PRESENTED BY MUHAMMAD JUNAID ABBASI F.G POSTGRADUATE COLLEGE H/8 ISLAMABAD.
In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. What is Networking?
Types of Networking.
WAN (wide area network)
LAN (local area network.)
MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network. )
HAM (home area net work.)
WHAT IS WAN?
WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs) .
Computers connected to a wide-area
Network are often connected through public networks,
such as the telephone system.
They can also be connected through
leased lines or satellites.
What is LAN?
A network connecting computers in a relatively small area such as a building.
However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves.
Working of topologies.
Also known as a ring network, the ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connected to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape).
Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination.
A (computer) network topology in which the nodes are all connected at different points to a line called a bus.
Mesh Network is a network where all the nodes are connected to each other and is a complete network.
In a Mesh Network every node is connected to other nodes on the network through hops.
star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator Easy to install and wire.
Comparison of Topologies Requires more expense in cabling and extra effort to track down cable faults. Computers are connected to each other, which provides redundancy. Mesh The central device is a single point of failure. All computers are connected to a central device, which provides more resilience for the network Star If one station experiences a problem, it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same ring All computers are connected by a unidirectional transmission link, and the cable is in a closed loop Ring If one station experience a problem ,it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same cable. Uses a linear single cable for all computers linear, If one station experiences a problem it attached. All traffic travels the full cable and can be viewed by all other computers. Bus Problems Characteristics Topology
A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable .
The two major types of network
A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer.
a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files.
Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.
Advantages Disadvantages of a peer-to-peer network:
reduced cost (the costs involved in such a network are hardware, cabling and maintenance )
its simplicity .
Decentralized - No central repository for files and applications.
Security - Does not provide the security available on a client/server network.
no link in the network is reliable
it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server
model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that
are distributed efficiently across different locations.
Advantages of a client/server network:
Centralized - Resources and data security are
controlled through the server.
Scalability - Any or all elements can be replaced
individually as needs increase.
Flexibility - New technology can be easily
integrated into system.
Interoperability - All components
Accessibility - Server can be accessed
remotely and across multiple platforms.
Some Network Devices
I s a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium
Repeater Attenuated signal Refreshed signal
A bridge is a device that allows you to segment a large network into two smaller, more efficient networks.
A router translates information from one network to another; it is similar to a super intelligent bridge.
Routers select the best path to route a message, based on the destination address and origin.
A concentrator is a device that provides a central connection point for cables from workstations, servers, and peripherals.
Network Interface Card
Network Interface Cards
The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation.