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Ch.7   cell
 

Ch.7 cell

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    Ch.7   cell Ch.7 cell Presentation Transcript

    • Cells Chapter 7
    • The size range of cells
    • Why are cells so small? Small cells have a high surface area to volume ratio which allows more stuff to move in and out of the cell
    • CELL THEORY
      • Living organisms are composed of one or more cells
      • Cells are the smallest unit of life
      • Cells come from other cells
    • ALL CELLS HAVE
      • Plasma membrane
        • Outer layer
      • Cytoplasm
        • Watery stuff inside
      • DNA
        • Genetic material
    • TWO BASIC CELL TYPES
    • Prokaryotic Cells
      • DNA in nucleoid region
      • No membrane-bound organelles
      • No nucleus
      • Small
      • Bacteria
    • Plasma Membrane aka: The Gate-keeper
    • Overview of an Animal Cell
    • Overview of a Plant Cell
    • Nucleus & Nuclear Envelope
    • Ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Golgi Apparatus
    • Lysosomes Sac of hydrolytic enzymes Digests macromolecules Breaks down dead organelles pH ~ 5
    • Formation & Function of Lysosomes
    • Formation & Function of Lysosomes
    • Formation & Function of Lysosomes
    • The Endomembrane System
    • Mitochondria Site of Cellular Respiration, Makes ATP
    • Chloroplast Site of Photosynthesis Converts energy from sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar
    • Central Vacuole: Plant Cells Stores Water Waste Nutrients Makes plant cell turgid
    • Peroxisomes Produce and break down H 2 O 2 Do not bud from the Endomembrane System
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Network of fibers throughout cytoplasm
      • Gives cell shape
      • Holds organelles in place
      • Involved in movement & changing shape
    •  
    • Motor Molecules & Cytoskeleton Changing shape Cilia movement Flagella movement Organelles move along microtubule or microfilament Ex: Vesicle transport
    • Centrosomes & Centrioles
      • Pair of centrioles w/in centrosome
        • Centriole: 9x3 ring of microtubules
      • Microtubules grow out of centrosome
      • Most plant cells lack centrioles
    • Structure of Eukaryotic Cilia/ Flagella 9x2 + 2 ring of microtubules Covered in plasma membrane Basal Body Anchors cilia/ flagella to cell 9x3 ring of microtubules
    • Wave Back and forth
    • Dynein “walking” moves Cilia and Flagella
      • Powered by ATP
      • Dynein arms grip adjacent microtubule
      • Grip, pull, release – repeat
      • Results in bending of microtubules
    • Microfilaments (actin filaments)
      • Pulling force
        • Muscle contraction
        • Cytoplasmic streaming
        • Pseudopodia
      • Part of Extracellular Matrix
        • Support cell membrane
        • Inside of cell membrane
    • Extracellular Matrix
    • Plant Cell Walls
      • Protects cell
      • Gives cell shape
      • Prevents excessive uptake of H20
      • Primary, secondary walls
      • Plasmodesmata
        • Cell to cell communication
        • Cytoplasm continuous from one cell to other
      • Middle lamella cements cells together
    • Cell Junctions in Animal Cells Fuses membranes Strong sheets Pass ions and small molecules