Protection for the lifecourse:Enhancing health, social and economic capabilities of highly vulnerable adolescents<br />by ...
Setting<br />Semi-rural KwaZulu Natal<br />Poverty and income inequality<br />High unemployment<br />Early pregnancy<br />...
Formative research: vulnerabilities associated with adolescent HIV risk behaviors<br />Living in poverty<br />Not socially...
Poorer more likely to sexually debut earlier<br />Ever had sex:  14-16 years-olds<br />Poor<br />Non-poor<br />Source: Hal...
Those with less social capital <br />more likely to experience forced sex<br />Ever been : 14-16 year-old females<br />Sou...
Orphans have more <br />economically-motivated sexual encounters<br />Ever traded sex:  sexually debuted 14-16-year-olds<b...
Possible protective factors<br />Education<br />Access to financial services and social grants<br />Social support<br />
Siyakha Nentsha Project team<br />
Program purpose<br />Improve functional capabilities of adolescents for building health, social, and economic assets for t...
Program Methods<br /> Intervention<br />Evidence-based<br />Piloted<br />Multi-sectoral<br />Participatory<br />Intensive ...
Project components<br />Government-accredited multi-session intervention<br />Plan and aspire for the future; Build saving...
Project design<br />Randomized to secondary school classrooms (10th and 11th grades) in one school ward<br />Three study a...
Research Methods<br />Longitudinal survey <br />Youth-conducted social mapping with presentations back to community<br />Y...
Targeted outcomes<br />HIV/AIDS and RH<br />Economic skills<br />Social networks and support<br />
Selected findings from baseline<br />
Description of sample<br />Age<br />Orphaning<br />Sex<br />HIV<br />Feelings<br />Social outlets<br />
Female outcomes, by household wealth quartile<br />Poorest------------------------------------least poor<br />N=370 HIV t...
Male sex partners,by household wealth quartile<br />Poorest------------------------------------least poor<br />N=106<br />
Females—personal assets<br />-----------------------------------more assets<br />N=53<br />
Females—Orphan status<br />N=56<br />
Number of sex partnersby belonging to organizations or having a role model<br />N=66 females<br />N=106 males<br />
Males and savings<br />N=129<br />
Hope for the future-talking to partner<br />Females n=66<br />Males n=129<br />
Summary<br />Vulnerability of group<br />Protective factors included:<br />Relative wealth<br />Social support (friends, r...
“It’s different, in school we learn mathematics and biology but here we learn things that we can use in the future.”<br />...
Participant views of health education<br />“….. I didn’t understand about HIV and AIDS before <br />but now I do. I didn’t...
Selected resources<br />Hallman, K.  2008a.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS...
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Protection for the lifecourse: Enhancing health, social and economic capabilities of highly vulnerable adolescents

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Presentation made at IUSSP 2009, describing baseline results of research on a randomized intervention of HIV, lifeskills, and financial education for young people in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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  • The intervention is designed to provide vulnerable young people residing in poor, peri-urban, HIV/AIDS-affected communities with increased capabilities for building health, social and economic assets for the lifecourse. The strategic skills proposed are particularly geared to help offer protective strategies against HIV and early pregnancy and to build economic assets. This project will provide quantifiable evidence about a program that could be adopted into a school- or community-based project setting to reach young people at a critical period of their development.
  • Protection for the lifecourse: Enhancing health, social and economic capabilities of highly vulnerable adolescents

