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Ch.13   meiosis
 

Ch.13 meiosis

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Ch.13   meiosis Ch.13 meiosis Presentation Transcript

  • Meiosis & Reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction• Identical offspring (clones)• Mitosis• Different kinds – Binary fission – Budding – Fragmentation – Regeneration
  • Sexual Reproduction• Two parents• Genetic variation• Haploid gametes• Unique offspring – Similar to parents – Similar to each other
  • Genetic VariationFor humans - 23 pairs of chromosomes:• Independent Assortment – 50/50 chance that gamete gets maternal/ paternal homologous chromosome – # of possible gametes = 223 – >8 million possible gamete combinations• Random Fertilization – (8 million)(8 million) = 64 trillion possible offspring• Crossing over – increases genetic variation even more
  • Haploid vs. DiploidHAPLOID DIPLOID• 1n • 2n• One copy of each • Two copies of each chromosome chromosome • Homologous chromosomes
  • Karyotyping
  • Human Female Karyotype
  • Human Male Karyotype
  • Life Cycles
  • Overview of Meiosis• Diploid parent cell divides twice to make haploid gametes• Homologous chromosomes• Sister chromatids
  • Meiosis I
  • Meiosis II
  • Mitosis vs. Meiosis
  • Gamete Possibilities(due to Independent Assortment)
  • Crossing Over• Increases genetic variation• Synapsis• Tetrad• Chiasma• Happens during Prophase I
  • Homologous chromosomes movetoward opposite poles of a dividingcell duringA. MitosisB. Meiosis IC. Meiosis IID. FertilizationE. Binary fission
  • If the DNA content of a diploid cell inthe G1 phase is x, then the DNAcontent of the cell at metaphase I ofmeiosis would beA. 0.25xB. 0.5xC. xD. 2xE. 4x
  • For the same cell, the DNA contentat metaphase II of meiosis would beA. 0.25xB. 0.5xC. xD. 2xE. 4x
  • How many different combinations ofchromosomes can be packaged ingametes by an organism with adiploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?A. 2B. 4C. 8D. 16E. 32