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Ch.5 carbs, lipids


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  • Saturated fatty acid
  • Saturated fatty acid
  • Why is cholesterol bad for your health?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Carbohydrates & LipidsKEY WORDSDehydration Synthesis (Condensation)PolymerMonomerCarbohydrateSimple sugarComplex carbohydrateStarchGlycogenCelluloseLipidTriglycerideSaturated fatty acidUnsaturated fatty acidSteroidCholesterol
    • 2. The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
    • 4. Carbohydrate Types 1. SIMPLE SUGARS Monosaccharides - one sugar molecule• Hexose = 6 carbons Glucose –cell energy Fructose - honey Galactose – milk• Pentose = 5 carbons Ribose - RNA Deoxyribose - DNA
    • 5. Linear and ring forms of glucose
    • 6. Carbohydrate Types2. SIMPLE SUGARSDisaccharides - two sugar moleculeSucrose (sugar)Glucose + FructoseLactose (milk)Glucose + GalactoseMaltose (grains)Glucose + Glucose
    • 7. How are disaccharides made?Dehydration synthesis:
    • 8. Examples of disaccharide synthesis
    • 9. Carbohydrate TypesCOMPLEX CARBOHYDRATESPOLYSACCHARIDES:Long chains of monosaccharidesEXAMPLESStarch (amylose)GlycogenFiber (cellulose)Chitin
    • 10. Starch• Long-term energy storage of glucose for plants (roots, seeds)• < 500,000 glucoses
    • 11. GlycogenShort term storagepolysaccharide for animals• ~300g stored carbo in body• 72g liver (glycogen)• 245g muscle (glycogen)• 10g blood (glucose)
    • 12. Storage polysaccharides
    • 13. ChitinString of modified glucoseStructural component of:Insects, Arthropods, fungi
    • 14. Cellulose•Polymer of glucose•Structural material in plants - Fiber•Why indigestible?•Monomers linked together differently than in starch •Starch•Cellulose
    • 15. Starch verses Cellulose• Glucose linked differently• Cellulose is not recognized by our digestive enzymes• Some organisms (microbes) in the guts of cows and termites do make enzymes that can digest cellulose
    • 16. Starch and cellulose structures
    • 17. Starch and cellulose structures
    • 18. QUESTION When you eat a starchy food, an enzyme in your mouth breaks it down into maltose. Maltose enters your small intestine, where it is broken down into glucose. The starch is a _________, the maltose is a ________, and the glucose is a(n):_________.a) Protein dipeptide amino acidb) Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharidec) Triglyceride fatty acid glycerold) Amino acid dipeptide proteine) Polysaccharide disaccharide monosaccharide
    • 19. Question• Which of the following terms includes all others in the list? A. Monosaccharide B. Disaccharide C. Starch D. Carbohydrate E. Polysaccharide
    • 20. Question• The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for 10 glucoses linked together?
    • 21. LIPIDS
    • 22. Three Major Groups of Lipids• Oils, Fats, and Waxes• Phospholipids• Steroids (Cholesterol, Estrogen, Testosterone, etc…)
    • 23. Similarities of Fats and Oils• All contain C, H, and O• Usually no ring structures• Made up of fatty acid subunits (long chain of carbons and hydrogen with a carboxyl end)
    • 24. Triglycerides• Fats and Oils have 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol (condensation)
    • 25. The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
    • 26. Fatty Acid Subunits: FATS vs. OILS• Solid at room temperature • Liquid at room temp.• From animal sources, coco & palm • From plants• Saturated with hydrogens • Unsaturated
    • 27. Types of Fatty acidsSaturatedUnsaturatedPolyunsaturated
    • 28. Saturated Unsaturated
    • 29. Unsaturated Fats• Monounsaturated: One C=C – olive, canola, nut oils• Polyunsaturated: More than one C=C – corn safflower, soy oils• Hydrogenated: Oils made solid by breaking C=C bonds and replacing with H (Hydrogenation) – Partially hydrogenated - margarine
    • 30. Phospholipids• One fatty acid chain (non-polar, hydrophobic) of triglyceride replaced with a phosphate group (charged, hydrophilic)• chief component of lipid bilayer, outer membrane of all cells
    • 31. Phospholipids
    • 32. Steroids• Four fused rings of carbon• steroid hormones: estrogen, testosterone• cholesterol: vital component of cell membranes
    • 33. Cholesterol, a steroid
    • 34. Cholesterol•Body will make if not enough in diet•Part of lipid membrane around cells•Helps stabilize, strengthen membrane
    • 35. The structure of a phospholipid
    • 36. Phospholipid
    • 37. Two structures formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in aqueous environments
    • 38. Question• What is the difference between the two ring forms of glucose (alpha & beta)?
    • 39. Question• Human sex hormones belong to what family of lipids?
    • 40. Question• How many water molecules are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 100 monomers long?
    • 41. QuestionUnsaturated fats:A. Are more common in animals than plantsB. Have double bonds in their carbon chainsC. Solidify at room temperatureD. Contain more H than saturated fats having the same # of CE. Have fewer fatty acid chains
    • 42. Next Time:Macromolecules, Part TwoProteins and Nucleic Acids