    1. 1. Protection for the lifecourse:Enhancing health, social and economic capabilities of highly vulnerable adolescents<br />by Kelly Hallman, Eva Roca, Kasthuri Govender, <br />Emmanuel Mbatha, Rob Pattman, DeeviaBhana and Mike Rogan <br />IUSSP<br />Marrakech, Morocco<br />September 28, 2009<br />
    2. 2. Setting<br />Semi-rural KwaZulu Natal<br />Poverty and income inequality<br />High unemployment<br />Early pregnancy<br />Early school leaving<br />HIV<br />
    3. 3. Formative research: vulnerabilities associated with adolescent HIV risk behaviors<br />Living in poverty<br />Not socially connected<br />Orphaned<br />Source: Hallman 2004, 2005, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c<br />
    4. 4. Poorer more likely to sexually debut earlier<br />Ever had sex: 14-16 years-olds<br />Poor<br />Non-poor<br />Source: Hallman 2005, 2008a<br />
    5. 5. Those with less social capital <br />more likely to experience forced sex<br />Ever been : 14-16 year-old females<br />Source: Hallman 2008a, 2008b<br />
    6. 6. Orphans have more <br />economically-motivated sexual encounters<br />Ever traded sex: sexually debuted 14-16-year-olds<br />Source: Hallman 2008a, 2008c<br />
    7. 7. Possible protective factors<br />Education<br />Access to financial services and social grants<br />Social support<br />
    8. 8. Siyakha Nentsha Project team<br />
    9. 9. Program purpose<br />Improve functional capabilities of adolescents for building health, social, and economic assets for the lifecourse in a setting with high risks for<br />HIV and STIs<br />teenage pregnancy, parenthood<br />school dropout<br />actual or potential loss of one or both parents<br />lack of knowledge of further employment<br /> and training opportunities<br />
    10. 10. Program Methods<br /> Intervention<br />Evidence-based<br />Piloted<br />Multi-sectoral<br />Participatory<br />Intensive – multi-session<br />Led by peer mentors<br />
    11. 11.
    12. 12. Project components<br />Government-accredited multi-session intervention<br />Plan and aspire for the future; Build savings/assets over time; Develop skills to manage personal and familial finances; identify and access existing social benefits<br />Build and strengthen social networks and support<br />Increase knowledge and skills for HIV and pregnancy prevention/AIDS mitigation; accessing preventive, treatment and care services<br />
    13. 13. Project design<br />Randomized to secondary school classrooms (10th and 11th grades) in one school ward<br />Three study arms<br />HIV/RH, Social, Financial Education<br />HIV/RH, Social<br />Control--Delayed intervention-2010<br />
    14. 14. Research Methods<br />Longitudinal survey <br />Youth-conducted social mapping with presentations back to community<br />Youth, parent, mentor focus groups to assess experience with intervention<br />
    15. 15. Targeted outcomes<br />HIV/AIDS and RH<br />Economic skills<br />Social networks and support<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Selected findings from baseline<br />
    18. 18. Description of sample<br />Age<br />Orphaning<br />Sex<br />HIV<br />Feelings<br />Social outlets<br />
    19. 19. Female outcomes, by household wealth quartile<br />Poorest------------------------------------least poor<br />N=370 HIV test<br />N=79 sex<br />
    20. 20. Male sex partners,by household wealth quartile<br />Poorest------------------------------------least poor<br />N=106<br />
    21. 21. Females—personal assets<br />-----------------------------------more assets<br />N=53<br />
    22. 22. Females—Orphan status<br />N=56<br />
    23. 23. Number of sex partnersby belonging to organizations or having a role model<br />N=66 females<br />N=106 males<br />
    24. 24. Males and savings<br />N=129<br />
    25. 25. Hope for the future-talking to partner<br />Females n=66<br />Males n=129<br />
    26. 26. Summary<br />Vulnerability of group<br />Protective factors included:<br />Relative wealth<br />Social support (friends, role models)<br />belonging to a community organization<br />having tried to start an income-generating activity<br />Factors that may increase risk include:<br />Having no hope for the future<br />Orphanhood<br />Personal assets<br />
    27. 27. “It’s different, in school we learn mathematics and biology but here we learn things that we can use in the future.”<br />- female age 16 years<br />
    28. 28. Participant views of health education<br />“….. I didn’t understand about HIV and AIDS before <br />but now I do. I didn’t learn that in school.” <br />–female age 20 years, not enrolled in school<br />“It changed my attitude, because I know how to use a condom and I know how to trust my partner and I know how to advise my partner, when we are sitting together and talking about, how to have sexual intercourse and I know even to advise the community as a whole about HIV/AIDS…”–male age 22 years, not enrolled in school<br />
    29. 29. Selected resources<br />Hallman, K. 2008a.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS Bulletin, 39(5), November 2008.<br />Hallman, K. 2008b, in press. “Social exclusion: The gendering of adolescent HIV risks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in J. Klot and V. Nguyen eds., The Fourth Wave: An Assault on Women - Gender, Culture and HIV in the 21st Century. Social Science Research Council and UNESCO.<br />Hallman, K. 2008c, under review. &quot;Orphanhood Type and Sexual Debut: A panel study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,&quot; Economic Development and Cultural Change.<br />Bruce, J. and Hallman, K. 2008. “Reaching the girls left behind,” Gender & Development, 16(2): 227-245.<br />Hallman, K. 2007. “Nonconsensual sex, school enrollment and educational outcomes in South Africa,” Africa Insight (special issue on Youth in Africa), 37(3): 454-472.<br />Hallman, K. Genderedsocioeconomic conditions and HIV riskbehavioursamongyoung people in South Africa. 2005. African Journal of AIDS Research 4(1): 37–50.Abstract: http://www.popcouncil.org/projects/abstracts/AJAR_4_1.html<br />
    30. 30. Thank you! <br />Our funders: ESRC/Hewlett Joint Scheme<br />& DFID via the ABBA RPC<br />

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