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Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                                        http://www.jiasociety.org/con...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                                                http://www.jiasociety...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                                        http://www.jiasociety.org/con...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                               http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                               http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                              http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                               http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                               http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1...
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                                                          http://www....
Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34                                                            http://ww...
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  • FREE FROM HIV/AIDS
    I was afflicted with HIV/AIDS and involuntary closure of the right eye . i couldn't see nor do anything . i was hospitalized then it dawn on me that i needed to try a traditional healing spell caster for solution . On a faithful mourning i decided to contact seraphintemple@gmail.com which i read so many testimony on internet on how he has be so faithful and kind to people situation , Miracle babies , Tuberculosis cure , Healed from hemorrhoids , Liver cancer destroyed , Free from fibroid , Hiv/aids cure , With this testimony i was encourage , I make up my mind to contact him and I do so, Firstly when DR SERAPHIN speak with me i was so encourage , He told me that i should have the believe that my problems are solved and also give a procedure which i carefully obey and he make a preparation and cast a traditional herbalist spell which i use according to his instruction . Here i am , Am free from HIV/AIDS daises now i can see clearly , Thanks be to DR SERAPHIN.'' contact him via seraphintemple@gmail.com OR +2348050354815
    __Mrs Cynthia , O.
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Disability and hiv aids jias dec

  1. 1. Journal of the International AIDS Society BioMed Central Review Open Access Disability and HIV/AIDS - a systematic review of literature on Africa Jill Hanass-Hancock Address: Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD), University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Email: Jill Hanass-Hancock - hanasshj@ukzn.ac.za Published: 13 November 2009 Received: 21 April 2009 Accepted: 13 November 2009 Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 doi:10.1186/1758-2652-12-34 This article is available from: http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 © 2009 Hanass-Hancock; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This systematic review focuses on empirical work on disability and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the past decade and considers all the literature currently accessible. The review presents data from different surveys and summarizes the findings. In this way, it convincingly reveals that people with disabilities are very vulnerable to contracting HIV, and lack access to information, testing and treatment. The review further reveals gaps in the research and areas of concern. While vulnerability and accessibility have been investigated, there are few prevalence studies or evaluations available. A certain amount of work has focused on the deaf population, but little has been done for other disability groups. A growing area of concern is sexual abuse and exploitation of people with disabilities. Only a few studies or interventions focus on this crucial area. Background This review was initiated as a result of the needs of African The year 2008 was a special one. It was during this year disabled people's organizations and particularly, as a that the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) result of discussions with the Disability HIV and AIDS in Mexico City, as well as the 15th International Confer- Trust. It attempts to describe the state of empirical ence on AIDS and STIs inAfrica (ICASA 2008) in Dakar, research in Africa and systematically brings together all Senegal, focused on disability as an issue in HIV/AIDS. Yet the available literature. Other reviews on literature about there are still many complaints about the paucity or lack HIV/AIDS and disability have been published [4]. The of research [1-3]. While it may be true that there is still not presented review differs from others in the sense that it enough research on HIV/AIDS and disability available, it looks at the whole of Africa, is systematic and therefore is also true that mainstream research is sometimes igno- includes more studies than previous reports. It is predom- rant about or sceptical towards the importance of disabil- inantly descriptive. ity in the HIV/AIDS field. It is, however, incorrect to say that there is no research available. Methods A systematic literature review of HIV/AIDS and disability The field of disability in HIV/AIDS has been growing in in Africa was conducted for all studies available up until recent years. Because research is scattered, there is a need 31 December 2008. The review focuses on papers related to consolidate the available literature in a systematic way. to people with disabilities and their vulnerability to HIV. There is a tremendous need for knowledge distribution on It aims to bring together scientific papers on the topic, the topic as advocates often need "hard data" to convince describe the content, summarize it, and identify gaps for health officials of the need to act on disability issues; the further research. Disability was defined in accordance latter is particularly true for Africa. with the World Health Organization (WHO) definition as Page 1 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  2. 2. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 "a complex phenomenon that manifests itself at the body, disability and its different forms, were identified and then person or social level. According to this model, these three entered into various search engines (see appendix 1). dimensions of disability are outcomes of interactions between health conditions, other intrinsic features of the Exclusion criteria individual and extrinsic features of the social and physical Because the main purpose of this review was to focus on environment" [5]. established findings on disability and HIV/AIDS, only papers that included both phenomena were selected. A Nevertheless, people do not necessarily publish disability- geographical filter was brought in at a later stage and only related work in WHO terms. Medical synonyms therefore studies conducted in Africa were included in the sample. had to be identified during the search process to track To bring in the filter earlier might have excluded those down all available documents. Mental health was not studies that did not indicate the geographical focus in included in this review because such studies often look at their keywords. mental health problems as a result of HIV infection or it is difficult to determine if the mental health condition or The final sample included only studies that made use of the HIV infection occurred first. This is a limitation of this empirical methods. Anecdotal stories were excluded from review. the sample (see figure 1). Search Strategy Data extraction and analysis Altogether, 24 electronic databases, which were relevant The final sample was analysed with regard to research either to HIV/AIDS or disability, were searched. The data methods used, geographical distribution, targeted popu- was collected between June 2008 and December 2008 lation (disability type, gender and age), and research out- (final date: 31 December 2008) from the following data- comes. Excel was used to assist the analysis. As results of bases: ADOLEC, AIDSLINE, AIM, AJOL, Anthropology data focused on very different areas within the field, it was Index, Cambridge Online Journals, Cochrane Library, not possible to determine a statistical meta-analysis. CSA Illumine, EBSCOhost, iLink OPAC, ISAP, OCLC, Instead, results were used for content analysis. Some of NIPAD, ProQuest, SAbinet, ScienceDirect, the Web of Sci- the available research has not been published. The study ence Social Science Citation Index, Wilson Web Educa- can therefore not make any assumptions about possible tion, Wilson Web Humanities, PubMed, the Quarterly bias within individual research papers. Index of African Periodical Literature, Psychology Jour- nals, the Social Science Citation Index, SOURCE and the Results UKZN Federated Search. The search retrieved 467 records, of which 80 were poten- tially relevant citations. After excluding writings that did In the initial search, no restrictions were applied in terms not have an empirical approach, 36 studies were used in of age, country, disability group, gender, geography, eco- the final sample (see figure 1). Eighteen of those were nomic characteristics, outcome measures or empirical published in peer-reviewed journals or presented at inter- approach. Libraries of agencies involved in disability work (Disabled People International, Africa Campaign) and relevant conference documents from 2000 onwards (AIDS 2008, ICASA 2008 and two international symposia Citations identified by literature search (n=467) focusing on HIV/AIDS and disability) were also searched. W Citations excluded as not referring to HIV/AIDS and disability (n=294) Unpublished and ongoing research was accessed through contacting activists or researchers, who were approached Potentially relevant citations (n=173) either through the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) disability and HIV network, Citations excluded because research focus outside Africa (n=93) or through the African Campaign on Disability and HIV/ AIDS. Potentially relevant citations (n=80) Because the search contained no restrictions other than Citations excluded because of not using empirical methods (n=44) that the literature had to focus on HIV/AIDS (problem) and disability (population), it was possible to include Citations included in systematic review (n=36) studies which focus predominantly on related issues, for example, reproductive health, as long as these studies included HIV in the research design. Search terms were Figure Included1and excluded citations in systematic review identified through MeSH, and these were used to create Included and excluded citations in systematic review. the search string. Common synonyms for HIV, AIDS, and Page 2 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  3. 3. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 national conferences, while the others were reports into the social construction of disability and its links to retrieved from organizations or government departments. HIV [18]. Description of studies Only four studies used control groups [15,19,20]. Two of Before 2004, almost no research exists that focuses on these used random sampling [19,20]. Besides this, very HIV/AIDS and disability in Africa (see figure 2). In 2000, few studies give detailed information about their sam- Osowhole conducted the first cross-sectional study that pling methods. also used in-depth interviews [6]. In 2003, data from Uganda [7] became available in a study which used both Most studies used either a cross-sectional approach or quantitative and qualitative methods. In 2004, publica- knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys (see table tions increased as data from the World Bank/Yale Univer- 1). Some surveys were also labelled as cross sectional sity global survey as well as from Zimbabwe, Malawi, when, in reality, they measured only one component, e.g., Kenya and Ethiopia, became available [8-14]. knowledge. Most studies concentrated only on a small area or a school and are therefore not representative of the In the past few years, the sector has received more atten- larger context. However, some studies have a remarkable tion and more research has been published. It is very sample size. For example, the Kenyan study from Taegt- likely that even more work has been produced, for exam- mayer et al [15] had 3358 participants, half of which were ple, in support of government or non-governmental deaf. The Kenyan study from Handicap International had organizations' work. Reports from such surveys are not 618 participants and the Zimbabwean study from Centre always published and are therefore difficult to access. for Approved Social Science (CASS) had 669 participants Such reports might not be included in this review. [21,22]. In the latter case, participants were exclusively people with disabilities and their caregivers. The studies used a variety of methods. Fourteen studies approached the field with a qualitative approach, while Often, the qualitative analysis is not underpinned by the- seven studies used quantitative methods. Ten studies ory or at least described in the literature. Only two studies mixed their research design, using qualitative and quanti- worked with social theory throughout their work [18,23]. tative methods. Four studies focused predominantly on Many studies mention the social model of disability, but literature and policy reviews, some adding a few in-depth fall short when applying this to the research design. Med- interviews (see Table 1). Studies were of various sizes and ical terms, like deafness and blindness, are often used used between seven and 3358 participants. The largest instead of the more encompassing social concepts of dis- sample size came from an operational research in Kenya ability. It is therefore not surprising that other impair- with 3358 deaf and hearing participants [15]. While most ments, such as albinism or epilepsy, are only peripherally studies focused directly on HIV/AIDS and disability, two discussed. However, in some African contexts, these might studies were part of a more comprehensive study on well be considered disabilities due to social stigma [5,24- reproductive health [7,8]. One study accessed sexual 26]. This is a particular area of concern since many studies abuse and its links to HIV [16,17] and one study inquired argue that disability is a social phenomenon and should be seen in this light. 12 Geographically, most studies focus on southern and east- ern Africa (see figure 3): South Africa and Zimbabwe in 10 8 Table 1: Research methods used by different studies Numbers 6 Quantitative approaches - 11 cross-sectional studies of - 7 KAP surveys retrieved studies 4 - 6 rapid assessments - 2 prevalence studies 2 - No study uses national data (e.g., DHS) 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Qualitative approaches - 19 in-depth interviews Year - 14 focus groups - 5 case studies Figure Number2of publications on HIV/AIDS and disability per year Number of publications on HIV/AIDS and disability Reviews - 4 document or policy reviews per year. (content analysis) Page 3 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  4. 4. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 the south, and Uganda and Kenya in the east. Twelve stud- studies that look across disabilities. Out of the 36 studies, ies were conducted in South Africa, which is a third of all 19 focused on adults, 10 on children or youth, and four the studies included in the sample, yet only a few of these included gender as a major component. Others were desk used quantitative methods. Nigeria has produced the studies including a few key stakeholder interviews. No most research in the western part of Africa. study focused on sexual orientation, for example, homo- sexuality, disability and HIV/AIDS. The most comprehensive study, which included sexual reproductive health, employment and questions related Thematically, most studies focused either on vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, was carried out in Malawi [8]. It included (20 studies or 54%), or on access to HIV prevention and questions about HIV knowledge, sexual behaviour and AIDS treatment (18 studies or 48%). Seven studies (18%) history, stigma, perceived risk to HIV infection, sources of looked at cultural issues, disability and HIV/AIDS, and six HIV information, channels of communication, and acces- (16%) included sexual abuse and six included sexuality in sibility of health services. their study design. Only one study focused on sexual self- esteem and body image [23], two studies evaluated an Comparatively little research has been conducted in coun- intervention [6,17], and two prevalence studies are avail- tries in the western part of Africa, yet most, and one of the able [15,27]. first, surveys come from Nigeria [6]. One of the two avail- able prevalence studies comes from Cameroon [27]. The Description of outcomes second prevalence study comes from Kenya [15]. Studies revealed that people with disabilities, with some exceptions [46], are aware of HIV in most countries Most studies [7,8,14,18,21,23,28-36] conducted investi- [6,10,11,20] and perceive themselves as particularly vul- gation across disabilities, but some of them produced dis- nerable to contracting HIV. The Ugandan survey, in which ability-specific information from questionnaires designed 371 people with disabilities participated, revealed that to capture the latter. Out of the different disability groups, 55% of people with disabilities perceived themselves as at most attention was given to deafness, with seven studies risk of contracting HIV [7]. Similarly, Ngazie's study in focusing exclusively on the issue [6,19,20,22,27,37,38]. Zimbabwe, with 67 participants in an urban area, showed Very few studies focused on physical disability [23,39-41], that 75% of participants perceived themselves to be