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CO2 Australia
Seminar 03
Team 8 – Case Crackers
Jason Philip Abraham
Samantha Chan Yuen Li
Cai Peizhen
Nerice Aw Wei Zhi
T...
2

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint
 Total

carbon consumption and emissions
caused by a person, product or organization
3

CO2 Australia

Calculation method


In order to derive the emissions for NTU for
purchased electricity, purchased gas,...
4

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint (Household)
Summary of Estimated Average
Personal Carbon Emissions (per
household)
CO2
...
5

CO2 Australia

NTU’s Carbon Footprint
Scope

Carbon source

Emissions (kg CO2)

Scope 1

NTU-generated electricity Negl...
6

CO2 Australia

NTU Transport Fleet
 Shuttle

Bus (Campus Loop)Carbon Footprint

Total Trips Made by Red/Blue Campus Lo...
7

CO2 Australia

NTU Transport Fleet
 Shuttle

Bus (Campus Loop)Carbon Footprint

Red & Blue Loop Shuttle Bus Carbon Foo...
8

CO2 Australia

Purchased electricity
 For

purchased electricity, an average
household of 4 is estimated to use 500kWh...
9

CO2 Australia

Purchased gas
 An

average household of 4 is estimated
to use 250kWh of gas per month at a rate
of $0.2...
10

CO2 Australia

Air conditioning


For air conditioning, we calculated the
energy consumption using a calculator on
th...
11

CO2 Australia

Student Commuting
 For

a student taking the bus to school, the
estimated distance for a trip to schoo...
12

CO2 Australia

Faculty commuting
 For

a faculty or staff member commuting
to school via car, we used the same
estima...
13

CO2 Australia

Financed Travel
 Overseas
Country
Canada
USA
China
Hong Kong
India
Israel
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan
Tur...
14

CO2 Australia

Waste
 Data

from the Ministry of Environment and
Water Resources shows that total
domestic waste disp...
15

CO2 Australia

Paper consumption


We estimated the annual usage of paper per
person in Singapore to be 144kg.



14...
16

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint
Scope

Carbon
source

Method for collecting/calculating
activity data

Scope 1

NTUgen...
17

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint
Scope

Carbon source

Method for
collecting/calculating activity
data

Uncertainty

Sc...
18

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint
Scope

Carbon source

Method for
collecting/calculating activity
data

Scope 2

Air -c...
19

Scope

Carbon
source

CO2 Australia

Method for collecting/calculating
activity data

Uncertainty

The estimated dista...
20

CO2 Australia

Carbon Footprint
Scope

Carbon
source

Method for collecting/calculating
activity data

Uncertainty

Sc...
21

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
Transforming a significant proportion of our
course delivery from classroom ...
22

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning


E-learning courses consumed nearly
(per student)


90% less energy consu...
23

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
 Additional

advantages



Paper is saved when learning electronically


...
24

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
 Considerations


Thinking about the curriculum lifecycle to
better struct...
25

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
Curriculum lifecycle
Approaches
Evaluation
Activities
Design

Integration

R...
26

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
Tools for e-learning

Adaptive
- Virtual worlds
- adaptive
simulations

Comm...
27

CO2 Australia

Alternative 1 – E-learning
Perception and Web Tracking



Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA) to track...
28

 Online

CO2 Australia

Tests & Assessment



Not very feasible for certain modules,
especially laboratory sessions ...
29

CO2 Australia

Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholder

Perspective

Government

- Online learning can train up more educated...
30

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits
Buying an equivalent amount of carbon
offset credits from the provider feat...
31

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits
 Carbon

Offset
32

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits
 Carbon

Credit Scheme
33

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits


Criticism of Carbon Credit
Scheme (1)



Carbon Credits Are Just
Permit...
34

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits


Criticism of Carbon Credit
Scheme (2)



Difficult to determine the amo...
35

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits
 Criticism

of Carbon Credit Scheme (3)

 Continued


tree-planting is u...
36

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits


Criticism of Carbon Credit
Scheme (4)



