells so small?Small cells have a high surfacearea to volume ratio whichallows more stuff to move in andout of the...
CELL THEORY• Living organisms are composed of  one or more cells• Cells are the smallest unit of life• Cells come from oth...
ALL CELLS HAVE• Plasma membrane – Outer layer• Cytoplasm – Watery stuff inside• DNA – Genetic material
TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
Prokaryotic Cells• DNA in nucleoid  region• No membrane-bound  organelles• No nucleus• Small• Bacteria
Plasma Membrane aka: The Gate-keeper
Overview of an Animal Cell
Overview of a Plant Cell
Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Golgi Apparatus
Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes  Digests macromoleculesBreaks down dead organelles           pH ~ 5
Formation & Function of Lysosomes
The Endomembrane System
MitochondriaSite of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
Chloroplast           Site of PhotosynthesisConverts energy from sunlight to chemical energy                stored in sugar
Central Vacuole: Plant Cells                    Stores                    Water                    Waste                  ...
Peroxisomes       Produce and break down H2O2Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
Cytoskeleton       • Network of fibers         throughout cytoplasm       • Gives cell shape       • Holds organelles in  ...
Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton                    Changing shape                    Cilia movement                    Flag...
Centrosomes & Centrioles• Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome  – Centriole: 9x3 ring of microtubules• Microtubules grow out...
Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella           9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules           Covered in plasma membrane       ...
WaveBack andforth
Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella                  •Powered by ATP                  •Dynein arms grip adjacent    ...
Microfilaments (actin filaments)• Pulling force              • Part of Extracellular   – Muscle contraction        Matrix ...
Extracellular Matrix
Plant Cell Walls•   Protects cell                • Plasmodesmata•   Gives cell shape                – Cell to cell communi...
Cell Junctions in Animal CellsFuses membranes                                     Strong sheets     Pass ions and small mo...
Ch.7   cell notes
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Ch.7 cell notes

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Ch.7 cell notes

  1. 1. CellsChapter 7
  2. 2. The size range of cells
  3. 3. Why are cells so small?Small cells have a high surfacearea to volume ratio whichallows more stuff to move in andout of the cell
  4. 4. CELL THEORY• Living organisms are composed of one or more cells• Cells are the smallest unit of life• Cells come from other cells
  5. 5. ALL CELLS HAVE• Plasma membrane – Outer layer• Cytoplasm – Watery stuff inside• DNA – Genetic material
  6. 6. TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
  7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells• DNA in nucleoid region• No membrane-bound organelles• No nucleus• Small• Bacteria
  8. 8. Plasma Membrane aka: The Gate-keeper
  9. 9. Overview of an Animal Cell
  10. 10. Overview of a Plant Cell
  11. 11. Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
  12. 12. Ribosomes
  13. 13. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  14. 14. Golgi Apparatus
  15. 15. Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes Digests macromoleculesBreaks down dead organelles pH ~ 5
  16. 16. Formation & Function of Lysosomes
  17. 17. The Endomembrane System
  18. 18. MitochondriaSite of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
  19. 19. Chloroplast Site of PhotosynthesisConverts energy from sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar
  20. 20. Central Vacuole: Plant Cells Stores Water Waste Nutrients Makes plant cell turgid
  21. 21. Peroxisomes Produce and break down H2O2Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
  22. 22. Cytoskeleton • Network of fibers throughout cytoplasm • Gives cell shape • Holds organelles in place • Involved in movement & changing shape
  23. 23. Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton Changing shape Cilia movement Flagella movement Organelles move along microtubule or microfilament Ex: Vesicle transport
  24. 24. Centrosomes & Centrioles• Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome – Centriole: 9x3 ring of microtubules• Microtubules grow out of centrosome• Most plant cells lack centrioles
  25. 25. Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella 9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules Covered in plasma membrane Basal Body Anchors cilia/ flagella to cell 9x3 ring of microtubules
  26. 26. WaveBack andforth
  27. 27. Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella •Powered by ATP •Dynein arms grip adjacent microtubule •Grip, pull, release – repeat •Results in bending of microtubules
  28. 28. Microfilaments (actin filaments)• Pulling force • Part of Extracellular – Muscle contraction Matrix – Cytoplasmic streaming – Support cell membrane – Pseudopodia – Inside of cell membrane
  29. 29. Extracellular Matrix
  30. 30. Plant Cell Walls• Protects cell • Plasmodesmata• Gives cell shape – Cell to cell communication• Prevents excessive uptake of – Cytoplasm continuous from one cell to H20 other• Primary, secondary walls • Middle lamella cements cells together
  31. 31. Cell Junctions in Animal CellsFuses membranes Strong sheets Pass ions and small molecules

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