Pragmatic responsive design
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Pragmatic responsive design Presentation Transcript

  • 1. pragmaticresponsive design making the best of old and new techniques http://www.flickr.com/photos/dwonderwall/3341419492
  • 2. This presentation is...• part case study• part lessons learned• part future-thinking
  • 3. THE CASE STUDY browser.nokia.com A small campaign site introducing three new web browsers for Nokia devices.
  • 4. Chrome Opera Mini Nokia N97iPad
  • 5. THE CASE STUDY Site goals: • Inform end-users and industry • Prompt end-users to update their browser • Experiment with responsive design to support a global audience and wide range of target devices. Call to action: Update your browser!
  • 6. 70+ target Nokia devicesSymbian^3/Anna/MeeGo Series 60 Series 40Touch (+ many w/ keyboards) Touch and non-touch Touch and non-touch2008-present 2006-present (S60 3rd FP 1/2) 2008-present (~S40 6th Edition)WebKit browser WebKit browser WebKit browser or11 devices 45 devices Nokia proxy browser 23 devices new browser being promoted
  • 7. + all the usual suspectsmost Nokia users on S40feature phones use Opera Mini v 6.0+ mobile v. 7+ desktop
  • 8. initially no support planned for legacy and/or XHTML-MP browsers < v 5.0 Obigo Windows Mobile Nokia S40 Lite Browser Internet BrowserUC Web popular Chinese proxy browser
  • 9. Part 1: The design process http://www.flickr.com/photos/jordanfischer/63832583
  • 10. You can’t get there from hereDesigning only pixel perfect mock-ups makes itdifficult near-impossible to then think responsively.
  • 11. an emerging process etc...sketches/IA basic visual “live” more “live” mockups responsive sketches responsive mockup mockup no ok? “live” responsive small visual mockups yes mockup to “reality check” to discuss specific performance and stylistic issues progressive enhancement
  • 12. message/ copy copy content first draft 1 draft 2 brand/ strategy etc...sketches/IA basic visual “live” more “live” mockups responsive sketches responsive mockup mockup no ok? “live” responsive small visual mockups yes mockup to “reality check” to discuss specific performance and stylistic issues progressive enhancement
  • 13. If it’s layout prototype it.(...on real devices to clarify changes in context and theimpact of naive capabilities and viewport conditions)If it’s visual design mock it up(...but then prototype to determine performance, impactof native fonts and em values, viewport coditions etc.)
  • 14. PAIN POINT Too many to mention. Mental models in particular are getting in the way. We (our teams, our clients, their marketing departments etc.) still presume and expect we can control too much.
  • 15. We have lots of counterproductivebehaviours we need to unlearn.• Creating elaborate workarounds to suit (what you perceive) as edge case screen sizes or devices.• Agonising over small differences in rendering and alignment (remember...each device you haven’t testing on will have its own quirks.)• Creating elaborate reference lists of screen sizes, pixel densities in the belief that with enough data you can design for each device.• etc...
  • 16. Part 2: The CSS strategy http://www.flickr.com/photos/wscullin/3770015203
  • 17. TECHNIQUE Mobile first Design for (the simplest) mobile browser first.
  • 18. “The absence of a media queryis in fact, the first media query.Bryan Rieger, Rethinking the Mobile Web
  • 19. begin with a lightweight defaultA fully flexible with defaultB styles for navigation, fonts, content andC no media query
  • 20. TECHNIQUE Embrace the cascade Don’t merely swap style sheets...let it cascade. This creates a more nimble, versatile and future-proof layout and can reduce jumpiness during device re-orientation.
  • 21. each style sheet augments the others breakpoint breakpoint style sheet 1 augment original A A B style sheet with B C (only) the style C changes that are needed to enhance the layout < xx px wide xx px to xxx px (or unable tounderstand further instructions)
  • 22. each style sheet augments the others breakpoint breakpoint breakpoint style sheet 1 style sheet 2 A C A A B B augment B C once again for C TVs etc. < xx px wide xx px to xxx px >xxx px wide (or unable tounderstand further instructions)
  • 23. TECHNIQUE Using major and minor breakpoints Create media queries inside of media queries.