Cutting down trees will rerele...
37

CO2 Australia

Alternative 2 – Buy credits


Evaluation of purchasing credits for NTU


In the short term, will solv...
38

CO2 Australia

Stakeholders Analysis
Stakeholders

Perspectives

The
University
(NTU)

- An increase in expense to buy...
39

CO2 Australia

Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes
 Other

schemes to offset carbon footprint



Car-sharin...
40

CO2 Australia

Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes
 Car-sharing

programme for students who
live outside cam...
41

CO2 Australia

Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes
 Bike-sharing

programme for students who
live on campus
...
42

CO2 Australia

Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes


Annual Hall competition


Friendly competition to enco...
43

CO2 Australia

Alternatives Analysis
 Evaluation

Criteria



Actionability/Feasibility



Effectiveness/Utility

...
44

CO2 Australia

Evaluation Matrix
Elearning
Actionability/
Feasibility
Effectiveness/
Utility

Sustainability

Carbon
C...
45

CO2 Australia

Proposed Solution


Combination Approach



Primary Scheme: Adoption of E-Learning






Easy impl...
46

Conclusion

CO2 Australia
47

CO2 Australia

References








http://www3.open.ac.uk/events/3/2005331_47403_o1.pdf
http://www.kineo.com/reso...
48

CO2 Australia

Executive Summary
The presentation focuses on the review and comparison of a few
alternatives in relati...
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AB0401 Seminar 3 Team 8- CO2 Australia - Cai Peizhen, Nerice Aw, Jason Abraham, Samantha Chan, Alissa Tang

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CO2 Australia Case

Prepared By Seminar 3 Team 8:
Cai Peizhen, Nerice Aw, Jason Abraham, Samantha Chan, Alissa Tang

Nanyang Business School

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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  • A rich set of alternatives, though hoped to see the impact of your proposed plan on our carbon footprint. The proposed shift from classroom to online learning may indeed be viable, but its risks demand careful thought and mitigation, such as potential impact on our international accreditation and on the market for our graduates (employers are not on your stakeholder list). If we envision a future in which teams collaborate across the Internet to solve complex problems, we’ll have to prepare our students by building learning environments that simulate this, as you suggest.
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  • http://www.resurgence.org/education/carbon-calculator.htmlhttp://www.singaporepower.com.sg/irj/servlet/prt/portal/prtroot/docs/guid/b051fb9b-cb6c-2e10-c498-b8af349b0176?spstab=Our%20Services
  • https://app.mels.nea.gov.sg/Pages/Search/PublicSearchProduct.aspx?param=goods&type=p
  • http://app.mewr.gov.sg/web/Contents/contents.aspx?ContId=680http://www.abc.net.au/tv/carboncops/calculator.htm
  • http://www.google.com.sg/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCgQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Flsi.nus.edu.sg%2Fcorporate%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2Fsafety%2FSustainable-Office-Guide.ppt&ei=yFlpUre1DIqBrgfLgoHQBA&usg=AFQjCNGVjOGKS0dELDT2T3STaGn4XvDPMQ&sig2=mnxVOFQ_pwAWdWCuOyLmeA&bvm=bv.55123115,d.bmk&cad=rjahttp://www.climatefriendly.com/business/calculators/paperuse/
  • :Does not change high carbon footprint conduct. Encourages complacency not to reduce footprint: no incentive to control or curtail carbon footprint. If an effort is made, one person’s reduction in carbon dioxide emissions anywhere on the planet fully offsets another’s contribution to the total.
  • Carbon emission on are steadily increasing, demand for such offsets will increase steadily. Not sustainable if emission reach such an extent that there is a need for highly extensive planting.
  • Carbon emission on are steadily increasing, demand for such offsets will increase steadily. Not sustainable if emission reach such an extent that there is a need for highly extensive planting.
  • But its not enough to simply absorb CO2. In order to create verifiable carbon credits, the CO2 must be sequestered permanently.Cutting down trees inevitably alters carbon storage, and releases carbon dioxide into the air as the wood decays. Twenty percent of greenhouse gas emissions come from deforestation and other forms of land use change.
  • Transcript of "AB0401 Seminar 3 Team 8- CO2 Australia - Cai Peizhen, Nerice Aw, Jason Abraham, Samantha Chan, Alissa Tang"

