Introduction to Animal Evolution Chapter 32
General Features of Animals <ul><li>Heterotrophs  </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellularity </li></ul>...
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists:  A choanoflagellate colony
One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist
Heterotrophs <ul><li>Animals cannot make their own food </li></ul>
Mobility <ul><li>Animals can perform rapid, complex movements </li></ul>
Multicellularity <ul><li>All animals are multicellular </li></ul>
Diploidy <ul><li>Most animals are diploid. </li></ul>
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Most animals reproduce sexually by producing gametes. </li></ul>
Absence of a Cell Wall <ul><li>Animals lack rigid cell walls. </li></ul>
Blastula Formation <ul><li>The zygote divides and forms a hollow ball of cells. </li></ul>
Early Embryonic Development
Protostomes & Deuterostomes
Body Cavity <ul><li>Three types of body </li></ul><ul><li>plans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomate – no body cavity </li></...
Body Symmetry <ul><li>Radial Symmetry – Parts arranged around a central axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral – Right and left...
Tissues & Organs <ul><li>Cells are organized by structure and function into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues  – groups of ce...
Origin of Tissues
Segmentation <ul><li>Advanced animals are segmented. </li></ul>
A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades
Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSU-rRNA
Comparing the molecular based and grade-based trees of animal phylogeny
Cambrian Explosion <ul><li>Many phyla evolved rapidly over a 40 million year period </li></ul><ul><li>Produced high divers...
Burgess Shale fossils
“ Evo-Devo”:  Reasons for Cambrian Diversification <ul><li>Ecological  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of predator-prey re...
Invertebrates Chapter 33
Review of animal phylogeny
Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Phylum Porifera
Phylum Cnidaria <ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidocytes </li></ul>
A cnidocyte of a hydra
Polyp & Medusa Forms
The life cycle of the hydrozoan  Obelia
Classes of Phylum Cnidaria
Cnidarians: Hydrozoans (top left), jelly (top right), sea anemone (bottom left), coral polyps (bottom right)
Phylum Cnetophora <ul><li>“ Comb jellies” </li></ul><ul><li>8 rows of cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Retractable tentacles </li><...
Platyhelminthes  <ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Acoelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Three ...
Anatomy of a planarian
<ul><li>Tapeworms : absorb nutrients from host </li></ul><ul><li>Flukes  - parasitic flatworms  </li></ul>
Phylum Rotifera <ul><li>Pseudocoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Crowns of cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Comple...
Lophophorate Phyla <ul><li>Coelomates with ciliated tentacles around their mouths </li></ul><ul><li>Lophophore:  horseshoe...
Phylum  Mollusca <ul><li>3 Body parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></u...
Basic body plan of mollusks
Phylum  Annelida <ul><li>Segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Metanephridia </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Respire t...
<ul><li>Pseudoceolomate </li></ul><ul><li>Non-segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by cuticle </li></ul><ul><li>One-way gut...
Arthropods <ul><li>Jointed appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleto...
External anatomy of an arthropod
Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect
Three hypotheses for the origin of segmentation <ul><li>Purple bars – origins of segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Orange bar...
Phylum  Echinodermata <ul><li>Deuterostomes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack head or brain </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></...