  • 24. content or device specific tweaksWhy we call them major and minor breakpoints major layout changes
  • 25. a common approach One style sheet with media queries on the inside. styles.css @media {(min-width: 320px) } a single css le is network @media { efficient, but includes(min-width: 480px) unnecessary style data that } all devices end up downloading @media {(min-width: 640px) } @media {(min-width: 768px) }
  • 26. a more robust option Multiple style sheets with media queries on the inside.MAJORBREAKPOINTSIN DOCUMENTHEAD basic.css mobile.css desktop.cssMINOR (typically) @media { @media {BREAKPOINTS no media (min-width: 480px) (min-width: 768px)WITHIN EACH queries } }STYLE SHEET @media { (min-width: 640px) }
  • 27. MAJOR BREAKPOINTS IN DOCUMENT HEAD<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheets/base.css"media="screen, handheld" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheets/mobile.css"media="only screen and (min-width: 320px)" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="stylesheets/desktop.css"media="only screen and (min-width: 720px)" />MINOR BREAKPOINTS WITHIN EACH STYLE SHEET@media screen and (min-width: 1024px) { section ul li { width: 20%; }}
  • 28. don’t multiple style sheetscause multiple http requests? (which will affect performance)
  • 29. Yes!...but (as we will see) we havebigger issues...Otherwise known as...choose your partners wisely.
  • 30. but it’s just “one line of code” = 84Kb, ~10 http requests (or 1.340 Seconds) I’m wondering if he ran this test on a Facebook Like PC with broadband? ButtonSource: Matthew Ogborne, Facebook Like Button = 84Kb or 1.340 Seconds?More great examples on Steve Souders’ P3PC project site
  • 31. 3rd party requests don’t just include widgets,they can also include:• ads• analytics• utilities (comment utilities, font hosting etc.)• libraries and polyfillsMany of these services are not yet mobile friendly.(And many that claim they are, merely support certain mobile browsers.They may not necessarily be lightweight or conscious of performance).
  • 32. everything has dependencies Otherwise known as everyone has ‘partners’Source: Luma Partners
  • 33. Example: 1 line of code spawns 49 server calls (including 21 redirects) “What happens next is the scary part: You effectively lose all control.” - Web Performance Today, Fourth Party Calls
  • 34. ConclusionIf a few well chosen http requests enable youto improve the experience-go for it.(then take a long hard look at other requests that may be lurking)
  • 35. TECHNIQUE choosing breakpoints
  • 36. DisclaimerThere is no “perfect set” of breakpoints.Set your breakpoints based on your project goals,your target audience, your typical device market share,the weight and nature of your content, the nature ofyour design...
  • 37. (P) = PortraitExample (L) = Landscape (L*) = Landscape w/ native viewport adaptation major breakpoints major layout changes Major Breakpoint 1 Major Breakpoint 2 (media query in document head) (media query in document head) Major Breakpoint 3 (media query in document head) 1024 320 px to 720 px wide 720 px to 1024 px 320 720 < 320 px wide and/or unable to nothing isunderstand further here...but some tablets instructions that’s ok! most NetBooks iPhone (P) many Desktops many Android (P) many BlackBerry S60 QWERTY Most S60 (L) S40 QWERTY
  • 38. (P) = PortraitExample (L) = Landscape (L*) = Landscape w/ native viewport adaptation minor breakpoints content-related tweaks Major Breakpoint 1 Major Breakpoint 2 (media query in document head) (media query in document head) Major Breakpoint 3 Minor (media query in document head) Breakpoint (@media) Minor Minor Minor Breakpoint Breakpoint Breakpoint (@media) (@media) (@media) 360 480 640 768 1024 320 px to 720 px wide 720 px to 1024 px 320 720 < 320 px wide iPhone (L*) and/or unable to Android (L*) nothing isunderstand further Symbian some here...but iPad (P) touch (P) some tablets instructions Symbian that’s ok! some Android most NetBooks iPhone (P) touch (L) tablets (P) many Desktops many Android (P) some some many BlackBerry tablets (L) Symbian S60 QWERTY touch (L) Most S60 (L) S40 QWERTY
