Plant Diversity  Chapters 29 & 30
Definition of Plants•   Multicellular•   Eukaryotic•   Photosynthetic•   Autotrophic•   Cell walls made of cellulose•   Ch...
Plant Evolution
4 Main Groups of Land Plants • Bryophytes – non vascular plants   – Mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Pteridophytes - seedle...
Land Plant Evolution• Ancestral green algae• Aquatic plants: Charophyceans• Land plants:  – Development of vascular tissue...
Charophyceans• Closest relative of land  plants• Algal group• Similarities with land  plants   – Rosette cellulose-     sy...
Evidence of common ancestor      with charophycean algae•   Homologous chloroplast•   Homologous cellulose walls•   Homolo...
Adaptations of Land Plants• Apical meristems    – Roots and shoots – growth• Multicellular, dependent embryos    – “embryo...
Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
Embryos of land plants
Alternation of generations
Walled Spore
Gametangia: Gametes produced within multicellular gametangiaArchegonium - female                   Antheridium - male     ...
Cuticle of a stem: Prevents drying out
Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem                                    Xylem                                    (water)     ...
Development of Alternation of Generations• Delay in meiosis until one or more mitotic divisions of the  zygote occurred• R...
What is the Plant Kingdom?
Bryophytes• 3 phyla    – Hepatophyta: liverworts    – Anthocerophyta: hornworts    – Bryophyta: mosses•   Non-vascular•   ...
Bryophytes
Life cycle of a moss
Moss life cyclegametophyte    gametangia          sporophyte                                   Protonematasporophyte      ...
Sphagnum, or peat mossgametophyte   sporophyte
Vascular Plants• Vascular plants have  – Xylem – transports water  – Phloem – transports food  – Dominant sporophyte gener...
Seedless Vascular Plants• 2 phyla  – Lycophyta – lycophytes  – Pterophyta – ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails• Most have true...
PteridophytesClub “moss”                   Whisk fern  Horsetail                      Fern
Hypothesis for the development of leaves• Probably evolved from a flap of stem  tissue  – Stem had vascular tissue  – Micr...
Ferns
Life cycle of a fern
Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production & sori
Sorus (sori): Clusters of sporangia – found on underside of leaves
Mature fern sporangium – releasing spores
Fern gametophyte
Archegonia of fernFlagellated spermfrom antheridiumfertilize eggs inarchegonium      zygote
Fern sporophytes
Evolution of Seed Plants• Reduction of gametophyte  continued• Seeds – important means of  dispersal• Pollen – eliminated ...
Gametophyte/ Sporophyte Relationships• Seed plants: further reduced gametophyte• Female gametophyte and embryo protected b...
Seed Development• Fertilization initiates the transformation  from ovule to seed
What is a seed?• Sporophyte embryo• Food supply• Protective coat• May remain dormant for years• May be carried by wind, wa...
Seed Dispersal• Seeds have  adaptations for  dispersal• Wind• Water• Animal
Gymnosperms• 4 phyla  – Ginko  – Cycads  – Gnetophytes  – Conifers• Naked seed – no fruit (ovary)• Seeds develop on surfac...
Phylum ConiferophytaDouglas fir                          Sequoia
Phylum Coniferophyta: Frasier Fir
Characteristics of Conifers• Cone: reproductive structure   – Cluster of sporophylls       • Female cones: produce ovules ...
Life cycle of a pine
Pollen cone (male) – produces pollen                               Pine pollen
Pine embryo                  Embryo              (new sporophyte)
Angiosperms: Flowering Plants          Major Clades:
Phylum Anthophyta:                  Angiosperms•    Vascular seed plants•    Reproductive structures: flowers, fruits•    ...
Xylem cells in Angiosperms• Trachids   – Support   – Water transport• Fiber **   – Support• Vessel element **   – More eff...
Flower Structure: Reproductive Adaptation of Angiosperms
Life cycle of an angiosperm
Fruit and Seed Dispersal
Flower-pollinator relationships
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Ch.29 30 - plant diversity

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Transcript of "Ch.29 30 - plant diversity"

  1. 1. Plant Diversity Chapters 29 & 30
  2. 2. Definition of Plants• Multicellular• Eukaryotic• Photosynthetic• Autotrophic• Cell walls made of cellulose• Chlorophylls a and b
  3. 3. Plant Evolution
  4. 4. 4 Main Groups of Land Plants • Bryophytes – non vascular plants – Mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Pteridophytes - seedless vascular plants – Lycophytes, ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns • Gymnosperms – naked seed plants – Ginko, cycads, gnete, conifers • Angiosperms – flowering plants
  5. 5. Land Plant Evolution• Ancestral green algae• Aquatic plants: Charophyceans• Land plants: – Development of vascular tissue – Development of seeds – Development of flowering plants
  6. 6. Charophyceans• Closest relative of land plants• Algal group• Similarities with land plants – Rosette cellulose- synthesizing complexes • Located in plasma membranes – Peroxisomes – Flagellated sperm (some land plants)
  7. 7. Evidence of common ancestor with charophycean algae• Homologous chloroplast• Homologous cellulose walls• Homologous peroxisomes• Homologous sperm• Molecular systematics – Chloroplast DNA – Ribosomal RNA
  8. 8. Adaptations of Land Plants• Apical meristems – Roots and shoots – growth• Multicellular, dependent embryos – “embryophytes” – Transfer of nutrients from parent• Alternation of generations – Sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid)• Gametangia – gametes are produced within multicellular organ – Female – archegonia – Male - Antheridia• Walled spores – resist drying out• Cuticle – waxy covering, water conservation• Stomata – pores, water conservation• Vascular tissue – transport water and minerals
  9. 9. Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
  10. 10. Embryos of land plants
  11. 11. Alternation of generations
  12. 12. Walled Spore
  13. 13. Gametangia: Gametes produced within multicellular gametangiaArchegonium - female Antheridium - male egg sperm
  14. 14. Cuticle of a stem: Prevents drying out
  15. 15. Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem Xylem (water) Phloem (food)
  16. 16. Development of Alternation of Generations• Delay in meiosis until one or more mitotic divisions of the zygote occurred• Result: multicellular, diploid sporophyte• Increases number of spores produced per zygote
  17. 17. What is the Plant Kingdom?