Ophiuroidea: Brittle Star Asteroidea: Sea Star Echinoidea: Sea Urchin Echinoidea:  Sand dollar Holothuroidea:  Sea cucumber
Anatomy of a sea star
Invertebrate Chordates <ul><li>4 Characteristics of Chordates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
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Ch.32 33 - animal evolution invertebrates

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Ch.32 33 - animal evolution invertebrates

  1. 1. Introduction to Animal Evolution Chapter 32
  2. 2. General Features of Animals <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellularity </li></ul><ul><li>Diploidy </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Blastula Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul>
  3. 3. Animals probably evolved from colonial protists: A choanoflagellate colony
  4. 4. One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist
  5. 5. Heterotrophs <ul><li>Animals cannot make their own food </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mobility <ul><li>Animals can perform rapid, complex movements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Multicellularity <ul><li>All animals are multicellular </li></ul>
  8. 8. Diploidy <ul><li>Most animals are diploid. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Most animals reproduce sexually by producing gametes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Absence of a Cell Wall <ul><li>Animals lack rigid cell walls. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blastula Formation <ul><li>The zygote divides and forms a hollow ball of cells. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early Embryonic Development
  13. 13. Protostomes & Deuterostomes
  14. 14. Body Cavity <ul><li>Three types of body </li></ul><ul><li>plans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoelomate – no body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudocoelomate – partial body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coelomate – body cavity </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Radial Symmetry – Parts arranged around a central axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral – Right and left half. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical – No symmetry </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tissues & Organs <ul><li>Cells are organized by structure and function into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues – groups of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue, blood, connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs – groups of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart, Lungs, Liver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Origin of Tissues
  18. 18. Segmentation <ul><li>Advanced animals are segmented. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A traditional view of animal diversity based on body-plan grades
  20. 20. Animal phylogeny based on sequencing of SSU-rRNA
  21. 21. Comparing the molecular based and grade-based trees of animal phylogeny
  22. 22. Cambrian Explosion <ul><li>Many phyla evolved rapidly over a 40 million year period </li></ul><ul><li>Produced high diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Makes sorting out phylogenetic tree difficult </li></ul>
  23. 23. Burgess Shale fossils
  24. 24. “ Evo-Devo”: Reasons for Cambrian Diversification <ul><li>Ecological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of predator-prey relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of protective outer covering & other adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enough atmospheric oxygen to support metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hox genes- spatial and temporal expression in developing embryos </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Invertebrates Chapter 33
  26. 26. Review of animal phylogeny
  27. 27. Phylum Porifera: Sponges
  28. 28. Phylum Porifera
  29. 29. Phylum Cnidaria <ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Cnidocytes </li></ul>
  30. 30. A cnidocyte of a hydra
  31. 31. Polyp & Medusa Forms
  32. 32. The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia
  33. 33. Classes of Phylum Cnidaria
  34. 34. Cnidarians: Hydrozoans (top left), jelly (top right), sea anemone (bottom left), coral polyps (bottom right)
  35. 35. Phylum Cnetophora <ul><li>“ Comb jellies” </li></ul><ul><li>8 rows of cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Retractable tentacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture food </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Platyhelminthes <ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Acoelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Three groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbellaria - flatworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cestoda - tapeworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trematoda - flukes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Planarians </li></ul><ul><li>Marine flatworms </li></ul>Marine flatworm Planarian
  37. 37. Anatomy of a planarian
  38. 38. <ul><li>Tapeworms : absorb nutrients from host </li></ul><ul><li>Flukes - parasitic flatworms </li></ul>
  39. 39. Phylum Rotifera <ul><li>Pseudocoelomates </li></ul><ul><li>Jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Crowns of cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Complete digestive tract </li></ul>
  40. 40. Lophophorate Phyla <ul><li>Coelomates with ciliated tentacles around their mouths </li></ul><ul><li>Lophophore: horseshoe or round shaped fold of the body wall bearing ciliated tentacles </li></ul>Bryozoans Brachiopods
  41. 41. Phylum Mollusca <ul><li>3 Body parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coelom </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Well-developed organs </li></ul><ul><li>Radula – for feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton - shell </li></ul>Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods
  42. 42. Basic body plan of mollusks
  43. 43. Phylum Annelida <ul><li>Segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Metanephridia </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Respire through skin </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>3 Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligochaeta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polychaeta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hirudinea </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Pseudoceolomate </li></ul><ul><li>Non-segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by cuticle </li></ul><ul><li>One-way gut </li></ul><ul><li>Simple circulatory & gas-exchange systems </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul>Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms
  45. 45. Arthropods <ul><li>Jointed appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented </li></ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spiders, scorpions, mites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplopoda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millipedes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chilopoda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>centipedes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crustacea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most diverse animal group </li></ul>
  46. 46. External anatomy of an arthropod
  47. 47. Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect
  48. 48. Three hypotheses for the origin of segmentation <ul><li>Purple bars – origins of segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Orange bars – loss of segmentation </li></ul>
  49. 49. Phylum Echinodermata <ul><li>Deuterostomes </li></ul><ul><li>Lack head or brain </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Coelome </li></ul><ul><li>Endoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Water vascular system </li></ul>
  50. 50. Ophiuroidea: Brittle Star Asteroidea: Sea Star Echinoidea: Sea Urchin Echinoidea: Sand dollar Holothuroidea: Sea cucumber
  51. 51. Anatomy of a sea star
  52. 52. Invertebrate Chordates <ul><li>4 Characteristics of Chordates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal nerve chord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharangeal slits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postanal tail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invertebrate Chordates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urochordata - tunicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalochordata - lancelets </li></ul></ul>Tunicates Lancelets
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