  • 39. (P) = PortraitExample (L) = Landscape (L*) = Landscape w/ native viewport adaptation ...and so on Major Breakpoint 1 Major Breakpoint 2 (media query in document head) (media query in document head) Major Breakpoint 3 Minor (media query in document head) BreakpointMinor Breakpoint (@media)for small devices Minor Minor Minor w/media query Breakpoint Breakpoint Breakpoint support (@media) (@media) (@media) TVs 240 360 480 640 768 1024 320 px to 720 px wide 720 px to 1024 px 320 720 < 320 px wide iPhone (L*) and/or unable to Android (L*) nothing isunderstand further Symbian some here...but iPad (P) touch (P) some tablets instructions Symbian that’s ok! some Android most NetBooks iPhone (P) touch (L) tablets (P) many Desktops some many Android (P) some Android (P) some many BlackBerry tablets (L) many S40 (P) Symbian most S60 (P) S60 QWERTY touch (L) Most S60 (L) S40 QWERTY
  • 40. as you can see, this has the potential to get out of hand... Minor Breakpoint Major Breakpoint 1 (@media) Major Breakpoint 2 (media query in document head) (media query in document head) Major Breakpoint 3 Minor (media query in document head) Breakpoint MinorMinor Breakpoint (@media) Breakpointfor small devices Minor Minor Minor (@media) Minor w/media query Breakpoint Breakpoint Breakpoint Breakpoints support (@media) (@media) (@media) (@media) TVs 240 360 480 600 640 768 800 1024 1280 1366 320 px to 720 px wide 720 px to 1024 px many laptops 720 some < 320 px wide 320 some iPhone (L*) tablets and/or unable to nothing is tablets (L) Android (L*) (L)understand further Symbian some here...but iPad (P) touch (P) some tablets instructions Symbian that’s ok! some Android most NetBooks iPhone (P) touch (L) tablets (P) many Desktops some many Android (P) some Android (P) some many BlackBerry tablets (L) many S40 (P) Symbian most S60 (P) S60 QWERTY touch (L) Most S60 (L) some S40 QWERTY tablets (P)
  • 41. Existential question of the day:Does it make sense to create a breakpointif there is no known device with thatscreen size?(...or put more bluntly is it worth setting a breakpointjust so stuff looks pretty when you resize yourdesktop browser?)
  • 42. “But most people arent scalingthe site...thats mostly adeveloper behaviour.@tubes
  • 43. Follow-up question:Does it therefore make sense to create abreakpoint just because there IS a knowndevice with that screen size?
  • 44. get to know regionaldevice and browser market share
  • 45. review your existing traffic logs(even if your site isn’t mobile friendly,your logs will contain mobile traffic)
  • 46. review your content
  • 47. then determine your key breakpoints 128x160 240x320 320x4801280x768 1024x768 480x800
  • 48. ...but rememberScreen dimensions are only one factor to consider.
  • 49. don’t rely on desktop tools or emulators
  • 50. how will this device’s native fonts compare to desktop emulation? not accurate if your viewport is set to device-width note: moving target value what if it’s not the native browser? once you get below ~800 pxOpera Mini for iPad has a bit more chrome andless CSS support ..how will that affect things? all that matters is how it looks on real devices
  • 51. examplereal-world major and minor breakpoints
  • 52. major breakpointsDefault Major Breakpoint 1No media query 321 - 720 px Major Breakpoint 2 721 px onwards
  • 53. major breakpoints background image removed to reduce page weight and layout is primarily reduce risk on centered older devicesDefault Major Breakpoint 1No media query 321 - 720 px ‘desktop’ layout including floats Major Breakpoint 2 721 px onwards
  • 54. Note: Screenshots takenon a Mac, proportions, minorfont sizes, and end resultvary more relevantly oneach device. breakpoints Minor Breakpoint @360 px (Nokia touch) Minor Breakpoint @480 px (Nokia touch) Minor Breakpoint @768 px (iPad)
  • 55. Note: Screenshots takenon a Mac, proportions, 50% 50%font sizes, and end resultvary more relevantly on Minor Breakpointeach device. @360 px (Nokia touch) background 45% aligned bottom 70% 30% background aligned top Minor Breakpoint 50% @480 px (Nokia touch) 55% 45% custom Nokia font 3em line background x-position height adjustment Minor Breakpoint 30% @768 px (iPad)
  • 56. alignment (top/bottom) and x-position adjusted to suit the content (image) and context (screen size) image slides up and down revealing more (or less) of the content responsive divider implemented using border-image (degrades gracefully on all but IE)Component adapts to suit differing browser environmentse.g. slight differences in layout caused by different viewport implementations,differing baseline em values, wider/narrower native fonts, padding andmargin variations etc.
  • 57. Designing breakpoints also revealsanother important issue.We cannot presume that screen size maps to browser(or device) capabilities.
