The Dutch AAT<br />The updating process<br />By: Reem Weda, Ans van Schaik <br />and Reinier van ‘t Zelfde<br />Presentati...
Contents<br /><ul><li>Introduction
History and progress (Reem)
The validating process (Ans)
Translation issues (Reem)
Candidate terms (Ans)
Export/import new versions (Reinier)
Discussion</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />History of the Dutch AAT<br />Phases in development<br />1994 to 1998<br />...
Objective<br />The structural continuation of the Dutch AAT in the field of cultural heritage, that stays congruent with t...
  Freely accessible thesaurus
  Flemish-Dutch collaboration
  Guaranteed quality
  Improved communication
  Stimulate user participation
  Stimulate technological development and innovation</li></li></ul><li>Tasks for Bureau AAT<br />Import new data<br />2300...
Who uses the AAT-Ned?<br />Early adaptors: consistent user community<br /><ul><li>Museum professionals</li></ul>50 % of th...
Other controlled vocabularies use AAT</li></li></ul><li>How do we reach the user?<br /><ul><li> 	Meetings with Dutch and F...
News letter and brochure
  User forms on website</li></ul>Discussion topic: what can we do to reach our target group (sector)?<br />
New website and browser<br />Online  user forms<br />New look<br />Content<br />Browser functionality<br />
Where are we now?<br /><ul><li> 30.000 concepts translated
 Update to 2007 complete
 New user environment: website and browser
 New editorial environment
 Updated guidelines for AAT-Ned
 Structural support for Bureau AAT</li></li></ul><li>Futuregoals<br /><ul><li>Start another update asap
Determinemethodology
 	Start validating Dutch candidate-terms
Stimulate user participation
Improvedusability
Connectwithother online repositories</li></li></ul><li>Translation and validation<br />By<br /> Ans van Schaik<br />
Translation and validation<br />Two steps (at least):<br />Translationby a professional translator<br /><ul><li>preliminary
sources: dictionaries</li></ul>Translation and validationby experts<br /><ul><li>specialists’ knowledge
sources: specificsources (by discipline)
editorialcommittees</li></li></ul><li>Translation and validationby experts<br />1. selection of termson subject areas<br /...
Translation and validationby experts<br />2. editorialcommittees<br /><ul><li>  expert knowledge
less thesaurus knowledge
time-consuming
involvement
safeguardforquality</li></li></ul><li>Positive<br /><ul><li>amount of work is welldivided
use of the knowledge of users
involvement to the AAT
 pr for AAT
safeguardforquality
network</li></li></ul><li>Lesspositive<br /><ul><li> time consuming
dividing the thesaurus in pieces
 a group of experts doesn’tmeanquickdecisionmaking
incorporation in the database
lack of thesaurusknowledge
 building up thisnetwork
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The dutch aat

  1. 1. The Dutch AAT<br />The updating process<br />By: Reem Weda, Ans van Schaik <br />and Reinier van ‘t Zelfde<br />Presentation Dutch AAT <br />At the Meeting of Multilingual Terminology Working Groups<br />The Getty Research Institute , Los Angeles, 24 august 2010<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  3. 3. History and progress (Reem)
  4. 4. The validating process (Ans)
  5. 5. Translation issues (Reem)
  6. 6. Candidate terms (Ans)
  7. 7. Export/import new versions (Reinier)
  8. 8. Discussion</li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />History of the Dutch AAT<br />Phases in development<br />1994 to 1998<br />1999 to 2004<br />2007 till present day<br />
  9. 9. Objective<br />The structural continuation of the Dutch AAT in the field of cultural heritage, that stays congruent with the Getty AAT and is a trusted source for users, who can participate in its development.<br />Basic rules for updating the Dutch AAT<br /><ul><li> New Dutch Bureau AAT
  10. 10. Freely accessible thesaurus
