Energy and MetabolismKEY WORDS:EnergyFree Energy (ΔG)Potential energyKinetic energyEnzymeSubstrateActivation energyExergon...
Energy •The capacity to do work •Move matter
Energy •The capacity to do work •Move matter
Types of energy •Kinetic •Potential Question: __________ is an example of kinetic energy,   and __________ is an example o...
Chemical Energy•Stored in chemical bonds -high energy electrons               •Some molecules             store a lot of e...
Chemical Energy •Energy can be transferred/transformed Sugar + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + heat   C6H12O6 + O2  CO2...
First Law of Thermodynamics:Energy: neither created nor destroyed• Converted from one form to another• Exchanged between s...
Second Law of Thermodynamics: All exchanges of energy increase the entropy of the universeEntropy:  •Disorder or randomnes...
Two laws of thermodynamics
Energy Transformed
Exergonic Reactions •Release energy •“Spontaneous”  •Usually breakdown of complex molecules
Endergonic Reactions•Usually involve synthesisof complex molecules•Not “Spontaneous” 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy        C6H12O6 +...
Question: Which of the following reactionsis endergonic?  1.   CO2 and H2O              Glucose  2.   Amino acids         ...
Question:Which of the following reactions releases energy?1. CO2 and H2O               Glucose2. Amino acids              ...
Coupled Reactions  Exergonic provides energy for the endergonic      Exergonic               Endergonic             Energy...
Living organisms Metabolism •All chemical reactions in an organismAnabolism                                 Catabolism
Living organisms •Capture energy to drive chemical reactions. •Convert “raw” energy into usable form     •Sunlight, food  ...
The structure and hydrolysis of ATP
ATP: the Cell’s Rechargeable Battery• ATP                   energy                        ADP  charged battery        dead...
The ATP cycle
According to the first law ofthermodynamics, energy1. is never lost or gained, but is only transformed2. always requires a...
Each time there is a chemical reaction, someenergy is exchanged. According to thesecond law of thermodynamics, with eachex...
ATP stores energy in the form of1.   mechanical energy2.   heat3.   complex carbohydrates4.   chemical bond energy5.   ami...
The complexity of metabolism
Equation: Gibb’s Free EnergyΔG = ΔH – TΔS Energy                 All                 Energyavailable             energy   ...
The relationship of free energy to stability, work capacity, and spontaneous change
Energy changes in exergonic and endergonic reactions
Energy profile of an exergonic reaction
Disequilibrium and work in closed and open systems
Is ΔG for an exergonic reaction positiveor negative?
What is the difference between:AnabolismCatabolismMetabolism
From an energy perspective, when isequilibrium reached?
EnzymesKEY WORDS:EnzymeActivation energyCatalystSubstrateActive siteInduced fitCoenzymeAllosteric siteCompetitive inhibito...
Enzymes and ShapeActive Site  Induced fit: “Handshake” between substrate and enzyme
Activation Energy                    Activation                    Energy                     Net Energy                  ...
Enzymes•Proteins that speed up chemical reactions(catalysts)•Lower activation energy for a reaction
Enzyme reactions can be simplified as:       E+S          ES          E +P • S = Substrates (reactants) enter reaction. • ...
The catalytic cycle of an enzyme
EnzymesKey Points:  •Catalyze reactions  •Don’t change reactions     •Same net release/use of energy  •Enzymes are not cha...
Enzymes lower the barrier of activation energy
Which of the following will lower theactivation energy of a reaction in a cell?1.   lowering the temperature2.   lowering ...
Which of the following will lower theactivation energy of a reaction in a cell?1.   lowering the temperature2.   lowering ...
Enzymes1. accelerate specific chemical reactions2. are not chemically altered by binding with a   substrate3. lower the ac...
4 Things that Affect Enzyme Activity 1. Substrate concentration 2. Enzyme concentration 3. pH                           Sh...