at risk intellectual disability [16,17,42] or blindness [43-45], [29]. In a Kenyan study of 1709 deaf people, 80% per- and none focused on other issues (see figure 4). ceived themselves to be at risk [37], and in South Africa, 93% of the 15 blind participants in Phillander's study [44] As already mentioned, no study focuses on phenomena indicated that they could be at risk of contracting HIV. like albinism or on abnormalities that are not classified as impairments. Albinism is randomly included in some The two prevalence studies, one from Kenya and one from Cameroon, indicate that the prevalence rate for deaf peo- Ethiopia; 1 ple is as high as the prevalence rate for their non-disabled Cameroon; 1 Lesotho; 1 South Africa; Rwanda; 1 12 P hys ic al B lindnes s ; 3 Mozambique; 1 dis ability; 2 Malawi; 2 Intellec tual Swaziland; 2 dis ability; 2 Uganda; 3 A c ros s dis abilities ; 22 Deafnes s ; 7 Zimbabwe; 5 Kenya; 4 Nigeria; 5 Figure Africa 3 Distribution of studies focusing on HIV/AIDS and disability in Distribution of studies focusing on HIV/AIDS and dis- Figure 4 Population focus of studies ability in Africa. Population focus of studies. Page 4 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  5. 5. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 peers, with 7% prevalence in Kenya (6.7% in the hearing results and states that "knowledge about HIV is basic". population) [47] and 4.4% (5% national average) in Thirty-six percent of the respondents stated that HIV is Cameroon [27]. There are no data available on other dis- AIDS, and 42.5% said that they could tell if someone has ability groups. AIDS "by just looking"[8]. Most studies revealed that people with disabilities experi- Giros's study in Kenya (no comparison) reveals that ence barriers to prevention, interventions and treatment although 86% of the deaf respondents are aware of HIV/ [7,12,14,18,36,43,44,46,48]. Special schools are excluded AIDS and its transmission, some still believe in false from prevention campaigns or lack sex education modes of infection: "41% named biting of mosquitoes, [16,18,41,49]. Clinics are physically inaccessible, and kissing (39.6%), and sharing of eating and drinking uten- transport unaffordable or not suitable for wheelchair sils with HIV positive persons (26.4%) as possible ways of users [35,43,46]. transmission" [11]. Disability and Development Partners' study in Mozambique (no comparison group) mirrors For people with sensorial impairments, certain channels these findings: 84% of the respondents answered that they of communication are inaccessible. Otte et al [43] in do not know what HIV or AIDS is, and 70% answered that Nigeria report that visually impaired people experience they do not know how HIV is transmitted [8]. hospitals and billboards as inaccessible, and the Phil- lander and Swarts participants emphasize that Braille and Unfortunately, not one of the four studies is compared to audiotapes are necessary to make AIDS services accessible the general population and we therefore do not know if to people with visual impairments [44]. this misinformation applies specifically to the disabled population or if it is a common phenomenon in the cul- Other studies reveal that volunteer counselling and testing tural context. At least, one can conclude that people with staff, practitioners, nurses and police officers are not able disabilities are as misinformed as the rest of the popula- to communicate with deaf people [18,47,50] and confi- tion and to reach them, prevention needs to become dentiality is therefore often compromised. In addition, accessible. the social construction of disability marginalizes and stig- matizes people with disabilities. In this context, profes- On a similar note, Dawood's study (no comparison sionals might treat people with disabilities with group) in a Durban school (South Africa) shows that insufficient respect or simply forget about them as they youngsters with moderate learning difficulties (the falsely believe that these people are asexual authors speak of mild mental retardation) [42] have "crit- [18,35,36,40,41,48]. ical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS", with one in five learners "subscribing to Surveys, not surprisingly, reveal that people with disabili- mythical beliefs in cure" (such as sex with a virgin), and ties have less knowledge about HIV than other people. one in five believing that there is a cure for AIDS or believ- Part of the world survey provided data indicating that deaf ing in "erroneous ways of transmission (e.g., transmission participants are more likely to believe in incorrect modes through insects or non-sexual contact)" [42]. Other stud- of transmission (p < 0.05), like kissing, hugging, touching ies reveal that teachers of children with intellectual or or sharing dishes [19,51]. The two studies conducted in learning disabilities might not feel able or willing to teach Nigeria and Swaziland used comparison groups. Otte et al, these youngsters about HIV and sexuality as they "don't whose research included a comparison group [43], reveal want to wake sleeping dogs"[18]. similar data about blind adolescents in Nigeria. The study found that blind adolescents are prone to believing in In spite of popular misconceptions, people with disabili- wrong modes of transmission and prevention (p = 0.001). ties (PWD) are in fact sexually active. Focusing on adults However, the same study found no significant differences with disability, the Malawian study (341 PWD) revealed for questions related to HIV treatment [43]. that 76% had been sexually active [8], while in Cam- eroon, 80% (126 deaf people) [27] and in Kenya, 89% Wazakili et al (no comparison group) make similar claims (1706 deaf people) [37] of the participants indicated that about young people with physical disabilities. Their study they had had sex. Pregnancy rates also indicate sexual reveals that the participants have limited factual HIV activity and as a Ugandan study (371 PWD) showed, 77% knowledge and that their choices about sexual behaviour of the participating women had been pregnant before [7]. are not informed by what they know. The authors empha- size that the sexual behaviour of adolescents with disabil- Focusing on adolescents, the Kenyan study revealed that ities is particularly influenced by their living contexts 29% of people with disabilities had had sex before the age [40,41]. Looking at disability more broadly, Munthalie's of 16, while a South African study (90 adolescents with study in Malawi (no comparison group) yields similar intellectual disability) showed that 17% were involved in Page 5 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  6. 6. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 sexual activity between the ages of 14 and 16 [42]. Con- some people who believe that sex with a virgin or a disa- trary to common misconceptions, sexual debut might bled person can cure AIDS. This phenomenon, described even occur earlier. Touko's study [27] (126 deaf partici- by Groce as "virgin cleansing" [54], has been reported in pants) revealed that the average age for first sexual other studies as well [10,13,18,55-57]. These reports usu- encounters in deaf people in Cameroon was about a year ally come from people with disabilities, not from the per- earlier than the national average (16.5 years). Unfortu- petrators or the victims. It is therefore difficult to make nately, there are no more quantitative data available on assumptions about how widespread this practice is in the sexual behaviour of people with disabilities in Africa in southern African context. the context of HIV. Participants in various studies indicated that people with Another growing area of concern is sexual abuse and hearing impairments are soft targets for sexual assault exploitation of people with disabilities. Munhalie's study since it is believed that they cannot shout for help or talk in Malawi (341 PWD) revealed that 17% of the partici- about the abuse [53]. Similarly, children with disabilities, pants were forced into their first sexual encounter [8], particularly severe disabilities, are regarded as at risk of while 7% of Kenyan (1704 deaf people) [37] and 22% of sexual abuse [16,17,21]. Parents of children with disabili- Ugandan participants (371 PWD) indicated abuse at first ties might therefore be overprotective of the children, sexual encounters [7]. In an Ethiopian study (250 PWD), which often leads to isolation [21,55,56]. which focused on sexual violence, 46.4% of the partici- pants reported that they had been victims of sexual vio- Two of the main problems in sexual abuse cases are the lence during their lifetime [52], with most of the victims lack of services available to people with disabilities being women between the ages of 19 and 29. In 70% of [12,21] and the fact that services are not sensitive to disa- the cases, disability contributed to the assault. Similarly, bility issues. The CASS study in Zimbabwe emphasises in the focus group discussions of Yousafzai et al, sexual that there is no disability-sensitive evidence gathering in exploitation and abuse were believed to be higher among the judicial system [21]. disabled women than their non-disabled peers because the former are perceived to be "free" from the HIV virus Dickman et al describe similar problems in the judicial [13]. system in a study they conducted on rape trails (n = 94) of people with intellectual disabilities in Cape Town, South Although sexual abuse is a reality for many people with Africa [16,17]. The study reveals that 94% of the cases disabilities in Africa, only a few cases are reported. In the were females. In 88% of the cases, the complainant knew Ethiopian study [52], few cases were reported to the police the accused, and in 12% of the cases, more than one (18%), because people fear that they will not be believed accused was involved. Dickman et al also describe an or that they will be subjected to further victimization. intervention of the Cape Mental Health [16,17], which Similar reasons for non-disclosure were given in other specializes in rape cases of people with intellectual disa- studies [7,16-18,21]. Participants in Phillander and bilities. The study by Dickman et al is the only one availa- Swartz's study (80% of 15 blind people) believe that eco- ble that assesses the judicial response to rape of people nomic dependency, in particular, contributes to gender- with disabilities in Africa [17]. based violence [44]. Other cultural aspects, such as polygamy, wife sharing, Economic dependency has been described in many differ- and gender imbalances while negotiating safer sex [7,44], ent studies outside AIDS research and certainly is an issue are also mentioned as factors that increase the risk for peo- for people with disabilities. Sexual exploitation is occur- ple with disabilities because they are often seen as less ing in this context. As described by Hanass-Hancock [53], worthy than others. People with disabilities are more people with disabilities, and in particular, people with likely to be chosen as the second wife, additional partner intellectual disabilities, might use sexuality as a means to or for an affair only [10]. This applies particularly to prove that they are capable of having sex and having chil- women [53]. Multiple partnerships and unprotected sex dren, or to gain love and recognition, even if it is only for therefore become more likely, which in turn increases a short time. This can easily be exploited, lead to unpro- infection risks. Touko's study (126 deaf people) in Cam- tected sex, and increase the risk of HIV infection. eroon revealed quantitative data to support this thesis. In this study, 45% of the participants indicated that they Phillander's and Swartz's study [44] reveals that 93% of were engaged in multiple relationships, a figure above the the visually impaired participants believe that "the general national average [27]. public holds myths about people with visual impair- ments, including beliefs about asexuality or abstinence"; Even mothers of children with disabilities can be affected 20% of the participants gave an indication that there are by the negative stigma of disability and the constraints put Page 6 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  7. 7. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 upon a family. A Zimbabwean study (67 parents of chil- argue this case. This argument becomes even stronger with dren with disability) showed that in 60% of the cases, the the recently released national South African study [59] father left the family as soon as a disabled child was born. indicating that people with disabilities have the lowest Parents who give birth to a disabled child might also hurry HIV knowledge of all the assessed groups. More detail to produce another child to prove that they are not about knowledge indicators are not available in the responsible for the disability or to provide a playmate for report. the disabled child who will be excluded by other commu- nity members [29]. Recent data [21] and desperate calls Studies that provide us with such details show, however, for help show that orphans with disabilities in Zimbabwe that HIV knowledge is lacking in areas of HIV transmis- are particularly affected by HIV and that an urgent need sion and prevention. Often HIV risk through sexual trans- for action exists. mission is known to the participants, while other modes of transmission, such as mosquito bites or hugging and With regard to voluntary counselling and testing, three kissing, achieve very low scores. Other studies that don't studies produced data. While the testing uptake in Kenya use comparison groups indicate a similar scenario, but of 53% is relatively high [37], surveys in Uganda (371 cannot tell us if the lack of knowledge is due to disability PWD) [7] and Malawi (341 PWD) [8] reveal a very low or the particular cultural context. Furthermore, it is debat- uptake of 6% and 10%, respectively. The Malawian study, able if the lack of HIV knowledge in relation to some in addition, shows that only 42% of the participants knew modes of transmission, such as hugging, kissing and mos- how to use a condom. The condom uptake in general was quito bites, can really explain the risk of exposure to HIV also very low. infection for people with disability when at the same time, results indicate that they know about the risk through sex- While Touko's study in Cameroon (126 deaf participants) ual transmission. indicates that about 47% of deaf people used condoms the last time they had sex, a study in Uganda reveals that The reviewed studies indicate, however, that people with only 24% of men and 10% of women with disabilities use disabilities are a vulnerable group due to a number of fac- condoms. As a result, not only HIV, but also sexual trans- tors, some of which have been mentioned in the world mitted infections (STIs), have become a problem. Only survey on HIV/AIDS and disability, conducted by Groce 38% of PWD who suffered from STIs in Uganda were [9]. People with disabilities are seen as vulnerable as they: treated. Not surprisingly, knowledge about STIs is not well distributed in any of the countries. The Cameroon studies • Are more likely to believe in wrong modes of transmis- reveal that only 50% of the participants knew about sexu- sion ally transmitted infections. • Are less likely to receive information and resources to Many studies conclude that disability-specific HIV/AIDS ensure "safer sex" because common prevention pro- prevention programmes and interventions need to be grammes do not include disability-specific approaches designed, and mainstream services should be made acces- sible for people with disabilities [9,12,44,48,58]. Mobili- • Are more likely to be excluded from or deprived of edu- zation of, for example, deaf peers showed to be cation, particularly sex education instrumental in gaining confidence to participate in vol- untary counselling and testing [27]. The effectiveness of • Are at increased risk of violence and rape and are also channels to disseminate knowledge depends on area-spe- without legal protection cific circumstances and is disability specific. In Malawi, which is largely a rural area, the radio is the most used • Are, as children, particularly vulnerable because parents source of information (except for deaf people) [8], while (in particular, fathers) might desert children in the Durban metropolis, pupils with moderate learning disabilities gather information predominantly from tele- • Have less access to testing and treatment because trans- vision [42]. Further data on this issue are not available. port and medication might be unaffordable, clinics might not be not accessible, voluntary counselling and testing Discussion might not be disability specific, or counselling may vio- In this review, 36 studies approaching a total of 7759 par- late basic requirements of confidentiality ticipants, were reviewed. Research is particularly evident around HIV knowledge. It is often argued that people with • Are marginalized, and the double stigma of disability disabilities have less knowledge about HIV as they have plus HIV/AIDS might make it difficult to disclose HIV sta- less access to HIV information and interventions. Studies tus, particularly in the case of women who depend on which have used comparison groups can successfully their families, friends, boyfriends or husbands. Page 7 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  8. 8. