Genetics of Viruses &      Bacteria      Chapter 18
VIRUSES
Viral StructureGenetic material & Protein coat
Simplified Viral Reproduction
The Lytic Cycle
Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Classes of Animal Viruses
Reproductive Cycles: Enveloped Virus
HIV
Emerging VirusesViruses that make a sudden appearance – they emerge and get theattention of the medical communityNot new –...
PrionsInfections proteinsMisfolded protein that is normally presentMisfolded protein converts normal proteinsExample – Mad...
BACTERIA
Bacterial Genome• Circular DNA• No introns• Replication  –   Begins at origin  –   Works its way around  –   Result – 2 ci...
Plasmids• Small circular pieces of DNA outside of bacterial  genome• Self-replicating• Used in DNA technology to introduce...
Genetic Recombination in Bacteria• Transformation  – Uptake of naked DNA from environment• Conjugation  – Transfer of DNA ...
Detecting Genetic Recombination
Transduction (Layer 1)
Transduction (Layer 2)
Transduction (Layer 3)
Transduction (Layer 4)
Bacterial mating (Conjugation)
Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 1)
Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 2)
Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 3)
Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 4)
Transposons (Insertion Sequences)•   “Jumping genes”•   Code for enzyme that copies and moves the transposon•   Inverted r...
Composite Transposon• Includes genes for insertion + functional gene  – Ex: antibiotic resistance gene
Regulation of a Metabolic Pathway
Operon: on/ off switch for prokaryotic genes• trp operon - represses enzymes   – In absence of tryptophan      • Operon is...
lac operon - Inducible Enzymes• In absence of lactose, no enzymes made• In presence of lactose,  – Lactose binds and inact...
Eukaryotic Genomes     Chapter 19
Eukaryotic DNA• Linear• Levels of packing  – Ex: chromatin, chromosomes• Includes introns
Levels of Packing Eukaryotic DNA
Types of Repetitive DNA
Effect of Transposons
Retrotransposons
Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells• DNA methylation• Histone acetylation• RNA processing• Transport to cytoplasm• Transla...
Transcription of eukaryotic genes• Introns and exons - exons expressed• Cap and tail added
Alternate RNA Splicing
Protein degradation by a      proteostome
Oncogenes & Proto-oncogenes
Signaling pathways that regulate cell growth
Development of colorectal cancer• Multiple mutations lead to carcinoma   – Loss APC gene   – Activation of ras oncogene   ...
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Ch.18 19 - genomes

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Transcript of "Ch.18 19 - genomes"

  1. 1. Genetics of Viruses & Bacteria Chapter 18
  2. 2. VIRUSES
  3. 3. Viral StructureGenetic material & Protein coat
  4. 4. Simplified Viral Reproduction
  5. 5. The Lytic Cycle
  6. 6. Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
  7. 7. Classes of Animal Viruses
  8. 8. Reproductive Cycles: Enveloped Virus
  9. 9. HIV
  10. 10. Emerging VirusesViruses that make a sudden appearance – they emerge and get theattention of the medical communityNot new – but have evolved and expanded their range/ hostMany come from tropics Ebola Virus Hantavirus
  11. 11. PrionsInfections proteinsMisfolded protein that is normally presentMisfolded protein converts normal proteinsExample – Mad Cow Disease
  12. 12. BACTERIA
  13. 13. Bacterial Genome• Circular DNA• No introns• Replication – Begins at origin – Works its way around – Result – 2 circles – Happens prior to binary fission
  14. 14. Plasmids• Small circular pieces of DNA outside of bacterial genome• Self-replicating• Used in DNA technology to introduce foreign DNA into bacteria
  15. 15. Genetic Recombination in Bacteria• Transformation – Uptake of naked DNA from environment• Conjugation – Transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another – Sex pili• Transduction – Transfer of DNA from bacteriophage to bacteria (bacteriophage got DNA from previous host cell)
  16. 16. Detecting Genetic Recombination
  17. 17. Transduction (Layer 1)
  18. 18. Transduction (Layer 2)
  19. 19. Transduction (Layer 3)
  20. 20. Transduction (Layer 4)
  21. 21. Bacterial mating (Conjugation)
  22. 22. Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 1)
  23. 23. Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 2)
  24. 24. Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 3)
  25. 25. Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 4)
  26. 26. Transposons (Insertion Sequences)• “Jumping genes”• Code for enzyme that copies and moves the transposon• Inverted repeats• May cause mutation if inserted within coding seqence
  27. 27. Composite Transposon• Includes genes for insertion + functional gene – Ex: antibiotic resistance gene
  28. 28. Regulation of a Metabolic Pathway
  29. 29. Operon: on/ off switch for prokaryotic genes• trp operon - represses enzymes – In absence of tryptophan • Operon is on • Inactive repressor – In presence of tryptophan • Operon is off • Tryptophan activates repressor which binds operator
  30. 30. lac operon - Inducible Enzymes• In absence of lactose, no enzymes made• In presence of lactose, – Lactose binds and inactivates the repressor – Enzymes to digest lactose are made
  31. 31. Eukaryotic Genomes Chapter 19
  32. 32. Eukaryotic DNA• Linear• Levels of packing – Ex: chromatin, chromosomes• Includes introns
  33. 33. Levels of Packing Eukaryotic DNA
  34. 34. Types of Repetitive DNA
  35. 35. Effect of Transposons
  36. 36. Retrotransposons
  37. 37. Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells• DNA methylation• Histone acetylation• RNA processing• Transport to cytoplasm• Translation• Protein folding• Transport to destination• Degradation of protein
  38. 38. Transcription of eukaryotic genes• Introns and exons - exons expressed• Cap and tail added
  39. 39. Alternate RNA Splicing
  40. 40. Protein degradation by a proteostome
  41. 41. Oncogenes & Proto-oncogenes
  42. 42. Signaling pathways that regulate cell growth
  43. 43. Development of colorectal cancer• Multiple mutations lead to carcinoma – Loss APC gene – Activation of ras oncogene – Loss of tumor-suppressor gene DCC – Loss of tumor-suppressor gene p53 – More mutations
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