  • 58. PAIN POINT • good CSS and • strong CSS and • very basic CSS JavaScript JavaScript support and JavaScript • no touch screen • no touch screen but using proxy • advanced CSS • early WebKit browser such as and JavaScript • XHTML MP Opera Mini • touch events • modern WebKit when queried, these devices will all return a 320 pixel wide viewport value but each have vastly different browsers
  • 59. Responsive design will only get you half way.Always pair responsive design with a feature detectionand adaptation strategy.
  • 60. STEP 1 STEP 2 Media queries detect Feature detection screen size and serve clarifies actual browsersize-appropriate styles capabilities and enables and behaviours further enhancements + appropriately enhanced look functionality layout sized and feel enhancements graphics someday we’ll (even) more (hopefully) be appropriate basic look basic able to detect graphics or and feel functionality other useful media formats stuff like (e.g. SVG) bandwidth
  • 61. TIP The more (accurate) information you can detect, the more intelligently you can adapt. Client-side feature detection is only one of the tools you can use. Others include device databases, user agent strings and your own (domain and region-specific) tacit knowledge.
  • 62. TIP Why should we need tacit knowledge when we can detect browser capabilities using JavaScript or tools such as Modernizr? Because ‘support’ is rarely a binary thing. Also....some browsers lie.
  • 63. TIP More information about feature detection, will be covered in Bryan’s Breaking Development presentation: Adaptation
  • 64. Part 3: responsive images http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrs_logic/4548681436
  • 65. TECHNIQUE Serving appropriate images to each device A pragmatic approach using both server and client.
  • 66. most responsive image techniques focus primarily on the clientdesignmobilefirst include images on more advanced browsers (or at orientation for the simplest change), detect the screen size (using JavaScript), screen size/ rewrite/adapt the image tag, then load an browser first appropriate larger image
  • 67. (...but let’s be honest, most responsive sites are still doing THIS) Read this now: Where are the mobile first responsive designs? design “desktop first” put the burden of screen size including images detection, resizing and/or for the largest loading of new images on screen size first the smallest devices
  • 68. both impose a heavy burden on constrained devicesdepending on the 3. adapt fetching newtechnique the initial markup images =‘larger’ images may extra hpalready have been requests anddownloaded latency 2. spider 4. request DOM new image 1. detect 5. repaint, screen reflow as size needed
  • 69. “Optimize front-end performance first,thats where 80% or more of the end-userresponse time is spent.— Yahoo: The importance of front-end performance
  • 70. “ Optimize front-end performance first, thats where 80% or more of the end-user response time is spent. — Yahoo: The importance of front-end performance This was written with the desktop in mind... research suggests performance impact on mobile is closer to 97%.Web Performance Today: 97% of mobile end-user response time happens on the client
  • 71. heavy lifting (adaptation, filtering,STRATEGY server conditional http://domain.org resource/content loading) just-in-time client tweaks
  • 72. to determine device screen to override the size UA string odd property device based on database tacit data existing to identify device knowledge and therefore, screen size see Bryan’s AdaptationHEAVY LIFTING presentation for greater device request detail on this technique
  • 73. to determine device screen to override the size UA string odd property device based on database tacit data existing to identify device knowledge and therefore, screen size data application video logic generate cookie nal markup images see Bryan’s AdaptationHEAVY LIFTING presentation for greater detail on this technique
  • 74. nal markup cookie resource pro le bundle info device gets the most appropriate images on first load (in most cases) no additional client-side processing is requiredDELIVERY
  • 75. images new images are nal only fetched if markup actually needed cookie resource pro le bundle info JavaScript changes assets on orientation changeTWEAKS @media changes layout and other styles
  • 76. uses onResize event (because onOrientation change doesn’t work on all devices) JavaScript also swaps images whenBONUS screen is resized. This enables you to test adaptation on desktop browsers!
  • 77. Demo...
  • 78. TIP ...use the contextual intelligence built into the profile cookie to implement other useful enhancements. These could include: • more appropriate image formats (e.g. SVG) • mobile-friendly alternates for 3rd party widgets • alternative components • alternate content representations (e.g. tabular data)
  • 79. EXAMPLE Progressively enhanced content. “One Web” is a great ideal, but sometimes, adding or removing content based on contextual instructions can dramatically imrpove the experience.
  • 80. UA stringGOAL determine device platformimprove browser (e.g. S60 3rd Edition)update instructionson browser.nokia.com device database determine device platform determine device model (in cases where UA string (e.g. Nokia N8-00) couldn’t provide it) so we can do this... choose appropriate device- specific message (populated with device model number) generate enhance existing content with nal markup device-specific message Note: enhancement only as we didn’t want to presume people on a PC might not want to know how to update a featurephone
  • 81. Server-side adaptation pain points• reliance on cookies• say good-bye to the intelligent default• unknown devices• CDNs anyone?
