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1. farde mcrabe 1. farde mcrabe Document Transcript

  • Introduction A market survey of How do wind turbines work? What are urban turbines? Urban Wind Turbines Properties of the wind in built-up areas Mark Runacres Erasmus University College ABE/BAO 24 March 2011 A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Introduction Working principles How turbines work How turbines work Outline • Convert kinetic energy in the wind to electricity • Energy Turbine Market Introduction concepts survey 1 E= mv 2 2 • Power Policy and New 1 social Conclusions P = ρAv 3 Cp concepts acceptance 2 A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Introduction Introduction How turbines work How turbines work Urban turbine How turbines work 1 P = ρAv 3 Cp 2 1 3 P = ρAv Cp 2 • Urban turbine: turbine operating in a built- Cp < 0.593 up area • Cp ~ 0.45 in ideal circumstances • No a priori restriction in size • Small turbines: P ≲ 100 kW • Micro-turbines: ‣ P ≲ 5 kW ‣ Hub height ~ 15 m ‣ Diameter ≲ 5 m A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Introduction Introduction How turbines work How turbines work HowUrban wind turbines work • Low wind speeds at ground height • Large roughness length • Variable direction • Turbulent A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Turbine concepts VAWT How turbines axis Vertical work Turbine concepts • Smaller power coefficient • Often not self-starting Horizontal axis wind turbines • Technology still immature, BUT Vertical axis turbines ‣ Can utilise wind from varying Shrouded turbines directions Rooftop turbines ‣ Quieter ‣ Esthetics? Traditional turbines in open spaces • Less vibration (helical designs)   Obvious advantages for urban environment A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Turbine concepts Turbine concepts HAWT HowHorizontal axis turbines work Shrouded turbines Shrouded How turbines work • Benefit from large turbine • Shrouded, ducted, diffuser- technology augmented • Best current small turbines are • Use some kind of envelope HAWT to create aerodynamical advantage • Immature technology • Some models appear OK, but benefit of shrouding unclear A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Turbine concepts Turbine concepts Rooftop-mounted Rooftop How turbines work Ground-mounted Open space How turbines work • VAWT, HAWT or shrouded • WindShare, Toronto (Lagerwey turbine) Wind • Faster and steadier wind • Rotor diameter: 52 m (if mounted high enough above • Hub height: 91m the building) • 1000 MWh/yr • BUT ‣ Urban wind energy that works! ‣ Vibrations ‣ Best-working urban turbines are fairly large ‣ Very few proven ground-mounted turbines examples ‣ This is also due to market context, not necessarily inherent technological limitations A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Turbine concepts Ground-mounted Open space How turbines work Market survey The Schoondijke test field The EhB market survey Ongoing test projects Do small wind turbines work? Can they work in an urban environment? A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Market survey Schoondijke test Schoondijke Immature market field • 11 micro-turbines tested in Schoondijke, Netherlands • Open field • Test period 1 April 2008 - 31 oktober 2010 • Average wind speed 3.7 m/s A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines market survey TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Cost-benefit ratio A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Market survey Market survey Schoondijke test Schoondijke EhB field Model Actual net yield at guide price euro/kWh at 3.5m/s wind • Typical entry 3.5m/s kWh    
  • ! "!* "!*"!     * !  "! ! "# 1 A lu W in d r a d T h ü m le r R o to r: 3 m / 5 ,5 m /s 6 W 8 0 ,- !! D . i . h e e l D u i t s l a n "* d 4(2)  # & 3..., 8  5 0 m s 42  /(73  0 2 /6 * 02 + 4/52 + - 7/ .   l e i n e k w w w . a $ . 3 d r a d lu w in M a s t : w in d tu r b in Montana 1397 18508 0.22 d e "!  4 m * + * /.44. e !! + 7 2 %( = 2 x f ie t s d y * ,  ! n a m o SkyStream 774 10742 0.23  Passaat 261 9239 0.59 2 R u tla n d 5 0 4 M a r l e c
  •  )
  • ") 3...o r : R to 2 3, 5  1 0 m /s 12 5 W 03 * * * 3 3 5 ,-  o o r V E n g i n e 1.1.3 ) e r in g C o   0 ,5 1 m m /s * (3 0 3 ,9 5 - b o te n , L td £ ) w e e k e n d h Ampair 76 8925 1.96 U K u is je s , w w w .m a r le c .c o . u w a te rp o m k p , 124 17548 2.36 Airdolphin 3 • Main characteristics of turbine A e ro 2 g e n L V M L td / R o to r: 6 m /s 4 8 W 8 5 t u in v e r lic h t in g , … v o o r WRE 060 212 39162 3.08 Energy Ball 22 4324 3.28 + comments: measured P-curve, cut-in or start, ... U K w w w .lv m - ltd . c o m 0 ,5 M a 1 ,2 m 8 m s t : A m p è o f 1 9 ,5 k W re b o te n e n w e e k e n d h u is je s h /w e e k b ij 6 m /s Swift 28 13208 7.86 Turby 43 21350 8.28 4 W re n S a m re y L td R o to r : 3 m / 8 m /s 8 5 W 4 0 k W h / U K 1 m s M a a n d A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines w w w .s a m re y .c o .u M a s t : A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines 4 8 0 k W h k to t /Monday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 M a r k ts tu d ie k le in e e n m id d e lg r o te w in d tu r b in e s 1 8 Market survey Use Market survey Survey EhB EhB • In framework of TETRA project 090192 • Basis for comparison between small (“Gebruik van microwindturbines voor het leveren van turbines, with estimate of annual hernieuwbare energie aan particulieren en kleine bedrijven”) production • All turbines < 100 kW ‣ Power curve from manufacturer • 762 turbines ‣ Wind conditions Ingreenious study Schoondijke • Most extensive survey to date (3.7 m/s annual average) ‣ HAWT • Select turbines for test fields ‣ VAWT • Help clients select small turbines ‣ Other concepts A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Comparison 1-2 kW Market survey Consultancy Market survey EhB EhB "  • Example: Sensico !# 
  •  ‣ Wants to test small turbine  ! • If OK Sensico wants to become distributor  # "   • 1-2 kW   • Believes in rooftop     • Turbine should be able to carry advertisements #             
  •  "                  A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Comparison 2-5 kW Market survey Consultancy Market survey EhB EhB !   "   !# 
  •    !    