    1. 1. CO2 Australia Seminar 03 Team 8 – Case Crackers Jason Philip Abraham Samantha Chan Yuen Li Cai Peizhen Nerice Aw Wei Zhi Tang Ya Xuan Alissa
    2. 2. 2 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint  Total carbon consumption and emissions caused by a person, product or organization
    3. 3. 3 CO2 Australia Calculation method  In order to derive the emissions for NTU for purchased electricity, purchased gas, student commuting and faculty commuting, we used The Resurgence Carbon Dioxide Calculator for an average household in Singapore of 4 people.  After that, we adjusted for the NTU population of 39598, which includes 32,986 students and 6,612 faculty and staff.
    4. 4. 4 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint (Household) Summary of Estimated Average Personal Carbon Emissions (per household) CO2 (kg) Home Transport Food Leisure Industry Share Grand Total 26.9 36.5 19.5 0 4000 10251 kg 10.3 tonnes 17.1 CO2 (kg) % Electricity 8010 19.5 Gas 3016 7.4 Oil 0 0 Coal 0 0 Wood 0 0 Home Total 11026 Personal Share 2757 % 2757 3744 2000 0 Home
    5. 5. 5 CO2 Australia NTU’s Carbon Footprint Scope Carbon source Emissions (kg CO2) Scope 1 NTU-generated electricity Negligible NTU transport fleet 79,294,995 29,856,892 Air conditioning Scope 3 Purchased electricity Purchased gas Scope 2 1,306,310 153,300 Student commuting 15,091,095 Faculty commuting 6,188,832 Financed travel 7,525,240 Waste 16,829 Paper consumption 7,705,000
    6. 6. 6 CO2 Australia NTU Transport Fleet  Shuttle Bus (Campus Loop)Carbon Footprint Total Trips Made by Red/Blue Campus Loops (per bus) 0800-1030 hours 2.5 trips per hour 12 total trips/day 30 Days Operational 160 total trips /year 4,800 1030-1200 1.5 6 9 160 1,440 1200-1300 1 12 12 160 1,920 1300-2300 800-2300 10 15 10 3 100 45 160 92 16,000 4,140 28,300 Total Distance per trip estimated at 5.4km for both red and blue line Total Distance covered by Campus Red & Blue Loops per year = 2 X 28,300 X 5.4km = 305, 640km
    7. 7. 7 CO2 Australia NTU Transport Fleet  Shuttle Bus (Campus Loop)Carbon Footprint Red & Blue Loop Shuttle Bus Carbon Footprint of NTU based on an average fuel Consumption of 0.46litre/km using calculator = 1,306,310 kg
    8. 8. 8 CO2 Australia Purchased electricity  For purchased electricity, an average household of 4 is estimated to use 500kWh a month, with a monthly bill of approximately $135. The carbon emissions for this is 8010kg.  (8010/4)x year 39,598=79,294,995 kg CO2 per
    9. 9. 9 CO2 Australia Purchased gas  An average household of 4 is estimated to use 250kWh of gas per month at a rate of $0.22 per kWh. From the calculator, there is 3016 kg CO2 emissions from the household.  (3016/4)x39598=29,856,892 kg CO2 per year
    10. 10. 10 CO2 Australia Air conditioning  For air conditioning, we calculated the energy consumption using a calculator on the National Environmental Agency (NEA) website. We used a multi-inverter Daikin model with 4 green ticks and estimated that NTU would use it for 12 hours a day. The resulting annual carbon emissions for part load is estimated to be at 3066kWh per year.  Using 0.2 Current CO2 kg per kWh, we get 613 kg CO2 per year per air conditioner. We estimated that there are 250 air conditioners in NTU, hence annual carbon emission= 250x613=153,300 kg CO2 per year.
    11. 11. 11 CO2 Australia Student Commuting  For a student taking the bus to school, the estimated distance for a trip to school is around 30km. We used the frequency of 5 times a week, and calculated 1830 kg CO2 emissions per year.  (1830/4)x32,986=15,091,095 year kg CO2 per
    12. 12. 12 CO2 Australia Faculty commuting  For a faculty or staff member commuting to school via car, we used the same estimated distance of 30km of a single trip from home to school. With the same frequency of 5 times a week, there would be 3744kg CO2 emissions per year.  (3,744kg/4)x6,612=6,188,832 year kg CO2 per
    13. 13. 13 CO2 Australia Financed Travel  Overseas Country Canada USA China Hong Kong India Israel Japan South Korea Taiwan Turkey Italy Austria Denmark Finland France Germany Ireland Netherlands Norway Poland Spain Sweden Switzerland UK Autralia New Zealand Exchange Air Travel Carbon Footprint Intake tonnes of CO2 emissions 28 198.26 92 666.4 27 57.24 45 60.46 4 7.86 4 15.04 16 40.04 70 152.94 22 37.12 10 40.94 4 23.74 2 9.16 30 141.2 36 157.66 35 177.24 81 393.22 5 26.46 56 278 9 42.66 1 4.44 8 43 134 611.06 25 121.88 74 380.26 15 44.58 8 31.76 total for 1 sem 3762.62 total for 1 year 7525.24 7525240 kg Carbon consumption derived based on the no. of students traveling to each country (overseas intake obtained from OGEM data) on 2-way trip Total Carbon Footprint deriving from student air travel = 7,525,240 kg