  11. 11. Flemish-Dutch collaboration
  12. 12. Guaranteed quality
  13. 13. Improved communication
  14. 14. Stimulate user participation
  15. 15. Stimulate technological development and innovation</li></li></ul><li>Tasks for Bureau AAT<br />Import new data<br />2300 new concepts and 9000 changes in data…<br />New website and browser<br />Clear difference between candidates and accepted concept; user-friendly interface…<br />Collaboration and participation <br />New alliance with IRPA-KIK (Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage, Brussels)<br />Installation of a Feedbackgroup<br />
  16. 16. Who uses the AAT-Ned?<br />Early adaptors: consistent user community<br /><ul><li>Museum professionals</li></ul>50 % of the Dutch institutions use the AAT in some way<br /><ul><li>ProjectsMOVe, Collectie Gelderland, MusIP
  17. 17. Other controlled vocabularies use AAT</li></li></ul><li>How do we reach the user?<br /><ul><li> Meetings with Dutch and Flemish heritage consultants
  18. 18. News letter and brochure
  19. 19. User forms on website</li></ul>Discussion topic: what can we do to reach our target group (sector)?<br />
  20. 20. New website and browser<br />Online user forms<br />New look<br />Content<br />Browser functionality<br />
  21. 21. Where are we now?<br /><ul><li> 30.000 concepts translated
  22. 22. Update to 2007 complete
  23. 23. New user environment: website and browser
  24. 24. New editorial environment
  25. 25. Updated guidelines for AAT-Ned
  26. 26. Structural support for Bureau AAT</li></li></ul><li>Futuregoals<br /><ul><li>Start another update asap
  27. 27. Determinemethodology
  28. 28. Start validating Dutch candidate-terms
  29. 29. Stimulate user participation
  30. 30. Improvedusability
  31. 31. Connectwithother online repositories</li></li></ul><li>Translation and validation<br />By<br /> Ans van Schaik<br />
  32. 32. Translation and validation<br />Two steps (at least):<br />Translationby a professional translator<br /><ul><li>preliminary
  33. 33. sources: dictionaries</li></ul>Translation and validationby experts<br /><ul><li>specialists’ knowledge
  34. 34. sources: specificsources (by discipline)
  35. 35. editorialcommittees</li></li></ul><li>Translation and validationby experts<br />1. selection of termson subject areas<br /><ul><li> spread all over the AAT</li></ul>ceramic (material) -> Materials<br />ceramic (process) -> Activities<br />ceramics (objects) -> Objects<br /><ul><li>leftover</li></ul>at that stage: notranslation, novalidation<br />
  36. 36. Translation and validationby experts<br />2. editorialcommittees<br /><ul><li> expert knowledge
  37. 37. less thesaurus knowledge
  38. 38. time-consuming
  39. 39. involvement
  40. 40. safeguardforquality</li></li></ul><li>Positive<br /><ul><li>amount of work is welldivided
  41. 41. use of the knowledge of users
  42. 42. involvement to the AAT
  43. 43. pr for AAT
  44. 44. safeguardforquality
  45. 45. network</li></li></ul><li>Lesspositive<br /><ul><li> time consuming
  46. 46. dividing the thesaurus in pieces
  47. 47. a group of experts doesn’tmeanquickdecisionmaking
  48. 48. incorporation in the database
  49. 49. lack of thesaurusknowledge
  50. 50. building up thisnetwork
  51. 51. maintenance of thisnetwork</li></li></ul><li>Update 2008<br />Points of interest:<br /><ul><li>a thesaurus is a dynamic system
  52. 52. interactivevalidation and contributions via internet</li></li></ul><li>Webform<br />
  53. 53. First experiences<br /><ul><li>users have to getused to it
  54. 54. ‘discussion’ notbetweenusers
  55. 55. lack of sources</li></ul>issue: the value of sources<br />
  56. 56. Issues ontranslatingmultilingual thesauri<br />By<br /> Reem Weda<br />
  57. 57. Issues on translating Multi-lingual thesauri<br /><ul><li>How do we treat the differences in cross- lingual equivalence?