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  •  A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • • Skystream Market survey • 1 kW Ec industry Market survey EhB EhB Southwest windpower ‣ Rated power 1 kW • Rated power 1.8 kW ‣ ø = 2,7 m • ø = 3.7 m Cut-in = 3 m/s ‣ • Cut-in = 3,5 m/s ‣ € 1818 (excl. inverter) • Price ~ € 12000 (incl. tower) • Power curve ‣ Power curve A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Market survey • 5 kW Market survey Honeywell EhB EhB Ec industry WT6500 Earthtronics ‣ Rated power 5 kW ‣ Rated power 1.5 kW ‣ ø = 6,4 m ‣ ø = 1,7 m ‣ Cut-in = 3 m/s ‣ Cut-in = 0,5 m/s ‣ Power curve ‣ Price ~ € 4600 (Excl.installation and tower) ‣ Power curve A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • • NheoWind 3D 100 CP Market survey Market survey EhB Comparison 1-2 kW EhB Nheolis • Rated power 1.8 kW • ø=3m l=2m • Resultaten • Cut-in = 2,5 m/s ‣ • Prijs ~ € 20000 (incl. tower) • Power curve A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 ‣ Wind buster Seab energy Market survey Market survey • Rated power 5 kW EhB Yearly yield 1-2 kW EhB • ø = 3,25 m l = 6m • Cut-in = 3,5 m/s "  • Price ~ € 17200 excl. tower !# 
  •  • Power curve  !  # "         #      
  •         "                  A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Market survey Market survey Comparison 5 kW EhB Standards IEC norm • IEC 61400-2: ‣ ‣ Design requirements for small wind turbines • BWEA Standard for the Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) ‣ MCS006: Small wind performance & safety standard A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Market survey Market survey Yearly yield 5 kW EhB International IEC norm standards !   • AWEA  ‣ Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety  Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009)  Opbrengst 5 kW  
  •  ‣ SWCC certification:    • Test of AWEA Standard requirements.    • Turbine design (Structural Analysis)  • Field testing (Power performanc, Acoustic, Safety &  Functio, and Duration).         
  •  A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • New concepts Innovative Backyard innovation Backyard concepts • Example Urban Power USA Building-augmented turbines Backyard innovation Vertical-axis farms Very unconventional designs A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 New concepts New concepts Building-augmented Building-augmented Vertical-axis urban VAWT farms wind turbines windfarms • Use buildings to enhance local wind • J. Dabiri, CalTech, 2010 speed • For global production of sustainable energy, power density (W/m2 ground surface) is a more relevant constraint than Betz limit Important contribution: • Inspiration: Mertens 2006, PhD thesis, TU Delft Fish schooling A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • New concepts New concepts Vertical-axis urban VAWT farms Unconventional Unconventional windfarms designs • Optimized arrays of smaller vertical-axis wind turbines A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 New concepts Policy Vertical-axis urban VAWT farms Critical issues How turbines work Acceptance windfarms • Huge increase in power density • Shadow and reflection (flicker) • Noise (aero and mechanical) • Vibrations (structural damage, rooftop) • Visual impact • Wildlife • Grid integration A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011
  • Policy Conclusions Energy How Directives turbines work Conclusions How turbines work Regulations • European 20/20/20 directive • Urban wind turbines: few success stories ‣ 20 % less emission compared to 1990 • Urban wind is definitely not ideal ‣ 20% better energy efficiency • Market of small wind turbines immature ‣ 20% energy from renewables (VAWT in particular) • Mounting evidence effects of global ‣ Many are no good warming ‣ Good small turbines competitive with solar • Essentially carbon free electricity ‣ Room for technological improvement production ‣ Prices will drop • Public apprehension abt nuclear power A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011 Policy Conclusions Policy How turbines work Regulations Conclusions How turbines work Regulations • Wallonia: one-stop shop • Wind turbines can be expected to be • Flanders: omzendbrief 2009 become competitive at lower wind speeds • Regions have adopted energy goals • Reduction in PV subsidies • Urban applications are likely to become feasible soon • Regulatory framework moving in right direction • Acceptance issues (in particular noise) need to be addressed A market survey of Urban Wind Turbines A market survey of Urban Wind TurbinesMonday, 21 March 2011 Monday, 21 March 2011