    14. 14. 14 CO2 Australia Waste  Data from the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources shows that total domestic waste disposed of per capita per annum is 0.85kg. 0.85x39,598=33658kg.  Using ABC TV’s carbon emission calculator which includes a household waste element, this translates to 16,829kg of CO2 emissions per year.
    15. 15. 15 CO2 Australia Paper consumption  We estimated the annual usage of paper per person in Singapore to be 144kg.  144x39,598=5,702,112 kg of paper per year.  5,702,112/2.4=2,375,880 reams of paper per year.  From the Climate Friendly carbon footprint calculator, the estimated CO2 emissions per year is 7,705,000kg.
    16. 16. 16 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint Scope Carbon source Method for collecting/calculating activity data Scope 1 NTUgenerated electricity C2 The amount of electricity generated on campus is Carbon consumption derived considered. Insufficient information to makebased on the no. of students any reliable disclosure. NTU transport fleet C2 Identifying the total distance (overseas intake obtained travelled by shuttle buses within the fleetfrom OGEM data) on 2-way (Campus Rider, Campus trip Loop – Red, Campus Loop – Blue and applying an average estimated carbon massFootprint 2 Total Carbon consumption (emission)student air deriving from per unit distancetravel = 7,525,240 kg as a rate to this distance. A total of 28,300 trips for an estimated loop distance of 5.4km was made by each Campus Loop service. traveling to each country Uncertainty
    17. 17. 17 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint Scope Carbon source Method for collecting/calculating activity data Uncertainty Scope 2 Purchased electricity For purchased electricity, an average household of 4 is estimated to use 500kWh a month, with a monthly bill of approximately $135. The carbon emissions for this is 8010kg. C1 Purchased gas An average household of 4 is estimated to use 250kWh of gas per month at a rate of $0.22 per kWh. From the calculator, there is 3016 kg CO2 emissions from the household. C2
    18. 18. 18 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint Scope Carbon source Method for collecting/calculating activity data Scope 2 Air -conditioning Air-conditioning energy consumption estimated using a calculator on the National Environmental Agency (NEA) website Based on a multiinverter Daikin model with 4 green ticks and estimated daily usage for 12 hours. a day. A 0.2 Current CO2 kg consumption per kWh, was applied over an estimated 250 air conditioners. Uncertainty C3
    19. 19. 19 Scope Carbon source CO2 Australia Method for collecting/calculating activity data Uncertainty The estimated distance for a trip to school is around 30km by bus. We used the frequency of 5 times a week. C3 Faculty commuting For a faculty or staff member commuting to school via car, we used the same estimated distance of 30km of a single trip from home to school, with the same frequency of 5 times a week. C3 Financed travel Carbon consumption derived based C2 on the number of students traveling to each country on a 2-way trip. Data on travel intake obtained from information published by NTU’s Office of Global Education & Mobility. Carbon Footprint Scope 3 Student commuting 2
    20. 20. 20 CO2 Australia Carbon Footprint Scope Carbon source Method for collecting/calculating activity data Uncertainty Scope 3 Waste Data obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources that total domestic waste disposed of per capita per annum is 0.85kg was used in our calculations. C2 Paper consumption We estimated the annual usage of paper per person in Singapore to be 144kg. C3
    21. 21. 21 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning Transforming a significant proportion of our course delivery from classroom to an online format
    22. 22. 22 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning  E-learning courses consumed nearly (per student)  90% less energy consumption  85% less CO2 emissions  Why? 1. Reduced transportation for students and staff  2. Economies of scale reaped when using the campus site  3. Only give consideration to additional residential energy involved in taking a module 
    23. 23. 23 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning  Additional advantages  Paper is saved when learning electronically  Research finds e-learning more effective than classroom based learning
