Ch.25 phylogeny and systematics

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Ch.25 phylogeny and systematics

  1. 1. Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter 25
  2. 2. <ul><li>Phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evolutionary history of a species or group of species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>study of biological diversity in evolutionary context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming and classifying organisms </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How do we know this stuff? <ul><li>Evidence of phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homology – similarity due to shared ancestor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy – similarity due to convergent evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular evidence (DNA) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fossil Record & Geologic Time <ul><li>Sedimentary rocks are the richest source of fossils </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fossil Record : layers of fossils in sedimentary rocks – marks passing of geologic time
  6. 6. Geologic Time Scale
  7. 7. Methods to Date Fossils <ul><li>Relative Dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>location of fossils in layers of rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest layers are below newer layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute Dating – age given in years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive isotopes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon, nitrogen, uranium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L- and D- amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Radiometric Dating
  9. 9. Plate Tectonics
  10. 10. History of Continental Drift
  11. 11. Mass Extinctions & Biodiversity
  12. 12. K-T Extinction
  13. 13. Systematics Connecting Classification & Phylogeny
  14. 14. Classification
  15. 15. Classification & Phylogeny
  16. 16. Cladograms Grouping species based on similarities Shared primitive character – shared beyond taxon we are trying to define Shared derived character – evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
  17. 17. Clade : an ancestral species and all of its decendentcs (monophyletic group)
  18. 18. Cladistics and Taxonomy
  19. 19. Modern systematics is shaking up some phylogenetic trees A phylogenetic tree is a hypothesis
  20. 20. Timing <ul><li>Molecular clocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutations happen at a steady rate </li></ul></ul>

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