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Ch.18 19 - genomes
 

Ch.18 19 - genomes

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    Ch.18 19 - genomes Ch.18 19 - genomes Presentation Transcript

    • Genetics of Viruses & Bacteria Chapter 18
    • VIRUSES
    • Viral StructureGenetic material & Protein coat
    • Simplified Viral Reproduction
    • The Lytic Cycle
    • Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
    • Classes of Animal Viruses
    • Reproductive Cycles: Enveloped Virus
    • HIV
    • Emerging VirusesViruses that make a sudden appearance – they emerge and get theattention of the medical communityNot new – but have evolved and expanded their range/ hostMany come from tropics Ebola Virus Hantavirus
    • PrionsInfections proteinsMisfolded protein that is normally presentMisfolded protein converts normal proteinsExample – Mad Cow Disease
    • BACTERIA
    • Bacterial Genome• Circular DNA• No introns• Replication – Begins at origin – Works its way around – Result – 2 circles – Happens prior to binary fission
    • Plasmids• Small circular pieces of DNA outside of bacterial genome• Self-replicating• Used in DNA technology to introduce foreign DNA into bacteria
    • Genetic Recombination in Bacteria• Transformation – Uptake of naked DNA from environment• Conjugation – Transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another – Sex pili• Transduction – Transfer of DNA from bacteriophage to bacteria (bacteriophage got DNA from previous host cell)
    • Detecting Genetic Recombination
    • Transduction (Layer 1)
    • Transduction (Layer 2)
    • Transduction (Layer 3)
    • Transduction (Layer 4)
    • Bacterial mating (Conjugation)
    • Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 1)
    • Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 2)
    • Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 3)
    • Conjugation and recombination in E. coli (Layer 4)
    • Transposons (Insertion Sequences)• “Jumping genes”• Code for enzyme that copies and moves the transposon• Inverted repeats• May cause mutation if inserted within coding seqence
    • Composite Transposon• Includes genes for insertion + functional gene – Ex: antibiotic resistance gene
    • Regulation of a Metabolic Pathway
    • Operon: on/ off switch for prokaryotic genes• trp operon - represses enzymes – In absence of tryptophan • Operon is on • Inactive repressor – In presence of tryptophan • Operon is off • Tryptophan activates repressor which binds operator
    • lac operon - Inducible Enzymes• In absence of lactose, no enzymes made• In presence of lactose, – Lactose binds and inactivates the repressor – Enzymes to digest lactose are made
    • Eukaryotic Genomes Chapter 19
    • Eukaryotic DNA• Linear• Levels of packing – Ex: chromatin, chromosomes• Includes introns
    • Levels of Packing Eukaryotic DNA
    • Types of Repetitive DNA
    • Effect of Transposons
    • Retrotransposons
    • Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells• DNA methylation• Histone acetylation• RNA processing• Transport to cytoplasm• Translation• Protein folding• Transport to destination• Degradation of protein
    • Transcription of eukaryotic genes• Introns and exons - exons expressed• Cap and tail added
    • Alternate RNA Splicing
    • Protein degradation by a proteostome
    • Oncogenes & Proto-oncogenes
    • Signaling pathways that regulate cell growth
    • Development of colorectal cancer• Multiple mutations lead to carcinoma – Loss APC gene – Activation of ras oncogene – Loss of tumor-suppressor gene DCC – Loss of tumor-suppressor gene p53 – More mutations