AB 0401 Sustainable Enterprise

Changing our World: do we plant trees or create online courses?

Koh Jiajin Joel

Varella ...
Agenda
Estimated Carbon Footprint
Stakeholder Analysis
Alternative 1: Virtual Sustainable Campus
Alternative 2: Carbon Cre...
Estimated Carbon Footprint
Scope
1

Source

Co2 Emissions (kg CO2)

2,155.40

Electricity

25,484,680

Heat/Air-conditioni...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

NTU
Staff
Students
Government
Environmentalists
Genera...
Overview of the Alternatives

Alternative 1

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Virtual Sustainable Campus

Carbon Credits

Cam...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
A study by the Open University, “Towards
Sustainable Higher Education: Environme...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
High CO2 Emission

Home based E-learning lessons

↓ the need to commute to
campu...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
High usage of resources

Screen Display

↓ Printing
↓ Paper Waste
↓ deforestatio...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
High energy usage
and consumption

Campus Site Impacts
↓ energy consumption from...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
High energy usage
and consumption

Students’ Housing Impacts
↓ energy consumptio...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
Netigate energy
saving

Increase computing usage
Electricity is needed for a lap...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus

CO2 emission levels associated with the increased
computer usage are significan...
Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
Virtual Sustainable
Campus

Sustainability

Less
favorable

Cost

Ease of
Implem...
Alternatives 2 Carbon Credits
• $22 per ton of CO2 emissions

• NTU has 54 000 tons of CO2 emissions a year $1.2million w...
Alternatives 2 Carbon Credits
Carbon Credits
Sustainability

Less
favorable

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness

...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Green Building

LED Light-bulbs

Education

Solid Waste
Management
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Green Building
Sustainability

•
•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Green Building
Sustainability

•
•
•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectivene...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Green Building
Sustainability

•
•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Green Building
Sustainability

•
•
•
•
•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effecti...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
LED Light-bulbs
Sustainability

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness

• ...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
LED Light-bulbs
Sustainability

•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness
...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
LED Light-bulbs
Sustainability

•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness
...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
LED Light-bulbs
Sustainability

•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness
...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Education
Introduce an interdisciplinary sustainability
curriculum at NTU to be...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Education
Sustainability

•
•
•
•

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness
...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Solid Waste
Management
Composting is organic matter that has been
decomposed an...
Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning
Solid Waste
Management
Sustainability

•

•
•
•

Less
favorable

Cost

Ease of
...
Conclusion
Sustainability

1

Cost

Ease of
Implementation

Effectiveness

Virtual Sustainable Campus

2
3

Carbon Credits...
Conclusion

In light of our 4 decision criteria, we strongly recommend
that NTU adopt both our Master Plan and a paradigm
...
Executive Summary
Main Issues:
Carbon Dioxide emission is harmful and damaging not just to the environment but to us as we...
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Ab0401 sustainable enterprises co2 australia

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Koh Jiajin Joel
Varella Gino Lee
Leo Bing Yeow
Ru Meng
Lim Ding Qiang Melvin

Published in: Technology, Education
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  • Very good stakeholder interest analysis, with good set of alternatives. Research effort provides external validity for your proposal to combine two alternatives. Good work!
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Ab0401 sustainable enterprises co2 australia