    24. 24. 24 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning  Considerations  Thinking about the curriculum lifecycle to better structure e-learning sessions  Tools for e-learning  Perception and web tracking
    25. 25. 25 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning Curriculum lifecycle Approaches Evaluation Activities Design Integration Resources Quality Assurance Assessment Taken from Gráinne Conole, University of Southampton
    26. 26. 26 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning Tools for e-learning Adaptive - Virtual worlds - adaptive simulations Communicative - Blackboard learn (view e-lectures, discussion boards) - Email - Text messaging Productive - Spreadsheets, databases to manipulate data Interactive - NTU library database, national libraries - Internet search engines
    27. 27. 27 CO2 Australia Alternative 1 – E-learning Perception and Web Tracking   Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA) to track and assess student activities Lecturers can track to see if their students are on track in the learning process
    28. 28. 28  Online CO2 Australia Tests & Assessment  Not very feasible for certain modules, especially laboratory sessions (engineering), presentations (especially business), practical sessions (medicine)  E-learning would be detrimental to face-toface interaction – interpersonal and other soft skills strongly valued in the working world
    29. 29. 29 CO2 Australia Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholder Perspective Government - Online learning can train up more educated and technologically savvy workforce - Online learning can improve productivity Students (customers) - Learning less restrictive for students and accommodating of different learning styles and learning pace, more control over learning - Reduced travelling time and costs - Potential for miscommunication and misunderstandings in online learning (lack of nonverbal messages in discussion forums) - Lack of relationship with teachers and students Teachers (employees) Employees would feel proud of the organization which is involved in environmental conservation and this might result in lower employee turnover rate. Faster delivery of lessons since the capacity to deliver learning is no longer restricted by the number of available classrooms or teachers. NTU - Improve reputation of the school, attract more potential students or teachers - Reduced consumption of resources (eg paper)
    30. 30. 30 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits Buying an equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from the provider featured in the case
    31. 31. 31 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Carbon Offset
    32. 32. 32 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Carbon Credit Scheme
    33. 33. 33 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Criticism of Carbon Credit Scheme (1)  Carbon Credits Are Just Permits to Pollute  Does not change high carbon footprint conduct, encourages complacency  No incentive to control or curtail carbon footprint which is increasing globally
    34. 34. 34 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Criticism of Carbon Credit Scheme (2)  Difficult to determine the amount of CO2 each tree will actually offset  Tree growth and survival affected by various factors including weather conditions, natural disasters. Unexpected reduction in lifespan or carbon neutralization capacity would reduce effectiveness of offsetting entire carbon footprint.
    35. 35. 35 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Criticism of Carbon Credit Scheme (3)  Continued  tree-planting is unsustainable Scarcity of arable undeveloped land to plant new trees to keep up with continuously increasing demand for credits.
    36. 36. 36 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Criticism of Carbon Credit Scheme (4)  Cutting down trees will rerelease the CO2 back into the atmosphere if trees removed after the 100 years  20% of greenhouse gas due to deforestation and other forms of land use change  Problems with meeting carbon credit demand once the plants are removed
    37. 37. 37 CO2 Australia Alternative 2 – Buy credits  Evaluation of purchasing credits for NTU  In the short term, will solve the problem of carbon emissions  In the long term  Not sustainable in the long run to reduce CO2 emissions – increase demand for credits faster than supply (increase price of credits substantially) – cost consideration for NTU  Does not encourage staff and students to reduce carbon footprint  Not in line with NTU’s vision promoting environmental responsibility through reducing carbon emissions