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 Shortcomings and needed data body image and self-esteem, something that could be In recent years, awareness of disability has changed in influential in sexual behaviour and the subsequent risk to some countries, and some pilot projects have shown how HIV infection and reproductive health. Wazakili's study, to include people with disabilities in voluntary counsel- for example, indicates that people with physical disabili- ling and testing, as well as in AIDS treatment [36,60]. Yet ties do not use their HIV knowledge to make sexual deci- when it comes to sex education, condom use and sexual sions and it would be valuable to find out what does abuse, there is little evidence of effort. The data show that influence them. More research is needed in this area. although people with disabilities are aware of HIV, they lack HIV knowledge, and within the disabled group, con- The criticism is often that national data collection does dom use is still low. While the latter might be caused not include disability indicators. National prevalence through power imbalances in sexual relationships, we studies should include disability so that prevalence can be must take note that, according to some studies, about half assessed. This might be complicated because of a scarcity of participants indicate that they do not know how to use of sign interpreters to conduct such studies nationally. a condom. While this should be the long-term goal, smaller studies can be linked to national data collection and focus on par- The persistence of myths about transmission within the ticular areas that are representative. The operational disabled community also indicates that sex education is research conducted in Kenyan voluntary counselling and not consistent and lacks information about disability-spe- testing centres for the deaf has provided some experience cific interventions. As only one prevention intervention from this field [47]. In addition, mainstream researchers for people with disabilities has been evaluated and only need to be encouraged to include disability indicators three studies have focused on schools, it is not possible to similar to gender indicators as a general requirement. decide what exactly is lacking in the education system. One can only draw conclusions from writings and com- It should be noted that national data are seldom utilised ments in the field, such as those made by Wazakili, who for HIV/AIDS and disability research despite the fact that pushes for more holistic education for people with physi- such surveys as the Demographic Health Survey are avail- cal disability and the inclusion of sex education, in partic- able in various African countries. In South Africa, the sur- ular [41]. vey includes disability and HIV/AIDS items, which could be analysed without collecting new data. In addition, the In general, sex education in Africa is often dominated by recently released South African national HIV prevalence, abstinence messages [61], which might be detrimental to incidence, behaviour and communication survey [59] people with disabilities, who at times may need special now includes people with disabilities in its sample (sur- intervention, demonstrations and explanations that go vey released after the review dateline). The results show beyond conservative imagination [35]. A blind person that the prevalence of HIV within the disabled group is might need to touch and feel, a deaf person needs signs, 14.1% higher than the national average and also higher and a person with intellectual disabilities needs plain and than other risk groups, such as men who have sex with direct instruction with pictures that leave no room for men, recreational drug users and high-risk drinkers. false interpretations. This might become very uncomfort- able for teachers who most likely need support themselves Similarly, Touko's new data from Cameroon [65] indicate to perform this special task [62]. double the HIV prevalence rate within the deaf popula- tion compared to the national average. On a similar note, Beside scarce research on prevention intervention, no data a recent study from Collins (2009) in a public psychiatric are available on factors that influence sexual behaviour, institution in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, also revealed for example, substance abuse, peer pressure and migra- a high HIV prevalence rate among people with mental ill- tion. The complex combination of being disabled and nesses, with women being more likely to be infected with homosexual has also not been mentioned in any of the HIV than men, a trend also being observed in the general studies, although evidence from other countries suggest population in southern Africa [66]. that this is a particular challenge [63]. Given the fact that homosexuality in Africa is at best taboo, and in some These newer sets of data certainly show how to include countries, even criminalized, this might be an area that disability within national surveys or smaller-scale disabil- needs further exploration. ity-specific studies. The results stress the point of provid- ing interventions for people with disabilities and those Issues of drug abuse, homosexuality, peer pressure and with mental conditions. migration have been investigated in mainstream HIV research [64], but not in the field of disability and HIV/ Disability research needs to be more focused on disabil- AIDS in Africa. In addition, only one study focuses on ity-specific issues. A substantial amount of research Page 8 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  9. 9. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 focuses on and includes deafness, and some research is tion. Apart from the need for more capacity within Africa, available on people with physical, intellectual and visual more research is needed in the following areas: disabilities. There is an appalling lack of data on people with mental health conditions and their risk of infection • Prevalence studies with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data from other geographical areas and a recent study in KwaZulu-Natal • Operational research (antiretroviral treatment for peo- indicate that "people with severe mental illnesses have a ple with disabilities) higher HIV prevalence than the general population" [66,67]. Collins argues in this context that "HIV care and • Evaluation of prevention interventions treatment programmes should be made available to peo- ple with psychiatric symptoms"[66]. • Sexual