  1. 1. AB 0401 Sustainable Enterprise Changing our World: do we plant trees or create online courses? Koh Jiajin Joel Varella Gino Lee Leo Bing Yeow Ru Meng Lim Ding Qiang Melvin
  2. 2. Agenda Estimated Carbon Footprint Stakeholder Analysis Alternative 1: Virtual Sustainable Campus Alternative 2: Carbon Credit Alternative 3: Campus wide Master Planning Conclusion Executive Summary
  3. 3. Estimated Carbon Footprint Scope 1 Source Co2 Emissions (kg CO2) 2,155.40 Electricity 25,484,680 Heat/Air-conditioning 18,723,120 Faculty commuting 2,697,869 Student commuting 6,343,091 Travel 488,024 Paper consumption 145,004 Waste 3 - Transport within campus 2 Campus-generated electricity 175,101 Total 54,059,044.65 Students 33,500 Employees 4,257 Total per student (kg) 1,400.00 Total per employee (kg) 1,800.00
  4. 4. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • • • • • • Reduce administration cost Reduce carbon footprint Nurture/provide best education to students Remain profitable Maintain good reputation Provide conducive learning and working environment Be in line with government’s objectives Good corporate social responsibility 4
  5. 5. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • • • • Nurture students Be in line with school and government’s objectives (environmental sustainability and providing education) Help students obtain good grades Good working condition Promotions Good Pay 5
  6. 6. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • • Convenience High standard of education Low cost of education Conducive studying environment 6
  7. 7. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • • The Ministry of Education aims to help our students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realise their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. Sustainability initiatives Good reputation as a sustainable city Meet the standards of low carbon emission 7
  8. 8. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • Good corporate social responsibility Reduce carbon footprint Ensure sustainability of the environment 8
  9. 9. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • Sustainable environment for healthy living 9
  10. 10. Situation Analysis Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders • • • • • • • NTU Staff Students Government Environmentalists General Public Provider (Carbon Credit) Concerns • • • Contribute to environmental sustainability Increase client base Remain profitable 10
  11. 11. Overview of the Alternatives Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Virtual Sustainable Campus Carbon Credits Campus Wide Master Planning
  12. 12. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus
  13. 13. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus A study by the Open University, “Towards Sustainable Higher Education: Environmental Impacts of Campus-Based and Distance Higher Education Systems” “The average production and provision of distance learning courses consumed nearly 90 percent less energy and produced 85 percent fewer CO2 emissions per student than conventional campus-based university courses. “
  14. 14. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus High CO2 Emission Home based E-learning lessons ↓ the need to commute to campus, print of papers and electricity 89% ↓ in travel related CO2 emissions from vehicle use etc. Home based E-learning lessons Through social media or other online platforms ↓ CO2 Emissions
  15. 15. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus High usage of resources Screen Display ↓ Printing ↓ Paper Waste ↓ deforestation, save the trees Screen Display Courses are entirely self-contained and can be clearly and dynamically displayed on a screen ↓ Resource usage
  16. 16. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus High energy usage and consumption Campus Site Impacts ↓ energy consumption from 81 kg for a full time to student to 2 kg for a blended online and print-based course ↑ utilisation of campus facilities to achieve Economies of scale which will give online education the edge by spreading campus impacts ↓Facility Rental/Maintenance Modelling Campus Site Impacts The School of Computer Engineering had applied computer and information technology to reduce carbon emissions by replacing carbon-intensive activities with virtual tools. The Climate Group predicts that by 2020, the internet's footprint will have tripled to 1.43bn tonnes of carbon emitted per year. However, information technology - such as smart logistics, energy-aware buildings and more efficient energy grids - could reduce emissions by 15% overall. ↓ Energy Usage and Consumption
  17. 17. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus High energy usage and consumption Students’ Housing Impacts ↓ energy consumption from 102kg to 4.4 kg Reduce “double energy consumption” effect Campus Site Impacts Students’ Housing Impacts ↓ Energy Usage and Consumption
  18. 18. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus Netigate energy saving Increase computing usage Electricity is needed for a laptop and/or desktop PC I.e. 0.125 kwh per hour, 24 kg of CO2 per student ↑ Electricity usage to run server farms PC contains toxic materials such as lead, cadmium, and PCB’s that pose serious health and environmental hazards. ↑ Energy Usage and Consumption Increase computing usage In the short run, it will also be expensive to switch to using IT tools and setting up the infrastructure needed
  19. 19. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus CO2 emission levels associated with the increased computer usage are significantly less than those associated with conventional delivery methods There are strong situational factors such as monetary support from the government and rapid advancement in technology that will support these changes
  20. 20. Alternatives 1 Virtual Sustainable Campus Virtual Sustainable Campus Sustainability Less favorable Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness More favorable
  21. 21. Alternatives 2 Carbon Credits • $22 per ton of CO2 emissions • NTU has 54 000 tons of CO2 emissions a year $1.2million worth of carbon credit • NTU needs to invest a huge amount of money to buy carbon credit and this high costs may be passed on the students • Questionable quality of environmental impact locally due to methods of generation of carbon credits (ie credits may be generated overseas)
  22. 22. Alternatives 2 Carbon Credits Carbon Credits Sustainability Less favorable Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness More favorable
  23. 23. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Green Building LED Light-bulbs Education Solid Waste Management
  24. 24. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Green Building Sustainability • • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Highly sustainable environmentally due to the significant reduction in 63500 metric tons of carbon footprint Financially viable due to funding and costs savings that will be yield in the long term Less favorable More favorable
