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NETWORKING

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PRESENTED BY JUNAID ABBASI

PRESENTED BY JUNAID ABBASI

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    NETWORKING NETWORKING Presentation Transcript

    • IN THE NAME OF ALLAH BENEFICENT THE MERCIFUL.
    • PRESENTED BY MUHAMMAD JUNAID ABBASI F.G POSTGRADUATE COLLEGE H/8 ISLAMABAD.
    • In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. What is Networking?
    • Types of Networking.
      • WAN (wide area network)
      • LAN (local area network.)
      • MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network. )
      • HAM (home area net work.)
    • WHAT IS WAN?
      • WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs) .
      • Computers connected to a wide-area
      • Network are often connected through public networks,
      • such as the telephone system.
      • They can also be connected through
      • leased lines or satellites.
    • What is LAN?
      • A network connecting computers in a relatively small area such as a building.
      • However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves.
    • Network topologies.
      • Ring topology
      • Star topology
      • Bus topology
      • Mesh topology
      • Tree topology
    • Working of topologies.
      • Ring topology
      • Also known as a ring network, the ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connected to each other forming a large circle (or similar shape).
      • Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination.
    • Bus topology.
      • A (computer) network topology in which the nodes are all connected at different points to a line called a bus.
    • Mesh topology
      • Mesh Network is a network where all the nodes are connected to each other and is a complete network.
      • In a Mesh Network every node is connected to other nodes on the network through hops.
    • Star topology
      • star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator Easy to install and wire.
    • Comparison of Topologies Requires more expense in cabling and extra effort to track down cable faults. Computers are connected to each other, which provides redundancy. Mesh The central device is a single point of failure. All computers are connected to a central device, which provides more resilience for the network Star If one station experiences a problem, it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same ring All computers are connected by a unidirectional transmission link, and the cable is in a closed loop Ring If one station experience a problem ,it can negatively affect surrounding computers on the same cable. Uses a linear single cable for all computers linear, If one station experiences a problem it attached. All traffic travels the full cable and can be viewed by all other computers. Bus Problems Characteristics Topology
    • Tree topology
      • A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable .
    • The two major types of network
      • Peer-to-Peer
      • A peer-to-peer (P2P) network is created when two or more PCs are connected and share resources without going through a separate server computer.
      • a couple of computers connected via a Universal Serial Bus to transfer files.
      • Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.
    • Advantages Disadvantages of a peer-to-peer network:
      • Advantages
      • reduced cost (the costs involved in such a network are hardware, cabling and maintenance )
      • its simplicity .
      • Disadvantages.
      • Decentralized - No central repository for files and applications.
      • Security - Does not provide the security available on a client/server network.
      • no link in the network is reliable
    •  
    • Client/Server
      • it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server
      • model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that
      • are distributed efficiently across different locations.
    • Advantages of a client/server network:
      • Centralized - Resources and data security are
      • controlled through the server.
      • Scalability - Any or all elements can be replaced
      • individually as needs increase.
      • Flexibility - New technology can be easily
      • integrated into system.
      • Interoperability - All components
      • (client/network/server)
      • work together.
      • Accessibility - Server can be accessed
      • remotely and across multiple platforms.
    •  
    • Some Network Devices
      • Repeater
      • I s a device that receives a digital signal on an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium
      Repeater Attenuated signal Refreshed signal
    • Bridges
      • A bridge is a device that allows you to segment a large network into two smaller, more efficient networks.
    • Routers
      • A router translates information from one network to another; it is similar to a super intelligent bridge.
      • Routers select the best path to route a message, based on the destination address and origin.
      • .
    • Switches
      • A concentrator is a device that provides a central connection point for cables from workstations, servers, and peripherals.
    • Network Interface Card
      • Network Interface Cards
      • The network interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between the network and the computer workstation.
    • THANK`S ANY QUESTION