abuse The above-mentioned studies discuss issues of disability • Sexual identity and body image with classical medical terms. Far less research has been conducted that consistently applies the social model of • Analysis of national data disability in the research design [18]. While it might be very difficult to apply the social model of disability in • Disability and other marginalising attributes (e.g., practice, it is not impossible, and experiences from other homosexuality). fields may guide the way here. For instance, in his descrip- tion of the application of the social model to South Afri- While research has produced data to reinforce the argu- can law practice, Ngwena [68,69] discusses how the social ment that people with disabilities are at least as likely to model of disability can be applied to the Employment become infected with HIV as their non-disabled peers, Equity Act. some studies stress the point that they are more at risk [9,18]. Recent data on HIV prevalence support this claim Because most research focuses on or includes deafness, it in some African countries. We, however, do not yet fully is not surprising that a substantial number of interven- understand why people with disabilities are at higher risk tions concentrate on deafness. Studies like the Kenyan one of being exposed to HIV and how this relates to specific link deaf people with a higher voluntary counselling and contexts within African countries. testing uptake rate compared to other disability groups [37]. This result can be regarded as a success in targeting a The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS particular group, but a failure when it comes to providing recently recognised in its policy brief on disability and for others groups. HIV that people with disabilities are a key group at increased risk of exposure to HIV infection [70]. How gen- Most studies, although they do not place emphasis on it, eral this applies will remain an open-ended argument indicate that sexual abuse of people with disabilities is an until more data from prevalence studies are available. area of concern. It is clear that more data are needed to galvanize officials into action. People might feel apathetic For the African context, however, it has been successfully about the problem, but the Cape Mental Health pro- argued that people with disabilities have been left out of gramme in South Africa shows that effective interventions HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes for far in the judicial system are in fact possible. Research needs too long [70]. However, the exclusion of people with dis- to take such positive examples forward as lessons for other abilities in Africa is not an isolated phenomenon of HIV areas. and AIDS service delivery. People with disabilities experi- ence barriers while trying to access education and health Conclusion services in general. Similar to other resource-poor settings, People with disabilities are at risk for exposure to HIV African countries experience challenges to make services infection and are less likely to access prevention, testing accessible. However misconceptions about and ignorance and treatment. Research in the area of disability and HIV/ towards disability leads to exclusion as well [18]. AIDS is still scarce, but a growing body of literature is developing. The quality of the research varies, with some While successfully addressing misconceptions might take studies using high qualitative designs, while others lack a little longer because they have to be understood and basic methodology descriptions, such as sampling proce- addressed within African cosmology and interpretations dures. This indicates that besides more research on disa- of diseases and misfortunes [71], ignorance can be bility and HIV, capacity building is urgently needed and addressed more rapidly. As described by Groce in 2004, future research projects need to take this into considera- health services can be made accessible for people with dis- abilities through moving crucial services, such as volun- Page 9 of 11 (page number not for citation purposes)
  10. 10. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2009, 12:34 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/12/1/34 tary counselling and testing to the bottom floor. Mobile 11. Giros S: Prevention in practice: Three HIV/AIDS prevention programs for people with disabilities. Symposium HIV/AIDS and clinics could use tents instead of caravans, and informa- disability - a global challenge. Koenigswinter, Germany 2004. tion could be made available on tapes if Braille is too 12. HIV/AIDS and Disability Global Survey [http:// expensive. People with disabilities should also be actively cira.med.yale.edu/globalsurvey] 13. Yousafzai A, Dlamini P, Groce N, Wirz S: Knowledge, personal involved in service delivery, a fact given emphasis by the risk and experiences of HIV/AIDS among people with disabil- disability movement of the African continent [70]. ities in Swaziland. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2004, 27:247-251. 14. 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Groce NE, Yousafzai AK, Dlamini P, Wirz S: HIV/AIDS and disability: A pilot survey of HIV/AIDS knowledge among deaf population in Swaziland ability*) OR (children with disabilit*) OR (Orphan* with New Haven: Yale University of Public Health; 2005. disabilit*) OR disabilit* OR impairment OR blindness 20. Groce NE, Yousafzai AK, Maas F Van Der: HIV/AIDS and Disabil- OR blind OR deafness OR deaf OR (physical disabilit*) ity: Differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge between deaf and hearing population in Nigeria. Disability and Rehabilitation 2007, OR (intellectual disabilit*) OR (mental disabilit*) OR 29:367-371. (deaf blind)) 21. CASS Centre for Applied Social Science, Rekopantswe M: Under- standing the livelihoods of children with disabilities and their families in Zimbabwe. UNICEF; 2007. Acknowledgements 22. 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