Ch.25 phylogeny and systematics

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Ch.25 phylogeny and systematics

  1. 1. Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter 25
  2. 2. • Phylogeny – evolutionary history of a species or group of species• Systematics – study of biological diversity in evolutionary context – Naming and classifying organisms
  3. 3. How do we know this stuff?• Evidence of phylogeny – Fossil record – Morphology • Homology – similarity due to shared ancestor • Analogy – similarity due to convergent evolution – Molecular evidence (DNA)
  4. 4. Fossil Record & Geologic Time• Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils
  5. 5. Fossil Record: layers of fossils insedimentary rocks – marks passing of geologictime
  6. 6. Geologic Time Scale
  7. 7. Methods to Date Fossils• Relative Dating – location of fossils in layers of rock – Oldest layers are below newer layers• Absolute Dating – age given in years – Radiometric dating • Radioactive isotopes – Carbon, nitrogen, uranium – L- and D- amino acids
  8. 8. Radiometric Dating
  9. 9. Plate Tectonics
  10. 10. History of Continental Drift
  11. 11. Mass Extinctions & Biodiversity
  12. 12. K-T Extinction
  13. 13. SystematicsConnecting Classification & Phylogeny
  14. 14. Classification
  15. 15. Classification & Phylogeny
  16. 16. Cladograms Grouping species based on similaritiesShared primitive character – shared beyond taxon we are trying to defineShared derived character – evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
  17. 17. Clade: an ancestral species and all ofits decendentcs (monophyletic group)
  18. 18. Cladistics and Taxonomy
  19. 19. Modern systematics is shaking up some phylogenetic treesA phylogenetic treeis a hypothesis
  20. 20. Timing• Molecular clocks – Mutations happen at a steady rate

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