CO2 Australia
AB0401 Sustainable Enterprise
Sem02 Group 09
Adeline Graciani Sidik
Chong Cui Xin
Chong Yu Hui
Chong Ren Jie...
2

Content Page
 Carbon footprints
 Stakeholder analysis
 Alternatives and evaluation
 Critics on CO2 Australia and co...
3

Carbon Footprint
Scope

Source

Scope 1

Campus-generated electricity
Direct Transportation
Other On-Campus Stationary
...
4

Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders

Interests

NTU management

• Environmental friendly reputation, locally and
internat...
5

Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders

Interests

Communities

• Lesser overall carbon footprints
• Healthier and greener e...
Alternatives
&
Evaluation
7

1. Energy Initiatives
 Why evaluate?
 Being located in at the equator, Singapore is experiencing
summer, with an aver...
8

1. Energy Initiatives
 What and how NTU should do?
Online Metering and Energy Monitoring System
Installing of meters...
9

1. Energy Initiatives
Reward system for halls with lowest energy usage
Giving higher number of recommendation quota, ...
10

1. Energy Initiatives
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Enable NTU to reduce operational
costs by conserving energy. The co...
11

2. Transportation
Why evaluate?
Transport sector is the second largest contributor to
the CO2 emission in Singapore ...
12

2. Transportation
What should NTU do?
Bike-sharing initiatives
Engage with students in Green and Sustainable
Techno...
13

2. Transportation
What should NTU do?
Car-pooling services
Reserved carpool parking spaces throughout the campus
fo...
14

2. Transportation
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Reduce reliance on public
transportation and private car usage

• Stude...
3. Sustainable Waste
Management
What?
 Implement extensive and sustainable waste
management practices

Why?
 Populatio...
3. Sustainable Waste
Management
How?
 Canteen oil collected and sold to Biofuel companies
 High volume consumables (Emp...
3. Sustainable Waste
Management
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Low initial costs of implementation

• Initial unacceptance o...
18

4. Infrastructure
Why evaluate?
• Energy is a key area identified by the Singapore
government that will shape the fut...
19

4. Infrastructure
 What and how NTU should do?
Clean energy practices
Upgrading NTU’s infrastructure to reduce the ...
20

4. Infrastructure
 What and how NTU should do?
Solar panels and LEDs
Solar energy absorbed from these solar panels ...
21

4. Infrastructure
 What and how NTU should do?
Redesigning
Redesign natural spaces such as the Yunnan Gardens
or Na...
22

4. Infrastructure
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Increased cost savings on electricity
usage in the long-run

• Initial ...
23

5. Online Lessons
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Reduce paper usage and electricity • Depends on individual habits e.g.
...
Critics on CO2 Australia
and Conclusion
Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU
Purchasing carbon credits from CO...
25

Critics on CO2 Australia
and Conclusion
Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU
Carbon sequestration is a rel...
26

Critics on CO2 Australia
and Conclusion
Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU
In conclusion, buying carbon ...
27

Executive Summary
This presentation analyses the viability of the avenues
NTU can take to move towards a carbon neutr...
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Ab0401 s02 gp9 chong yu hui, chong cui xin, jolene chua, adeline graciani sidik, ian chong

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  • Very broad overview of the main issues, with good insights into strengths and weaknesses of various alternatives. Relatively shallow analysis of two main alternatives, with little supporting data analysis to show us the impact on our carbon footprint of each alternative.
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Ab0401 s02 gp9 chong yu hui, chong cui xin, jolene chua, adeline graciani sidik, ian chong

