Role of JMA issuing warning and role of broadcasters in wellness messaging


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Role of JMA issuing warning and role of broadcasters in wellness messaging

  1. 1. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 1ABU DBS 2013, KL, Malaysia, 5-8, March 2013Workshop EUNESCAP Workshop on EWB: Implementation and OperationsRole of JMA issuing warning androle of broadcasters in wellnessmessagingKazuyoshi SHOGENB-SAT, Japan8 March, 2013(JMA : Japan Meteorological Agency)
  2. 2. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Contents Tsunami Warning issued by JMA Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) issued by JMA Wellness messaging in broadcasting2
  3. 3. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Tsunami Warning issued by JMA3Major Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters- Death/Missing over 100 people since 1868 -
  4. 4. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Key players of tsunami disaster managementCentral governmentCabinet OfficeSupervisor of national disaster managementFire and Disaster Management AgencySupervisor of local governments’ disaster managementMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, transport and tourismAuthority on tsunami protection infrastructure such as dikes and breakwatersResponsible for code on earthquake-resistant constructionJapan Meteorological AgencySingle voice of tsunami warnings in JapanMedia (TV, radio)Transmit tsunami warnings and evacuation order/recommendation to the public.Local government (Prefectures)Responsible for prefectural disaster management.Local government (Municipality)Responsible for municipal disaster management.Issuing evacuation order/recommendation.4
  5. 5. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 5
  6. 6. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 6JMA seismometer networkNIED : National Research Institute forEarth Science and Disaster Prevention
  7. 7. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Tsunami Warning Procedure7Mw : moment magnitudeShort period
  8. 8. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Re-evaluation of tsunami based on Mw- Mjma (Mj) is based on the maximum displacement amplitude ofstrongmotion seismometers, and has the advantage of quickavailability.- However, due to dependence on the short period (-10 sec.) wavecomponent, Mj is prone to underestimate for gigantic or tsunamiearthquakes.- Therefore, JMA also calculates moment magnitude (Mw) in 15minutes using domestic broadband seismic waveform data to obtainproper estimate of magnitude even for gigantic or tsunamiearthquakes, and the initial warning is updated using Mw, ifnecessary.Mw=(log10 Mo-9.1 )/1.5 (Kanamori(1977))Mw: Moment magnitude, Mo: Seismic moment8
  9. 9. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Tsunami Monitoring Network9Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,transport and tourism JAMSTEC : Japan Agency forMaritime-Earth Science andTechnology
  10. 10. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 10Update based on offshore observation-Offshore observations are used for tsunami warning update ifnecessary.-15 GPS buoys (10-20km offshore) and 35 Cable-type sea bottompressure sensors (-100km offshore) are used for tsunami warningupdate in our operation.-Three DART buoys will be deployed about 300-400km off the Pacificcoast of Tohoku in 2012.GPS buoy(Courtesy of Ports and Harbours Bureau of MLIT)(MLIT : Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport )
  11. 11. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 11Tsunami Warning Improvement PlanNew Technique for Huge Earthquakes (March 2013-)
  12. 12. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 12New Classification & Contents of Warnings etc. (March 2013-)Mw : moment magnitude
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 13New observation Information (March 2013-)Messages about tsunami IndicationTsunami Warning/Advisory JMA issues tsunami warnings or advisoriesaccording to expected tsunami height.Tsunami warning (Major Tsunami, Tsunami) orTsunami Advisory is provided within about threeminutes after the earthquake.Tsunami Information(Estimated tsunami arrival timeand height for forecast regions)Forecast of height and arrival times of initial waveare provided for each forecast region.Tsunami Information(Estimated tsunami arrival timeand high tide time at tidal stations)Information on estimated tsunami arrival time andhigh tide time at tsunami observation stations.Tsunami Information(Tsunami observations)Observed tsunami arrival time and height attsunami observation stations.Offshore Tsunami Information(Tsunami Observations atoffshore gauges)Observed offshore tsunami arrival time and heightat offshore gauges, and estimated tsunami heighton the coast based on offshore observations.New information (from March 2013)
  14. 14. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 14Dissemination of Tsunami Warning and Earthquake Information
  15. 15. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©International Tsunami Advisory Services15
  16. 16. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 16
  17. 17. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © JMA, the official single voice of warnings on naturaldisasters in Japan, issues tsunami warnings using scenariotype tsunami database system, in combination with denselydeployed domestic seismic network, sophisticated dataprocessing system, and tsunami observations network. After the tragedy of the 3.11 event, JMA decided to improveits tsunami warning system in terms of rough but earlyestimation of the size of huge earthquakes and improvementof warning messages which promote early evacuation.Summary17
  18. 18. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) issued by JMA18
  19. 19. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 19
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  21. 21. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © 21
  22. 22. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Improvement of PerformanceClassification bymain cause OutcomeSucceed to decrease FalseAlarm (in simulation)22
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Summary (Mw9.0 off the Pacific Coast TohokuEarthquake)The 2011 off the Pacific coast Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated widespreadstrong ground motion, and seismic intensities of 6-lower and 6-upper wererecorded in the Tohoku and Kanto districts over an area of approximately 400 ×100 km. The durations of strong ground motion were very long.JMA EEW functioned as expected;The JMA EEW system issued one warning to the general public in the Tohokudistrict before the start of strong ground motion. It was earlier than the S wavearrival and 15 s earlier than strong ground motion (intensity 5-lower) at the closeststation to the epicenter.But it was not perfect;For Kanto region, JMA EEW expected to be I=4, which is under-expectation ascompared with actual observation(5L-6U). This is probably due to the large extentof fault rupture.For aftershocks, JMA EEW did not always determine the location and magnitudecorrectly, because many earthquakes occurred simultaneously over a wide area,and system was confused.23
  24. 24. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © NHK provided the well-being information (name listof evacuees) on ETV(Terrestrial), BS2(Satellite) andFM(Radio) every day. ETV was switched off in themidnight (00:00 -05:00) for saving the electric power. “NHK online” provides evacuees information withsearching function (place and name) on NHK HomePage for PC.Wellness messaging in broadcastingExample : Tohoku Great Earthquake (11 March 2011 - )24
  25. 25. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Various Services in Digital AgeTV RadioDatabroadcastingWebsiteMobile-phonewebsiteOne-segmentbroadcastingInternet radio25
  26. 26. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Improvement of tsunami warning broadcast●Wording of major tsunami warnings1) More assertive“Major tsunami is coming!”2) More imperative“Evacuate immediately!”3) Sense of urgency“Evacuate to save your lives!”26
  27. 27. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Internet Radio serviceStarted on Sep.1 20113 channels (R1 R2 FM)Available with smart phone27
  28. 28. All Rights Reserved, Copyright © Service in1 October 2012 – Access byPC, Smart phone,Mobile phone, databroadcasting Wellnessinformation fromTelco,Broadcaster, etc.10 organizations,12 kind of data28
  29. 29. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©Access to Janpi on web or in data broadcasting29Search for aperson bynameNHK websiteData broadcasting(NHK ETV)Accessible by PC, smart phonemobile phoneJ-anpi(Portal site or person finder)
  30. 30. All Rights Reserved, Copyright ©I deeply thank Mr. Tomoaki OZAKI and Mr. YasuyukiYAMADA of JMA and Ms. Sayaka IRIE of NHKDisaster and Safety Information Center for theirsupport and providing me with their valuablepresentation material.30Acknowledgement