NETWORKING

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PRESENTED BY JUNAID ABBASI

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NETWORKING

  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH BENEFICENT THE MERCIFUL.
  2. 2. PRESENTED BY MUHAMMAD JUNAID ABBASI F.G POSTGRADUATE COLLEGE H/8 ISLAMABAD.
  3. 3. In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. What is Networking?
  4. 4. Types of Networking. <ul><li>WAN (wide area network) </li></ul><ul><li>LAN (local area network.) </li></ul><ul><li>MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network. ) </li></ul><ul><li>HAM (home area net work.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS WAN? <ul><li>WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs) . </li></ul><ul><li>Computers connected to a wide-area </li></ul><ul><li>Network are often connected through public networks, </li></ul><ul><li>such as the telephone system. </li></ul><ul><li>They can also be connected through </li></ul><ul><li>leased lines or satellites. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is LAN? <ul><li>A network connecting computers in a relatively small area such as a building. </li></ul><ul><li>However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Network topologies. <ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul><ul><li>Star topology </li></ul><ul><li>Bus topology </li></ul><ul><li>Mesh topology </li></ul><ul><li>Tree topology </li></ul>
  8. 8. Working of topologies. <ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a ring network, the ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connected to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape). </li></ul><ul><li>Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bus topology. <ul><li>A (computer) network topology in which the nodes are all connected at different points to a line called a bus. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mesh topology <ul><li>Mesh Network is a network where all the nodes are connected to each other and is a complete network. </li></ul><ul><li>In a Mesh Network every node is connected to other nodes on the network through hops. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Star topology <ul><li>star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator Easy to install and wire. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comparison of Topologies Requires more expense in cabling and extra effort to track down cable faults. Computers are connected to each other, which provides redundancy. Mesh The central device is a single point of failure. All computers are connected to a central device, which provides more resilience for the network Star If one station experiences a problem, it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same ring All computers are connected by a unidirectional transmission link, and the cable is in a closed loop Ring If one station experience a problem ,it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same cable. Uses a linear single cable for all computers linear, If one station experiences a problem it attached. All traffic travels the full cable and can be viewed by all other computers. Bus Problems Characteristics Topology
  13. 13. Tree topology <ul><li>A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable . </li></ul>
  14. 14. The two major types of network <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer </li></ul><ul><li>A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer. </li></ul><ul><li>a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Advantages Disadvantages of a peer-to-peer network: <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>reduced cost (the costs involved in such a network are hardware, cabling and maintenance ) </li></ul><ul><li>its simplicity . </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized - No central repository for files and applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Security - Does not provide the security available on a client/server network. </li></ul><ul><li>no link in the network is reliable </li></ul>
  16. 17. Client/Server <ul><li>it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server </li></ul><ul><li>model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that </li></ul><ul><li>are distributed efficiently across different locations. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Advantages of a client/server network: <ul><li>Centralized - Resources and data security are </li></ul><ul><li>controlled through the server. </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability - Any or all elements can be replaced </li></ul><ul><li>individually as needs increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility - New technology can be easily </li></ul><ul><li>integrated into system. </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability - All components </li></ul><ul><li>(client/network/server) </li></ul><ul><li>work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility - Server can be accessed </li></ul><ul><li>remotely and across multiple platforms. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Some Network Devices <ul><li>Repeater </li></ul><ul><li>I s a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium </li></ul>Repeater Attenuated signal Refreshed signal
  19. 21. Bridges <ul><li>A bridge is a device that allows you to segment a large network into two smaller, more efficient networks. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Routers <ul><li>A router translates information from one network to another; it is similar to a super intelligent bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Routers select the best path to route a message, based on the destination address and origin. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Switches <ul><li>A concentrator is a device that provides a central connection point for cables from workstations, servers, and peripherals. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Network Interface Card <ul><li>Network Interface Cards </li></ul><ul><li>The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation. </li></ul>
  23. 25. THANK`S ANY QUESTION

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