Prokaryotes & the Origins of    Metabolic Diversity          Chapter 27
The Three Domains of Life
A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life
Structure & Function:  Common Shapes
Structure & Function:                Cell Wall• Most have cell wall   – Maintains shape   – Protection• Made of peptidogly...
Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Structure & Function:       Motility
Structure & Function:         Pili
Structure & Function: Endospores
Structure & Function:Specialized Membranes
Cyanobacteria
Contrasting hypotheses for the taxonomic distribution of photosynthesis among                                 prokaryotes
Nutritional Diversity:        Chemoheterotrophs• Saprobes  – Decomposers that absorb nutrients from dead    organic matter...
Nutritional Diversity:        Nitrogen metabolism• Nitrogen fixation –  – Conversion of N2 to ammonium  – Many bacteria ca...
Nutritional Diversity:               Oxygen• Obligate aerobes – cannot grow w/out  oxygen• Obligate anaerobes – poisoned b...
Archaea:              Extremophiles• Methanogens  – Produce methane as waste  – Obligate anaerobes  – Live in swamps and m...
Archaea:                  Extremophiles• Extreme halophiles  – Salt lovers  – Some require high    salinity  – bacteriorho...
Archaea: ExtremophilesExtreme Thermophiles– 60-80 degrees Celsius– Some obtain energy by  oxidizing sulfur– Found in hot s...
Ch.27   prokaryotes   the origins of metabolic diversity
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Ch.27 prokaryotes the origins of metabolic diversity

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Ch.27 prokaryotes the origins of metabolic diversity

  1. 1. Prokaryotes & the Origins of Metabolic Diversity Chapter 27
  2. 2. The Three Domains of Life
  3. 3. A Comparison of the Three Domains of Life
  4. 4. Structure & Function: Common Shapes
  5. 5. Structure & Function: Cell Wall• Most have cell wall – Maintains shape – Protection• Made of peptidoglycan• Gram Stain: Identifies bacteria by cell wall – Gram positive • simple cell wall – Gram negative (more dangerous) • More complex • Less peptidoglycan
  6. 6. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
  7. 7. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
  8. 8. Structure & Function: Motility
  9. 9. Structure & Function: Pili
  10. 10. Structure & Function: Endospores
  11. 11. Structure & Function:Specialized Membranes
  12. 12. Cyanobacteria
  13. 13. Contrasting hypotheses for the taxonomic distribution of photosynthesis among prokaryotes
  14. 14. Nutritional Diversity: Chemoheterotrophs• Saprobes – Decomposers that absorb nutrients from dead organic matter• Parasites – Absorb nutrients from body fluids of living host
  15. 15. Nutritional Diversity: Nitrogen metabolism• Nitrogen fixation – – Conversion of N2 to ammonium – Many bacteria can do it• Other bacteria can convert – Ammonium to nitrate – Nitrate to N2• Remember the nitrogen cycle?
  16. 16. Nutritional Diversity: Oxygen• Obligate aerobes – cannot grow w/out oxygen• Obligate anaerobes – poisoned by oxygen• Facultative anaerobes – will use oxygen if it is there, but can live w/out it
  17. 17. Archaea: Extremophiles• Methanogens – Produce methane as waste – Obligate anaerobes – Live in swamps and marshes – Used as decomposers in waste water treatment plants – In guts of animals that digest a lot of cellulose
  18. 18. Archaea: Extremophiles• Extreme halophiles – Salt lovers – Some require high salinity – bacteriorhodopsin
  19. 19. Archaea: ExtremophilesExtreme Thermophiles– 60-80 degrees Celsius– Some obtain energy by oxidizing sulfur– Found in hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents
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