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Siyakha Nentsha-Enhancing the Economic, Health and Social Capabilities of Young Women and Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
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Siyakha Nentsha-Enhancing the Economic, Health and Social Capabilities of Young Women and Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


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Siyakha Nentsha. A randomized experiment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to examine how HIV/AIDS education supplemented with financial education and social support impacts upon young women's and young …

Siyakha Nentsha. A randomized experiment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to examine how HIV/AIDS education supplemented with financial education and social support impacts upon young women's and young men's economic, health and social capabilities

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  • 1. “Siyakha Nentsha”Enhancing the Economic, Health, and Social Capabilities of Highly Vulnerable Youth
    by Kelly Hallman, Kasthuri Govender,
    Eva Roca, Emmanuel Mbatha and Mike Rogan
    Population Council
    Isihlangu Health and Development Agency
    University of KwaZulu-Natal
    KwaZulu-Natal, Department of Education
  • 2. Thank you
    Our funders
    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
    Economic and Social Research Council
    DFID via the ABBA RPC
    KwaZulu-Natal Department of Education
    Additional team members
    Nombango Anna Sibeko / ThabileShozi / Mboneni Genesis Thwala / Nduduzo Blessing Msomi
    Pretty ThandaniCele / Nontobeko Charlotte Cele / Sabelo Emmanuel Mkhize
    Banele Precious Ngcobo / Njabulo Freedom Ndlovu / Noxolo Peaceful Makhanya
    NokulungaDorahShange / Suprise Patience Mseleku /Sithembile Pretty Gumede
    Mbali Pretty Mseleku / Bongekile Carol Shozi / AyandaMthabela / Siphiwe Cyril Mbava
  • 3. Purpose
    Improve functional capabilities and well-being adolescents at high risk for
    HIV and STIs
    teenage pregnancy
    school dropout
    non-receipt of social benefits
    actual or potential loss of one or both parents
  • 4. Project team
  • 5. Formative research: Adolescent HIV risk behaviors influenced by
    Relative wealth
    Social capital
    Being an orphan
  • 6. Durban Program Scan
    Few adolescent SRH or HIV programs address social, economic, and cultural underpinnings of risk behaviors
    Few livelihood programs make conceptual link to health risk behaviors
    Not context-, age-, culture- or gender-specific
    Design not evidenced based
    Delivery weak
    Little monitoring or evaluation
  • 7. Project content
    Longitudinal survey
    In learners households
    GPS coordinates
    Government-accredited multi-session intervention
    10th & 11th graders during school hours
    Participatory reflective learning
    Workbooks/portfolios and diaries
    Community mapping
    Focus group with participants, parents, and mentors
  • 8. Curriculum
    Government-accredited multi-session intervention
    Increase knowledge and skills for pregnancy and HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation; accessing preventive, treatment and care services
    Develop skills to manage personal and familial resources; access existing social benefits, education and training opportunities; plan and aspire for the future; build savings/assets over time
    Build and strengthen social networks and support
  • 9. Participants
    • Secondary learners
    • 10. Least selective sample
    • 11. Scalable
    • 12. Bundled package
    • 13. Females and males
    • 14. Resounding community feedback
    • 15. Male knowledge and behaviors
    • 16. Gender attitudes
  • Program implementation
    Recent matriculants in local community selected and receive training to serve as facilitators/mentors
    Classroom based intervention during school hours led by a pair young adult facilitator/mentors
    2-3 hours per week of exposure for 2 academic years
  • 17.
  • 18. Research design
    Randomized to secondary school classrooms (grades 10-11) in seven schools
    Three study arms
    SRH/HIV, Social Support, Financial Education
    SRH/HIV, Social Support
    Delayed Intervention
  • 19. Outcomes
    SRH and HIV/AIDS : knowledge, skills and behaviors, including adoption of safer sexual behaviors and service use
    Economic skills: ability to plan and manage personal and familial finances; identify and access available social benefits; articulate a plan for pursuing future livelihood-enhancing opportunities
    Social networks and support: access to friends, adult role models and individuals/groups who can assist with crisis management and provide links to opportunities
  • 20. Sample
  • 21. Sample
  • 22. Sample
  • 23.
  • 24. Participant views of financial education
    “We learnt about budgeting and saving and all those things, before we when we get money we spent it. This program was like an eye-opener to us, because, we know now when we get some money, we have to save something…”
    - male participant
  • 25. “It’s different, in school we learn mathematics and biology but here we learn things that we can use in the future.”
    - female participant
  • 26. Participant views of health education
    “….. I didn’t understand about HIV and AIDS before
    but now I do. I didn’t learn that in school.”
    –female participant
    “It changed my attitude, because I know how to use a condom and I know how to trust my partner and I know how to advise my partner, when we are sitting together and talking about, how to have sexual intercourse and I know even to advise the community as a whole about HIV/AIDS…”–male participant
  • 27. Baseline associations
    Factors associated with protective behaviors
    Relative wealth
    Social support (friends, role models)
    Belonging to a community organization
    Having tried to start an income-generating activity
    Factors associated with higher-risk behaviors
    Having no hope for the future
    Personal luxury items
  • 28. Communications
    Engage policymakers and programmers in dialogues to raise profile of issue
    Communicate the research process
    Utilize products in addition to policy briefs, reports, academic articles and website
    Facebook, Brochures, Postcards, Multimedia, Video
    Non-traditional public events
    Frontline Club, London
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. Multimedia
    Lindiwe’s Story
    (see pdf)
    Hallman, K. “Social exclusion: The gendering of adolescent HIV risks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in J. Klot and V. Nguyen eds., (in press), The Fourth Wave: An Assault on Women - Gender, Culture and HIV in the 21st Century. 2009. Social Science Research Council and UNESCO.
    Grant, M and Hallman, K. “Pregnancy-related School Dropout and Prior School Performance in South Africa,” Studies in Family Planning, 2008. 39(4): 369-382.
    Hallman, K. “Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS Bulletin, 2008. 39(5): 36-44.
    Bruce, J. and Hallman K. “Reaching the girls left behind,” Gender & Development,2008. 16(2): 227-245.
    Hallman, K. “Nonconsensual sex, school enrollment and educational outcomes in South Africa,” Africa Insight (special issue on Youth in Africa), 2008. 37(3): 454-472.
    "Orphanhood Type and Sexual Debut: A panel study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa," (under review).
    Kenworthy, N., Hallman, K. et al. “Geographies of Violence: Participatory Mapping with South African Adolescents to Understand Dimensions of Social Exclusion,” (under review).
    “Identifying sources of adolescent exclusion due to violence: Participatory mapping in South Africa,” Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 30. 2008. New York: Population Council.
    "Enhancing financial literacy, HIV/AIDS skills, and safe social spaces among vulnerable South African youth," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief no. 4. 2007. New York: Population Council.
    "Reducing the social exclusion of girls," Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to AdulthoodBrief no. 27. 2007. New York: Population Council.
  • 35.