Alexander The Great
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Alexander The Great

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Alexander The Great Alexander The Great Presentation Transcript

  • Alexander the Great: I 1 5 F e b r u a ry 2 0 1 0
  • Alexander the Great officially, “Alexander III, king of Macedon” Born 356 BC — 43 years after the death of Socrates, 49 years after the Peloponnesian War Came to the throne in 336 BC. died 323 BC, aged 33.
  • Macedon(ia) North of Greece Horse-country Capital at Pella Non-Greeks, but royalty had a love of Greek ideas & art
  • Macedon: A Rough & Tumble Land At the foot of Mt. Olympus North of Thessaly — mountainous, “witchy” land Non-Greeks lived there: “Barbarians” Mysterious to the Greeks, both allies &enemies of Persia
  • Royal Palace @ Pella Royal palace at Pella relatively small compared with other Greek palaces Suggests a relatively poor nation
  • The Vergina Sun Probable emblem of the Archelead Dynasty, which produced Alexander
  • Spartan Decline Battle of Leuctra, 371 BC Spartans use traditional tactics (top) Thebes, under Epimonidas, uses new strategy (below) Spartans lose, go home & build walls.
  • Philip II of Macedon Alexander’s Dad spends time in Thebes as a hostage Sees battle of Leuctra Reorganizes Macedonian army when he gets home
  • Philip II redesigns the Macedonian Army
  • New Battle Formation
  • Army Economics τοὺς µὴ φέροντας τι τῶν καθηκόντων αὐτοῖς ὅπλων ζηµιούτωσαν κατά τα γεγραµµένα· κοτθύβου ὀβολοὺς δύο, κώνου τὸ ἴσον, σαρίσης ὀβολοὺς τρεῖς, µαχαίρας τὸ ἴσον, κνηµίδων ὀβολοὺς δύο, ἀσπίδος δραχµήν. Ἑπὶ δὲ τῶν ἡγεµόνων τῶν τε δεδηλωµένων ὅπλων τὸ διπλοῦν καὶ θώρακος δραχµὰς δύο, ἡµιθωρακίου δραχµήν. Λαµβανέτωσαν δὲ τὴν ζηµίαν οἱ γραµµατεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχυ[πηρέτ]αι, παραδείξαντες τῶι βασιλεῖ τοὺς ἠθετηκότας ” “Those not bearing the weapons appropriate to them are to be fined according to the regulations: for the kotthybos, two obols, the same amount for the konos, three obols for the sarissa, the same for the makhaira, for the knemides two obols, for the aspis a drachma. In the case of hegemons (officers), double for the arms mentioned, two drachmas for the thorax, a drachma for the hemithorakion. The secretaries (grammateis) and the chief assistants (archyperetai) shall exact the penalty, after indicating the transgressors to the King (basileus).”
  • Alex’s early years Mother: snake dream just before birth Horse: Bucephalus Assassination of father, 336 BC Alexander kills assassins himself Then kills rivals for the throne.
  • Olympias, Alex’s Mom Olympias, Alexander’s mother has dream of a snake impregnating her Believes it to be a god — Zeus or Dionysius. Murders her husband’s other children to secure Alexander’s path to the throne. Hired her husband’s assassins??
  • Alexander’s Horse When Alexander was ten years old, a horse trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted by anyone, and Philip ordered it to be taken away. Alexander, however, detected the horse's fear of his own shadow and asked for a turn to tame the horse, which he eventually managed. According to Plutarch, Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horse for him. Alexander would name the horse Bucephalus, meaning 'ox- head'. Bucephalus would be Alexander's companion throughout his journeys as far as India.
  • Childhood’s End Assassination of Philip II, Alexander’s Father 336 BC Alexander kills the assassins himself Blames it on Persia