Environmental factors affecting enzyme activity
Enzyme Regulation• Enzymes can be turned on and off• Regulated by other molecules in the cell• Examples:  – Allosteric reg...
Inhibition of enzyme activity
Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity
Feedback inhibition
If an enzyme solution is saturated withsubstrate, the most effective way toobtain an even faster yield of products is:a)  ...
An enzyme accelerates a metabolicreaction bya) Altering the overall free energy change for the   reactionb) Making an ende...
Some bacteria are metabolicallyactive in hot springs becausea) They are able to maintain a cooler internal   temperatureb)...
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that helpsliving things extract energy from food. Fromthis we know that glycolysis1. con...
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Ch.6 energy enzymes

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Ch.6 energy enzymes

  1. 1. Energy and MetabolismKEY WORDS:EnergyFree Energy (ΔG)Potential energyKinetic energyEnzymeSubstrateActivation energyExergonic reactionEndergonic reactionCatalystATP/ ADP
  2. 2. Energy •The capacity to do work •Move matter
  3. 3. Energy •The capacity to do work •Move matter
  4. 4. Types of energy •Kinetic •Potential Question: __________ is an example of kinetic energy, and __________ is an example of potential energy. 1. Fire; a piece of wood 2. A loaded gun; a flying bullet 3. A rock on top of a hill; a rock rolling down the hill 4. None of these are correct. 5. All of these are correct.
  5. 5. Chemical Energy•Stored in chemical bonds -high energy electrons •Some molecules store a lot of energy Carbos, lipids •Some molecules Carbon dioxide, store much less water
  6. 6. Chemical Energy •Energy can be transferred/transformed Sugar + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + heat C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O + Energy
  7. 7. First Law of Thermodynamics:Energy: neither created nor destroyed• Converted from one form to another• Exchanged between substances
  8. 8. Second Law of Thermodynamics: All exchanges of energy increase the entropy of the universeEntropy: •Disorder or randomness of a system •Heat is most disorganized form of energy •Reactions that ↑ entropy happen spontaneously & release energy
  9. 9. Two laws of thermodynamics
  10. 10. Energy Transformed
  11. 11. Exergonic Reactions •Release energy •“Spontaneous” •Usually breakdown of complex molecules
  12. 12. Endergonic Reactions•Usually involve synthesisof complex molecules•Not “Spontaneous” 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 •Require energy
  13. 13. Question: Which of the following reactionsis endergonic? 1. CO2 and H2O Glucose 2. Amino acids Proteins 3. Triglycerides Fatty acids 4. Ions moving across membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  14. 14. Question:Which of the following reactions releases energy?1. CO2 and H2O Glucose2. Amino acids Proteins3. Triglycerides Fatty acids4. Ions moving across membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  15. 15. Coupled Reactions Exergonic provides energy for the endergonic Exergonic Endergonic Energy Energy Proteinglucose CO2 + H2O Amino acids
  16. 16. Living organisms Metabolism •All chemical reactions in an organismAnabolism Catabolism
  17. 17. Living organisms •Capture energy to drive chemical reactions. •Convert “raw” energy into usable form •Sunlight, food ATP En er gy Energy
  18. 18. The structure and hydrolysis of ATP
  19. 19. ATP: the Cell’s Rechargeable Battery• ATP energy ADP charged battery dead battery• This energy can then be used to run an energy requiring reaction.
  20. 20. The ATP cycle
  21. 21. According to the first law ofthermodynamics, energy1. is never lost or gained, but is only transformed2. always requires an ultimate source such as the sun3. can never be gained, but can be lost4. can never really be harnessed5. can never be transformed
  22. 22. Each time there is a chemical reaction, someenergy is exchanged. According to thesecond law of thermodynamics, with eachexchange1. Some energy is lost, but other energy is created.2. Some energy must come from the sun.3. Some energy is transformed into heat.4. Energy is gained for future use.5. Some energy is permanently and completely destroyed.
