HIV/AIDS and Disability: new research findings from Kenya - LSE Presentation 20 May 2010


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LSE Disability public lecture 20 May 2010[1]
HIV/AIDS And Disability: New Research Findings From Kenya
Speaker: Dr Sam Tororei.
This event was recorded on 20 May 2010 in New Theatre, East Building.
The WHO estimates that 10 per cent of the population in poor countries is disabled. Disabled people have and want sexual lives – and, because of their disabilities, they may also be sexually abused and exploited. In this lecture Dr Sam Tororei from the Nairobi based Regional AIDS Training Network (RATN) will present findings from the most recent research. He will talk about how in Kenya steps are being taken to protect disabled people from sexual abuse while encourage them to lead full sexual lives, this in an environment where HIV infection is an ever present threat. The lecture will be of particular interest to those interested in health, disability, HIV/AIDS, Kenya, gender and sexuality issues.
Available as: mp3 (30 MB; approx 65 minutes)
Event Posting: HIV/AIDS And Disability: New Research Findings From Kenya

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HIV/AIDS and Disability: new research findings from Kenya - LSE Presentation 20 May 2010

  1. 1. HIV/AIDS and Disability: new research findings from Ken ya By Dr. S.K. Tororei ABBA RPC Project Regional AIDS Training Network
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>New findings emerging from ABBA research consortium with support from the UK people through DfID </li></ul><ul><li>ABBA stands for Addressing the Balance of Burden of HIV&AIDS and aims at providing evidence to broaden understanding of the burden of HIV/AIDS on vulnerable groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional AIDS Training Network (as ABBA partner) is focusing on identifying factors inhibiting or exacerbating spread of HIV/AIDS among People with Disabilities (PWDs) in Kenya and Ethiopia. </li></ul><ul><li>RATN is a network of 25 member institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa Region working in capacity building for HIV/AIDS response. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>WHO estimates that globally 10% of population has a disability severe enough to affect daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya estimates prevalence at 4.6% (Kenya National Survey of persons with disabilities 2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude of disability in Kenya between 2 and 4 million; estimated population of 40 million. </li></ul></ul>CONTEXT
  4. 4. Understanding Disability Pre-existing definition Generally disability is defined according to context and purpose: medico- legal definition preferred in service provision (registration, education etc). While socially constructed definitions stressing the disabling nature of ones environment are preferred by disability activists and advocates.
  5. 5. Understanding Disability cont.. <ul><li>Latest definition </li></ul><ul><li>Persons with disability include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on equal basis with others(UN CRPD 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>This definition is likely to bridge all two definitions although there is resistance by both people living with AIDS and PWD’ s, each contending in the case of the former, that they are not disabled ,and in the case of the latter that they are not sick. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Issues and new evidence <ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Services </li></ul><ul><li>Policy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Future Prospects </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sexual Behavior of PWD Contrary to the perception that PWDs are not sexually active, from this study 89% were found to be sexually active, blind (95%), and deaf (80%). Only 39% indicated being married or in cohabiting relationship with a significant proportion therefore being in non –marital sexual relationships First sexual encounter and proportion that engaged in sex at or below 16 years
  8. 8. Risky Sexual Behaviour While engaging in sex is normal, multiple partners without consistent use of condoms in every sexual encounter increases the risk of contracting HIV. Overall, 15% recorded multiple partners. Deaf recorded the highest proportion with multiple partners at 20% , blind 11% and PWPDs 14%. Proportion with multiple partners
  9. 9. HIV/AIDS and Disability Information Knows about HIV/AIDS Has access to HIV information Knows how to prevent HIV Ever been tested for HIV No. Residence Rural 82.7 64.0 64.0 13.0 2,447 Urban 90.4 82.4 81.4 28.5 648 Sex Male 84.2 69.8 69.8 15.5 1,501 Female 84.4 66.0 65.5 16.5 1,594 Highest level of education attended Nursery 51.6 32.7 30.5 6.9 98 Primary 88.2 72.9 71.7 14.4 1,461 Post Primary 97.4 91.3 94.1 29.5 428 Post Secondary 99.5 97.6 97.5 46.2 183 Total 89.1 76.5 76.1 19.7 2,195 Source: Kenya National Survey for PWD, 2007
  10. 10. Access to Services Main barriers sited for PWDs not accessing HIV and AIDS treatment and care services was financial difficulties (30% of respondents). Distance to the health facility is a major barrier for PWPD and rural residence ( 43% and 31% respectively). Communication is a major concern among the deaf at 26% and lack of care among the blind at 38%. Barriers to Accessing HIV and AIDS Treatment and Health Care Services by PWD
  11. 11. Reflections <ul><li>Evidence indicates increasing understanding of PWDs and HIV/AIDS is critical to the development of effective HIV/AIDS response. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited research exist in understanding the epidemic among vulnerable groups like PWDs </li></ul><ul><li>Need for developing partners to commit more resources (technical support, research funding, program implementation) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Special thanks to </li></ul><ul><li>DFID for funding assistance </li></ul><ul><li>ABBA Scientific Advisory Board team </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Barnett (for his wisdom) </li></ul><ul><li>ABBA Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Asante Sana </li></ul>