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Ch.47   animal development
 

Ch.47 animal development

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    Ch.47   animal development Ch.47 animal development Presentation Transcript

    • Animal Development Chapters 21 & 47
    • “ Homunculus”
    •  
    • Acrosomal & Cortical Reactions
    • Cortical Reaction: Wave of Ca + (So only one sperm gets in)
    • Preventing Cross-Species Fertilization
      • Fertilin protein in sperm fits like a key into a recognition protein on egg
    • Cleavage Note: Size is not increasing
    • Early Development Stages
      • Single cell
      • Cleavage
        • Produces smaller cells
        • Total size does not increase
      • Morula – 16 to 64 cells
      • Blastula – at least 128 cells
      • Gastrula – formation of blastopore
        • Formation of germ cell layers
          • Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
        • Primitive gut
    • Sea Urchin Development
    • Cleavage Stages : rapid mitosis without growth
      • Reduces cell size.
      • All cells receive identical copy of DNA.
      • Cytoplasm they inherit is not identical, may contain special substances ( determinants : beginning of cell differences).
      • Forms mass of cells ( morula ), then hollow ball called ( blastula )
    • Cleavage in Vertebrate Embryo
    • Blastula
    • Gastrulation
    • Some key stages of development in animals and plants
    • Review: What are the stages?
    •  
    • Organogenesis
      • Formation of organs
      • 3 kinds of morphogenic changes
        • Folds
        • Splits
        • Dense clustering of cells
      • First to develop
        • Neural tube
        • Notochord
        • Skeletal rod
    • Neurulation
    • Organogenesis of Chick Embryo Rudimentary organs have formed (56 hours) Eye Forebrain Heart Somites Neural Tube
    • Amniotic Egg & Development of Extraembryonic Membranes
    • Human Embryo & Extraembryonic Membranes
      • Blastocyst – hollow ball of cells
      • Trophoblast
        • epithelium of blastocyst
        • Enzymes - implantation
        • Forms placenta
      • Chorion
        • develops from trophoblast
        • Outer membrane
      • Amnion
        • develops from epiblast
        • Fluid-filled cavity
      • Yolk sac – blood formation
      • Allantois – umbillical cord
    • Extraembryonic Membranes
      • Amnion
      • Yolk sac
      • Chorion
      • Allantois
    • Functions of the Placenta
      • Fetal blood vessels penetrate pools of maternal blood in endometrium
      • Blood does NOT mix, but O 2 and CO 2 glucose/vitamins diffuse across
      • Prevents passage of most large proteins & cells.
    • Morphogenesis & Changes in Cell Shape
    • Morphogenesis & Convergent Extention of Cell Sheets
      • Cells rearrange themselves
      • Narrower & longer
    • Major Stages of Embryogenesis
    • Genetic Basis of Development
    • How do you get from one cell to a multi-cellular animal?
    • Stem Cells: Undifferentiated Cells
    • When a cell divides, the new cells don’t get the same stuff & cells can affect their neighbors
    • Determination & Differentiation
    • Segmentation genes are turned on in certain cells
    • Hox Genes: head to tail organization in animals
    • Switches
    • Apoptosis: programmed cell death
      • Let’s discuss the role of these during development:
      • Hox genes
      • Organizer
      • Noggin
      • Sonic hedgehog
      • ZPA
      • Switches
    • Uh oh… How does this happen?
    • How does this happen?
    • How does this happen?