    38. 38. 38 CO2 Australia Stakeholders Analysis Stakeholders Perspectives The University (NTU) - An increase in expense to buy the carbon offset credits - Issue of sustainability of credit purchase as a long tem solution Students - Students do not need to adapt to new learning style (eg e-learning) - May have to bear added cost of carbon credit fees but are unwilling to pay extra fees to cover this expense. CO2 Group - Need to assess supply of carbon credits and source for new land for the carbon sequestration programme if necessary
    39. 39. 39 CO2 Australia Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes  Other schemes to offset carbon footprint  Car-sharing programme for students who live outside campus  Bike-sharing programme for students who live on campus  Annual Hall competition
    40. 40. 40 CO2 Australia Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes  Car-sharing programme for students who live outside campus  Transportation energy use contributes significantly to carbon footprint  School can coordinate car sharing system within NTU  Partner with car-sharing company  Sign up through online platform (Students living near each other and with similar timetable can use platform)
    41. 41. 41 CO2 Australia Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes  Bike-sharing programme for students who live on campus  Help reduce the frequency of shuttle buses on campus  Students rely less on shuttle buses, can also be considered a healthy workout for students
    42. 42. 42 CO2 Australia Other Carbon FootprintNeutralisation Schemes  Annual Hall competition  Friendly competition to encourage students to reduce carbon footprint, assessed by tracking utility bill and wastage for each hall  Programme will increase awareness and knowledge of carbon footprint and eco-knowledge (energy consumption and its associated costs)  Addresses human behaviour – incentive to reduce energy consumption (reputation and prestige of hall)
    43. 43. 43 CO2 Australia Alternatives Analysis  Evaluation Criteria  Actionability/Feasibility  Effectiveness/Utility  Sustainability
    44. 44. 44 CO2 Australia Evaluation Matrix Elearning Actionability/ Feasibility Effectiveness/ Utility Sustainability Carbon Credit CarSharing BikeSharing Hall Competiti on
    45. 45. 45 CO2 Australia Proposed Solution  Combination Approach  Primary Scheme: Adoption of E-Learning    Easy implementation that promotes environmental responsibility and directly addresses the cause carbon footprint Not as costly as carbon credit offsets Secondary Schemes: Adoption in tandem  May be implemented in conjunction to enhance the overall effectiveness
    46. 46. 46 Conclusion CO2 Australia
    47. 47. 47 CO2 Australia References       http://www3.open.ac.uk/events/3/2005331_47403_o1.pdf http://www.kineo.com/resources/new-to-elearning/the-benefits-of-elearning http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jisc.ac.uk%2Fuploaded_ documents%2FReport%2520on%2520the%2520effectiveness%2520of%2520tools%2520v5_Martin_ Oliver.doc http://www.australiatravelsearch.com.au/trc/facts.html http://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=26107 http://www.greenworldbvi.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/how-carbon-offsets-work.jpg
    48. 48. 48 CO2 Australia Executive Summary The presentation focuses on the review and comparison of a few alternatives in relation to their contribution to long-term carbon-neutral targets of Nanyang Technological University’s (NTU) sustainability initiative. After an introduction, the concept of a carbon footprint is first explained, followed by a presentation of NTU’s total computed carbon footprint derived using various estimates and methods. A study of the two main alternatives , e-learning and the carbon offset credit scheme, will be presented, weighing the benefits and detriments of option which would be further discussed subsequently in an analysis of options’ impact on the various stakeholders. The presentation will next suggest and elaborate on 3 other possible alternatives. The 3 key decision-making, evaluation criteria will be identified and used to assess each alternative’s usefulness. A proposed solution drawn from a mix of alternatives will be asserted and justified. The presentation concludes with a brief overview of the points and a forecast of NTU’s path towards reaching the zero carbon footprint target with the proposed solution in place.
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