  18. 18. Bryophytes• 3 phyla – Hepatophyta: liverworts – Anthocerophyta: hornworts – Bryophyta: mosses• Non-vascular• Earliest land plants• Gametophyte (haploid) is dominant form• Anchored by rhizoids• No true roots or leaves
  19. 19. Bryophytes
  20. 20. Life cycle of a moss
  21. 21. Moss life cyclegametophyte gametangia sporophyte Protonematasporophyte spores (pre-gametophyte)
  22. 22. Sphagnum, or peat mossgametophyte sporophyte
  23. 23. Vascular Plants• Vascular plants have – Xylem – transports water – Phloem – transports food – Dominant sporophyte generation• First vascular plants were seedless• 3 Groups – Seedless plants – Gymnosperms – Angiosperms
  24. 24. Seedless Vascular Plants• 2 phyla – Lycophyta – lycophytes – Pterophyta – ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails• Most have true roots and leaves• Still require water for fertilization
  25. 25. PteridophytesClub “moss” Whisk fern Horsetail Fern
  26. 26. Hypothesis for the development of leaves• Probably evolved from a flap of stem tissue – Stem had vascular tissue – Microphylls• Macrophylls – larger leaves with branched veins
  27. 27. Ferns
  28. 28. Life cycle of a fern
  29. 29. Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production & sori
  30. 30. Sorus (sori): Clusters of sporangia – found on underside of leaves
  31. 31. Mature fern sporangium – releasing spores
  32. 32. Fern gametophyte
  33. 33. Archegonia of fernFlagellated spermfrom antheridiumfertilize eggs inarchegonium zygote
  34. 34. Fern sporophytes
  35. 35. Evolution of Seed Plants• Reduction of gametophyte continued• Seeds – important means of dispersal• Pollen – eliminated water requirement for fertilization – Pollination• Two clades – Gymnosperms – Angiosperms
  36. 36. Gametophyte/ Sporophyte Relationships• Seed plants: further reduced gametophyte• Female gametophyte and embryo protected by parental sporophyte
  37. 37. Seed Development• Fertilization initiates the transformation from ovule to seed
  38. 38. What is a seed?• Sporophyte embryo• Food supply• Protective coat• May remain dormant for years• May be carried by wind, water or animals
  39. 39. Seed Dispersal• Seeds have adaptations for dispersal• Wind• Water• Animal
  40. 40. Gymnosperms• 4 phyla – Ginko – Cycads – Gnetophytes – Conifers• Naked seed – no fruit (ovary)• Seeds develop on surface of sporophylls• Evolved before angiosperms
  41. 41. Phylum ConiferophytaDouglas fir Sequoia
  42. 42. Phylum Coniferophyta: Frasier Fir
  43. 43. Characteristics of Conifers• Cone: reproductive structure – Cluster of sporophylls • Female cones: produce ovules - “pine cones” • Male cones: produce pollen• Seed develops from fertilized ovule – scale of cone• Dominate in areas with short growing season – High latitude or altitude• Most are evergreens• Some have needle-shaped leaves – Adapted for dry conditions – Thick cuticle
  44. 44. Life cycle of a pine
  45. 45. Pollen cone (male) – produces pollen Pine pollen
  46. 46. Pine embryo Embryo (new sporophyte)
  47. 47. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Major Clades:
  48. 48. Phylum Anthophyta: Angiosperms• Vascular seed plants• Reproductive structures: flowers, fruits• Most diverse group of plants today• 2 groups Monocots Dicots # Petals Multiples of 3 Multiples of 4 or 5 # Cotyledons 1 2 Vascular bundles Scattered Circle Root Fibrous Tap root
  49. 49. Xylem cells in Angiosperms• Trachids – Support – Water transport• Fiber ** – Support• Vessel element ** – More efficient** Evolutionary adaptations of angiosperms
  50. 50. Flower Structure: Reproductive Adaptation of Angiosperms
  51. 51. Life cycle of an angiosperm
  52. 52. Fruit and Seed Dispersal
  53. 53. Flower-pollinator relationships
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