  1. 1. CO2 Australia AB0401 Sustainable Enterprise Sem02 Group 09 Adeline Graciani Sidik Chong Cui Xin Chong Yu Hui Chong Ren Jie, Ian Chua Shu Ling Jolene
  2. 2. 2 Content Page  Carbon footprints  Stakeholder analysis  Alternatives and evaluation  Critics on CO2 Australia and conclusion  Executive summary
  3. 3. 3 Carbon Footprint Scope Source Scope 1 Campus-generated electricity Direct Transportation Other On-Campus Stationary Negligible 233,715 5,870 Scope 2 Purchased Electricity Purchased Heat 47,108,012 9,774,322 Scope 3 Faculty Commuting Student Commuting Financed Travel Paper Consumption Waste 2,624,518 3,942,218 480,034 142,996 136,590 Total Total Emission (kg), CO2 64,448,275 Students Employees 32,984 6,612 Total per student (kg) Total per employee (kg) 1581.32 1858.74
  4. 4. 4 Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders Interests NTU management • Environmental friendly reputation, locally and internationally • Campus sustainability • Viable environmental friendly recommendations • Provide better facilities and learning environment to students • Attract more talented students, locally and internationally Students • Better learning environment and resources • Reasonable tuition and administrative fees • Convenience- travelling to school and around campus • Reputation of the school Teaching & administrative staff • Better staff facilities and benefits
  5. 5. 5 Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders Interests Communities • Lesser overall carbon footprints • Healthier and greener environment Government (National Environment Agency) • Environmental friendly image for Singapore • Reduce carbon footprints and promote the efficient use of resources by different industries • Environmental sustainability in different industries NTU investors • Capital return on investments • Sustainable growth of NTU, economically and environmentally
  6. 6. Alternatives & Evaluation
  7. 7. 7 1. Energy Initiatives  Why evaluate?  Being located in at the equator, Singapore is experiencing summer, with an average high of 30° and low of 24° throughout the year  People often switch on air- conditioners to ease the high temperature  Air- conditioners are also vastly used to cool down data centers  High energy levels are being consumed which leads to high carbon footprints in Singapore  Therefore, there is a need to provide energy initiatives and evaluate them.
  8. 8. 8 1. Energy Initiatives  What and how NTU should do? Online Metering and Energy Monitoring System Installing of meters for electricity, water and chilled water around the campus Assign departments to monitor the energy consumption online to detect energy consumption “hot spots” Enable NTU to prioritize energy conservation projects to reduce operational costs Centralized air- conditioning system Maintaining the optimum temperature of 25° all around NTU Reduces additional energy consumption and reduces operational (electricity) costs of NTU
  9. 9. 9 1. Energy Initiatives Reward system for halls with lowest energy usage Giving higher number of recommendation quota, increase in limit for Institute-Varsity-Polytechnic (IVP) Games to join Inter-Hall Games for halls with lowest energy usage Motivates hall residents to play a role in conserving energy to increase their chances of staying in hall
  10. 10. 10 1. Energy Initiatives Advantages Disadvantages • Enable NTU to reduce operational costs by conserving energy. The costs saved can be put to other uses to benefit the students and NTU • Might be expensive to implement with the installation of meters around the campus • Involve everyone (both staff and students) in NTU to play a role in reducing energy consumption • Reward system for halls with lowest energy usage can only motivates hall residents to conserve energy. Others who do not stay in hall might not be motivated to do so • Carbon footprints are reduced through the energy conserved from the efforts of the monitoring departments and hall residents
  11. 11. 11 2. Transportation Why evaluate? Transport sector is the second largest contributor to the CO2 emission in Singapore after industrial sector Increase in car ownerships among young university students in NTU Shuttle bus services available within the whole campus led to increase in CO2 emission
  12. 12. 12 2. Transportation What should NTU do? Bike-sharing initiatives Engage with students in Green and Sustainable Technologies Society to come out with feasible proposal Reward students with NTU green rebates for subsequent purchases of stationaries and textbooks at NTU Yunan Bookstore Encourage whole NTU community to cycle around the school instead of taking shuttle or public buses and cars
  13. 13. 13 2. Transportation What should NTU do? Car-pooling services Reserved carpool parking spaces throughout the campus for all carpoolers Set up online community to recruit interested car owners to participate in NTU car pooling program Engage students in Green and Sustainable Technologies Society to explore phone applications for NTU students to find and book cars at ease Reward NTU green rebates
  14. 14. 14 2. Transportation Advantages Disadvantages • Reduce reliance on public transportation and private car usage • Students may be reluctant to accept the new alternatives in the short term • Rewarding green rebates will • Bike-sharing may exclude students motivate students to take up greener who do not know cycling transport alternatives • Bike-sharing allows students to move around in the campus more conveniently • Raise the awareness of moving towards green transportation by engaging the whole NTU community