  23. 23. ATP stores energy in the form of1. mechanical energy2. heat3. complex carbohydrates4. chemical bond energy5. amino acids
  24. 24. The complexity of metabolism
  25. 25. Equation: Gibb’s Free EnergyΔG = ΔH – TΔS Energy All Energyavailable energy NOTfor work available for work
  26. 26. The relationship of free energy to stability, work capacity, and spontaneous change
  27. 27. Energy changes in exergonic and endergonic reactions
  28. 28. Energy profile of an exergonic reaction
  29. 29. Disequilibrium and work in closed and open systems
  30. 30. Is ΔG for an exergonic reaction positiveor negative?
  31. 31. What is the difference between:AnabolismCatabolismMetabolism
  32. 32. From an energy perspective, when isequilibrium reached?
  33. 33. EnzymesKEY WORDS:EnzymeActivation energyCatalystSubstrateActive siteInduced fitCoenzymeAllosteric siteCompetitive inhibitorNoncompetitive inhibitorFeedback inhibition
  34. 34. Enzymes and ShapeActive Site Induced fit: “Handshake” between substrate and enzyme
  35. 35. Activation Energy Activation Energy Net Energy Released
  36. 36. Enzymes•Proteins that speed up chemical reactions(catalysts)•Lower activation energy for a reaction
  37. 37. Enzyme reactions can be simplified as: E+S ES E +P • S = Substrates (reactants) enter reaction. • P = Product (what you get at the end) result • E = Enzymes mediate specific steps sucrasesucrose + H2O glucose + fructose
  38. 38. The catalytic cycle of an enzyme
  39. 39. EnzymesKey Points: •Catalyze reactions •Don’t change reactions •Same net release/use of energy •Enzymes are not changed by reaction •Each enzyme catalyzes a specific chemical reaction
  40. 40. Enzymes lower the barrier of activation energy
  41. 41. Which of the following will lower theactivation energy of a reaction in a cell?1. lowering the temperature2. lowering the pressure3. using an enzyme4. changing the amount of the reactants5. supplying ATP
  42. 42. Which of the following will lower theactivation energy of a reaction in a cell?1. lowering the temperature2. lowering the pressure3. using an enzyme4. changing the amount of the reactants5. supplying ATP
  43. 43. Enzymes1. accelerate specific chemical reactions2. are not chemically altered by binding with a substrate3. lower the activation energy of specific chemical reactions4. all of the above5. a and c only
  44. 44. 4 Things that Affect Enzyme Activity 1. Substrate concentration 2. Enzyme concentration 3. pH Shape of enzyme (Protein denatured) 4. Temperature
  45. 45. Environmental factors affecting enzyme activity
  46. 46. Enzyme Regulation• Enzymes can be turned on and off• Regulated by other molecules in the cell• Examples: – Allosteric regulation – Feedback inhibition – Inhibitors
  47. 47. Inhibition of enzyme activity
  48. 48. Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity
  49. 49. Feedback inhibition
  50. 50. If an enzyme solution is saturated withsubstrate, the most effective way toobtain an even faster yield of products is:a) Add more enzymeb) Heat the solutionc) Add more substrated) Add an allosteric inhibitore) Add a noncompetitive inhibitor
  51. 51. An enzyme accelerates a metabolicreaction bya) Altering the overall free energy change for the reactionb) Making an endergonic reaction occur spontaneouslyc) Lowering the activation energyd) Pushing the reaction away from equilibriume) Making the substrate molecule more stable
  52. 52. Some bacteria are metabolicallyactive in hot springs becausea) They are able to maintain a cooler internal temperatureb) High temperature facilitates active metabolism w/o need of catalysisc) Enzymes have high optimal temperaturesd) Enzymes are insensitive to temperature
  53. 53. Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that helpsliving things extract energy from food. Fromthis we know that glycolysis1. consists of a series of chemical reactions2. uses a number of enzymes3. involves the modification of a series of substrates4. proceeds by means of each enzyme leaving a succeeding reaction to a different enzyme5. all of the above
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