  25. 25. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Green Building Sustainability • • • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Cost premium of more than 2% Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment due to higher rental, sale price and occupancy rate However, research have shown that cost should not be more if cost and environmental strategies and program management is incorporated from the start Less favorable More favorable
  26. 26. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Green Building Sustainability • • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness May pose some disruptions to daily operations of the university may be affected Funding and incentives offered by the government such as Energy Efficiency Improvement Assistance Scheme (EASe) that can lower costs of upgrading Less favorable More favorable
  27. 27. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Green Building Sustainability • • • • • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Energy efficiency through designs that can cool the building and reduce lighting and use of renewable energy. Reduction in water usage and ensuring water quality(point of use water treatment). Material efficiency through the use of green materials Indoor environmental quality: indoor air quality (IAQ), thermal quality, and lighting quality Waste Reduction helps to reduce waste matter to landfill 6 to 40 percent reduction in energy consumption with savings of up to 90 gigawatt hours of energy or S$24 million in costs Less favorable More favorable
  28. 28. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning LED Light-bulbs Sustainability Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness • Average life span of 50 000 hours as compared to 8000 of fluorescent light bulbs Less favorable More favorable
  29. 29. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning LED Light-bulbs Sustainability • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Reduces operating cost by 50% per year as compared to fluorescent light bulbs Less favorable More favorable
  30. 30. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning LED Light-bulbs Sustainability • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Easier to implement if starts from small scale. Less favorable More favorable
  31. 31. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning LED Light-bulbs Sustainability • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Saves 20%-30% off electricity costs per unit of light as compared to fluorescent light bulbs Less favorable More favorable
  32. 32. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Education Introduce an interdisciplinary sustainability curriculum at NTU to be taken in a full-course format each year by all undergraduates/graduates 12 seminars will be conducted throughout the semester, which will give the students a better understanding of the importance of sustainability Learn about individual disciplinary resources and possibilities at NTU.
  33. 33. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Education Sustainability • • • • Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Sustainable: Curriculum can be implemented long-term if it is effective. Cost: cost will be low relative to other alternatives as materials will be readily available at a low cost. Ease of implementation: Enough professors to allocate for this course, draft out the course outline, needs school’s approval. Effectiveness: as it is a compulsory module for all, it will be effective to a certain extend, however, it depends on the willingness of the students to learn about sustainability. Less favorable More favorable
  34. 34. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Solid Waste Management Composting is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment Components need for composting: Carbon — for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat, if included at suggested levels High carbon materials tend to be brown and dry. Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon. Oxygen — for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process. Water — in the right amounts to maintain activity without causing anaerobic conditions.
  35. 35. Alternatives 3 Campus Wide Master Planning Solid Waste Management Sustainability • • • • Less favorable Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Sustainability: Composting of organic waste is a long term solution with relative to landfills and continuous incineration. Cost: low cost. Separating waste into organic and inorganic will need the purchase of new bins. Ease of implementation: Composting facilities will need to be built if composting will be carried out. Effectiveness: Composting organic material is a very effective way of reducing the overall environmental impact More favorable
  36. 36. Conclusion Sustainability 1 Cost Ease of Implementation Effectiveness Virtual Sustainable Campus 2 3 Carbon Credits Campus Wide Master Planning Recommend a paradigm shift towards a Virtual Sustainable Campus in phases 5 Years Campus Wide Master Plan Avoid buying carbon offset credits unless NTU could not meet the standards
  37. 37. Conclusion In light of our 4 decision criteria, we strongly recommend that NTU adopt both our Master Plan and a paradigm shift towards a Virtual Sustainable Campus in phases so as to achieve our carbon-neutral target - Energy consumption in buildings of 50 kWh/m2/yr*. In addition, we recommend utilising the triple bottom line (people, profit, planet) to track the effectiveness of our recommendations.
  38. 38. Executive Summary Main Issues: Carbon Dioxide emission is harmful and damaging not just to the environment but to us as well. As an educational institution, NTU must become a sustainable model and spearhead efforts to achieve environmental sustainability on multiple fronts such as reducing carbon dioxide emission and electrical consumption. Recommendations: This presentation was commissioned to review and compare various alternatives to achieve environmental sustainability. We strongly recommend that NTU adopt both our Master Plan and a paradigm shift towards a Virtual Sustainable Campus in phases so as to achieve our carbon-neutral target - Energy consumption in buildings of 50 kWh/m2/yr*. In addition, we can utilise the triple bottom line (people, profit, planet) to track the effectiveness of our recommendations. Benefits: 1. Our recommendations addresses the 2 major source of carbon emission - Transport and electrical consumption 2. Our recommendations provides a sustainable platform to Inculcate green values to our current and newer generations 3. In the long run, by emphasizing on the need to preserve our planet, our recommendations will also help to create a more inclusive and people oriented society
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