  15. 15. 3. Sustainable Waste Management What?  Implement extensive and sustainable waste management practices Why?  Population of 31,392 students and staff lead to high consumption and waste disposal  Increasing dependence on electronic device and their decreasing lifespan means increasing e-waste 15
  16. 16. 3. Sustainable Waste Management How?  Canteen oil collected and sold to Biofuel companies  High volume consumables (Empty printer/toner cartridges or pens) collected weekly and sent to erecyclers  Revenue earned can be used to offset logistical and manpower costs 16
  17. 17. 3. Sustainable Waste Management Advantages Disadvantages • Low initial costs of implementation • Initial unacceptance of new procedures from vendors • Immediate result in real carbon footprint reduction • Measurable results enable monitoring • Revenue model increases sustainability of initiatives • No effect on actual reduction of waste creation • Might lead to higher irresponsible consumption due to complacency 17
  18. 18. 18 4. Infrastructure Why evaluate? • Energy is a key area identified by the Singapore government that will shape the future of Singaporeans. • The current electricity needs which rely on oil, gas and coal in many parts of the world will not be met in the future because these reserves will slowly run out.
  19. 19. 19 4. Infrastructure  What and how NTU should do? Clean energy practices Upgrading NTU’s infrastructure to reduce the amount of electricity generated by the campus Centralized air conditioning system NTU can attach solar panels to the roofs of all bus stops and change their lightings to energy-saving LEDs. Motion detectors can also be installed to control the lighting consumption based on the utilisation of the bus stop
  20. 20. 20 4. Infrastructure  What and how NTU should do? Solar panels and LEDs Solar energy absorbed from these solar panels will be a source of electricity for the LEDs, thus eliminating electricity required for lighting The use of LEDs reduces the size of the solar panels and battery bank needed due to its energy-saving feature. LEDs also have 80% longer lifespan as compared to nonLED lights
  21. 21. 21 4. Infrastructure  What and how NTU should do? Redesigning Redesign natural spaces such as the Yunnan Gardens or Nanyang Lake to accommodate more greenery This would increase the capacity of the carbon sink in NTU and reduce NTU’s net volume of CO2 produced
  22. 22. 22 4. Infrastructure Advantages Disadvantages • Increased cost savings on electricity usage in the long-run • Initial costs of purchasing solar panels and LED is high • Carbon dioxide can be absorbed by greenery and released into the atmosphere as oxygen • Planting more greenery is merely a short-run solution. It is a temporary carbon sink as carbon absorbed will be released into the atmosphere when the plant/trees die • Green facilities in line with NTU’s goal to work towards environmental sustainability • Enhanced reputation as NTU may be awarded Green accreditations
  23. 23. 23 5. Online Lessons Advantages Disadvantages • Reduce paper usage and electricity • Depends on individual habits e.g. to conduct physical lessons continue to print notes, switch on • Commuting expenses air-conditioning • May not be beneficial to learning
  24. 24. Critics on CO2 Australia and Conclusion Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU Purchasing carbon credits from CO2 Australia featured in the case Assumptions and concerns Carbon sequestration process accredited by the New South Wales (NSW) Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme (GGAS)→ focus on production and use of electricity→ question arises whether the standards overlook other aspects Mallee eucalypt plants can survive harsh drought→ in cold and rainy seasons, the survival chances of the plants may be questionable. ( The plant raises the capacity of the soil to retain water. In the case of excessive flood, this may cause the soil to be water-logged and affect the plants’ sustainability. 24
  25. 25. 25 Critics on CO2 Australia and Conclusion Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU Carbon sequestration is a relatively new idea→ viability of such carbon-reducing methods is based on research and information e.g. the characteristics of eucalypt plants etc.→ lack of successful track records and real evidence to substantiate the true viability of such a model Forestry rights up to 100 years only→ Uncertainty as to what would happen after rights has expired. E.g. Clear the forests?
  26. 26. 26 Critics on CO2 Australia and Conclusion Alternative paths towards a carbon-neutral NTU In conclusion, buying carbon credits would not tackle the root cause of inefficient and excessive amounts of carbon emissions. Buying carbon credits only provide easy way out to avoid the carbon cap rather than to seek long-term measures and seek ways to improve carbon efficiency. Further, after the agreement with CO2 is has lapsed, organizations would be back to square one, without increased awareness on carbon reduction methods.
  27. 27. 27 Executive Summary This presentation analyses the viability of the avenues NTU can take to move towards a carbon neutral future. All in all, we believe that transforming more classroom lessons to the online platform together with many more alternatives would be more effective than buying carbon credits from CO2 Australia. The former pushes the university to question and improves its existing activities, while the latter only provides an easy way out without raising the university’s awareness on key environmental issues to become more carbon-neutral. Further, buying carbon credits create dependency on other organization.

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