  • 82. PAIN POINT Reliance on cookies • what happens if cookies are disabled? • what do we do about the EU Cookie Directive?
  • 83. PAIN POINT Say goodbye to the ‘intelligent default’ • how do we create intelligent defaults when there is no longer a ‘normal/average/typical’ screen size or even a ‘typical’ device?
  • 84. mobile first? <something or other> firstdesktop first?
  • 85. PAIN POINT What about unknown devices? • what happens to new devices that are not yet in a device database or your tacit knowledge database?
  • 86. TIP an 80/20 approach will get you quite far • on many site, 80% of traffic seems to come from about 20% of devices • of the other 20%, most are known devices • regularly reviewing your logs can help catch whatever is left
  • 87. TIP User agent strings are not evil. User agent strings can be incredibly useful...so long as you understand their limitations.
  • 88. operating version device systemMozilla/5.0 (SymbianOS/9.4; Series60/5.0 NokiaN97;Profile/MIDP-2.1 Configuration/CLDC-1.1) AppleWebKit/525(KHTML, like Gecko) BrowserNG/7.1.4 hint at (general) super useful in capabilities conjunction with tacit browser knowledge database version
  • 89. PAIN POINT CDNs anyone? • CDNs currently couldn’t care less about device context. Will aggressive caching turn into a problem? (Would we even have created CDNs, or have designed them quite differently if multi-context content had come first?)
  • 90. Part 4: responsive workflows http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/5201796697
  • 91. visual consistency(in a given context) message clarity & thematic consistency alignment Desktop Mobile key goals when designing responsive images Basic
  • 92. we began witha “normal” workflow
  • 93. each graphic designed in one context
  • 94. using Adobe Fireworks but rapidly switched toa more context-sensitive approach approach
  • 95. Benefits Designing graphics together provides a more global and contextual view. • Helps eliminate alignment errors, continuity issues etc. • Helps maintain thematic consistency. Images don’t have to be identical but the overall message should not be lost. • Tip: Don’t forget that you can also vary file types (e.g. PNG, JPG) to increase performance at certain sizes.
  • 96. PAIN POINT It’s still not flexible enough... Design tools enabling the use of variables, conditionals etc. would be really nice right about now.
  • 97. Part 5: embrace opportunities http://www.flickr.com/photos/ganesha_isis/4439563089
  • 98. We realised half way through the project thatwith only minor changes, we could supportanother 80-100 Nokia feature phones.Many of these older, low-end devices would also beeligible to update to the new (proxy-based) NokiaBrowser for mobile phones.
  • 99. UA string Goal: get information out device database to more people determine device platform everyone older S40 else devices change doctype from no change required HTML5 to XHTML MP to mobile firstresponsive approach serve a lightweight CSS MP style sheet generate generate nal markup nal markup
  • 100. So how did it go?
  • 101. So how did it go?We soft-launched the site 5 days ago...
  • 102. since then it’s been visited by people in133 countries
  • 103. on 51 different Nokia devices(and of course many non- Nokia devices)
  • 104. oldest smallest Nokia N70 Nokia 1680 XHTML MP XHTML MP 176 x 208 px 128 x 160 px 2005 2008 3 of these users including the odd were in the US! unexpected ones
  • 105. So far...the most popular page(just behind the home page) is the pagewith instructions to update yourbrowser :-)
  • 106. a few final words...http://www.flickr.com/photos/dwonderwall/3341419492
  • 107. on being pragmatic Perform a cost-benefit analysis for every technique you use.
  • 108. on being pragmatic Old doesn’t mean bad and new doesn’t mean good. If a technique does more good than bad it’s fair game. (Until a significantly better one comes along.)
  • 109. on being pragmatic ...develop your mobile strategy but in the meantime...there are useful things you can do today
  • 110. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3Review your traffic Test your site on those Develop an action planlogs and determine devices and determine to address common issueswhat mobile devices where the experience such as these:are accessing your breaks downsite today • key content that is only accessible on hover • key controls that are too small to manipulate on touch screens • modal windows that become unusable on small screens • unnecessary http requests • unnecessarily heavy graphics and media repeat...
  • 111. @yiibu scontact uat hello@yiibu.com thank you many thanks to the amazing photographers on http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/by-2.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/tinou/453593446