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Ch.29 30 - plant diversity
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Ch.29 30 - plant diversity

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  • 1. Plant Diversity Chapters 29 & 30
  • 2. Definition of Plants
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryotic
    • Photosynthetic
    • Autotrophic
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Chlorophylls a and b
  • 3. Plant Evolution
  • 4. 4 Main Groups of Land Plants
    • Bryophytes – non vascular plants
      • Mosses , liverworts, hornworts
    • Pteridophytes - seedless vascular plants
      • Lycophytes, ferns , horsetails, whisk ferns
    • Gymnosperms – naked seed plants
      • Ginko, cycads, gnete, conifers
    • Angiosperms – flowering plants
  • 5. Land Plant Evolution
    • Ancestral green algae
    • Aquatic plants: Charophyceans
    • Land plants:
      • Development of vascular tissue
      • Development of seeds
      • Development of flowering plants
  • 6. Charophyceans
    • Closest relative of land plants
    • Algal group
    • Similarities with land plants
      • Rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes
        • Located in plasma membranes
      • Peroxisomes
      • Flagellated sperm (some land plants)
  • 7. Evidence of common ancestor with charophycean algae
    • Homologous chloroplast
    • Homologous cellulose walls
    • Homologous peroxisomes
    • Homologous sperm
    • Molecular systematics
      • Chloroplast DNA
      • Ribosomal RNA
  • 8. Adaptations of Land Plants
    • Apical meristems
      • Roots and shoots – growth
    • Multicellular, dependent embryos
      • “ embryophytes”
      • Transfer of nutrients from parent
    • Alternation of generations
      • Sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid)
    • Gametangia – gametes are produced within multicellular organ
      • Female – archegonia
      • Male - Antheridia
    • Walled spores – resist drying out
    • Cuticle – waxy covering, water conservation
    • Stomata – pores, water conservation
    • Vascular tissue – transport water and minerals
  • 9. Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
  • 10. Embryos of land plants
  • 11. Alternation of generations
  • 12. Walled Spore
  • 13. Gametangia: Gametes produced within multicellular gametangia Archegonium - female Antheridium - male egg sperm
  • 14. Cuticle of a stem: Prevents drying out
  • 15. Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem Xylem (water) Phloem (food)
  • 16. Development of Alternation of Generations
    • Delay in meiosis until one or more mitotic divisions of the zygote occurred
    • Result: multicellular, diploid sporophyte
    • Increases number of spores produced per zygote
  • 17. What is the Plant Kingdom?
  • 18. Bryophytes
    • 3 phyla
      • Hepatophyta: liverworts
      • Anthocerophyta: hornworts
      • Bryophyta: mosses
    • Non-vascular
    • Earliest land plants
    • Gametophyte (haploid) is dominant form
    • Anchored by rhizoids
    • No true roots or leaves
  • 19. Bryophytes
  • 20. Life cycle of a moss
  • 21. Moss life cycle gametophyte gametangia sporophyte sporophyte spores Protonemata (pre-gametophyte)
  • 22. Sphagnum , or peat moss gametophyte sporophyte
  • 23. Vascular Plants
    • Vascular plants have
      • Xylem – transports water
      • Phloem – transports food
      • Dominant sporophyte generation
    • First vascular plants were seedless
    • 3 Groups
      • Seedless plants
      • Gymnosperms
      • Angiosperms
  • 24. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • 2 phyla
      • Lycophyta – lycophytes
      • Pterophyta – ferns , whisk ferns, horsetails
    • Most have true roots and leaves
    • Still require water for fertilization
  • 25. Pteridophytes Club “moss” Whisk fern Horsetail Fern
  • 26. Hypothesis for the development of leaves
    • Probably evolved from a flap of stem tissue
      • Stem had vascular tissue
      • Microphylls
    • Macrophylls – larger leaves with branched veins
  • 27. Ferns
  • 28. Life cycle of a fern
  • 29. Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production & sori
  • 30. Sorus (sori): Clusters of sporangia – found on underside of leaves
  • 31. Mature fern sporangium – releasing spores
  • 32. Fern gametophyte
  • 33. Archegonia of fern zygote Flagellated sperm from antheridium fertilize eggs in archegonium
  • 34. Fern sporophytes
  • 35. Evolution of Seed Plants
    • Reduction of gametophyte continued
    • Seeds – important means of dispersal
    • Pollen – eliminated water requirement for fertilization
      • Pollination
    • Two clades
      • Gymnosperms
      • Angiosperms
  • 36. Gametophyte/ Sporophyte Relationships
    • Seed plants: further reduced gametophyte
    • Female gametophyte and embryo protected by parental sporophyte
  • 37. Seed Development
    • Fertilization initiates the transformation from ovule to seed
  • 38. What is a seed?
    • Sporophyte embryo
    • Food supply
    • Protective coat
    • May remain dormant for years
    • May be carried by wind, water or animals
  • 39. Seed Dispersal
    • Seeds have adaptations for dispersal
    • Wind
    • Water
    • Animal
  • 40. Gymnosperms
    • 4 phyla
      • Ginko
      • Cycads
      • Gnetophytes
      • Conifers
    • Naked seed – no fruit (ovary)
    • Seeds develop on surface of sporophylls
    • Evolved before angiosperms
  • 41. Phylum Coniferophyta Douglas fir Sequoia
  • 42. Phylum Coniferophyta: Frasier Fir
  • 43. Characteristics of Conifers
    • Cone: reproductive structure
      • Cluster of sporophylls
        • Female cones: produce ovules - “pine cones”
        • Male cones: produce pollen
    • Seed develops from fertilized ovule – scale of cone
    • Dominate in areas with short growing season
      • High latitude or altitude
    • Most are evergreens
    • Some have needle-shaped leaves
      • Adapted for dry conditions
      • Thick cuticle
  • 44. Life cycle of a pine
  • 45. Pollen cone (male) – produces pollen Pine pollen
  • 46. Pine embryo Embryo (new sporophyte)
  • 47. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Major Clades:
  • 48. Phylum Anthophyta: Angiosperms
    • Vascular seed plants
    • Reproductive structures: flowers, fruits
    • Most diverse group of plants today
    • 2 groups
    Monocots Dicots # Petals Multiples of 3 Multiples of 4 or 5 # Cotyledons 1 2 Vascular bundles Scattered Circle Root Fibrous Tap root
  • 49. Xylem cells in Angiosperms
    • Trachids
      • Support
      • Water transport
    • Fiber **
      • Support
    • Vessel element **
      • More efficient
    • ** Evolutionary adaptations
    • of angiosperms
  • 50. Flower Structure: Reproductive Adaptation of Angiosperms
  • 51. Life cycle of an angiosperm
  • 52. Fruit and Seed Dispersal
  • 53. Flower-pollinator relationships

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