  58. 58. How do we treat the concepts for which there are no equivalents in our language. The ‘non - equivalents’?</li></li></ul><li>Degrees of cross-lingual equivalence<br /><ul><li> Exact equivalence
  59. 59. Inexact and partial-equivalence
  60. 60. Single to multiple equivalence
  61. 61. Non-equivalent terms (orphans)
  62. 62. Creating new equivalents for ‘orphans’ (Neologisms)</li></li></ul><li>Exact equivalence<br />sun = zon<br />and <br />kings = koningen<br />The ‘Sunking’ Louis XIV<br />
  63. 63. Inexact and partial-equivalence<br />If A = B is acceptable to native speaker of A, then B = A should also be acceptable to native speakers of B.<br />Example: <br />notaries (public) translated to Dutch: notarissen<br />Scope note: People who are legally empowered to witness and certify documents and to take written statements and depositions.<br />BUT:<br />The Dutch ‘notarissen’ are notaries civil law<br />They are also able to provide legal advice and prepare instruments with legal effect.<br />
  64. 64. Single to multiple equivalence<br />Rifles = geweren<br />Shotguns = geweren<br />
  65. 65. The problem of too many target terms.<br />1. Pre-combined descriptors. <br />Source: FUELS Target : CARBURANT + COMBUSTIBLE <br /> (both French terms are marked as used fors)<br />Used for: Carburant<br /> Used for: Combustible<br /> <br />2. Addition of a qualifier.<br />Source: FUELS (MOTORS) target: CARBURANT<br />FUELS (HEATING)COMBUSTIBLE<br /> <br />3. The downgrading to non-descriptor.<br />Source: FUELS Target: CARBURANT<br />Used for: Combustible<br />
  66. 66. Problem 2: target language can only represent the source concept through a combination of terms.<br />1.Use of more descriptors.<br />Source: target:<br />HEATING CHAUFFRAGESOLAR ENERGY ENERGIE SOLAIRESOLAR HEATING CHAUFFRAGE + ENERGIE SOLAIRE<br /> <br />2. Creation of a neologism<br />Source: Target:<br />HEATING CHAUFFRAGESOLAR ENERGY ENERGIE SOLAIRE<br />SOLAR HEATING CHAUFFRAGE SOLAIRE<br /> <br />3. Use of non-descriptors:<br />Source: Target:<br />HEATING CHAUFFRAGE<br />SOLAR ENERGIE ENERGIE SOLAIRESolar heating (empty)<br /> Use: HEATING and SOLAR ENERGY<br />
  67. 67. Non-equivalentterms: orphans<br />
  68. 68. Three solutions: blindman’s rule<br />1. A change of status for the orphan. <br />Source: Target<br />RULES (measuring devises) MAATSTOKKEN (meetinstrumenten)<br />Used for: blindman’s rules<br />2. Import the source term into the target language. <br />Source: Target:<br />BLINDMAN’S RULES BLINDMAN’S RULES<br /> <br />3. Create an equivalent (neologism).<br />Source: target:<br />BLINDMAN’S RULES BLINDEMANS LINEALEN<br />
  69. 69. The process of creating a neologism: <br />Dutch-door quadrants = boerderijdeurkwadranten(?)<br />Dutch-doors = boerderijdeuren (farm doors)<br />Quadrants = kwadranten (measurement instruments)<br />
  70. 70. The search for: Brekes of mail<br />Broader term: <body armor: lower extremities ><br />Scope note:<br />Pieces of mail to protect the genitals, worn attached to the center of the lower edge of a shirt of mail or appended to the fork of a plate armor skirt. They took various forms, including short skirts or breeches, and could incorporate a codpiece.<br />Used for: breeches of mail<br />Mail = maliën<br />breeches = kniebroeken<br />
  71. 71. So: brekes of mail =‘maliënkniebroeken’<br /><ul><li>correct translation
  72. 72. fits the rule
  73. 73. same result as Spanish translation: </li></ul>Brekes of mail = calzón de malla<br />But: <br /><ul><li> no written sources
  74. 74. not natural language (in Dutch)</li></ul>Is it allowed to translate (certain) non-equivalents this way? <br />
  75. 75. Candidateterms<br />By<br /> Ans van Schaik<br />
  76. 76. Unlimited expansion?<br />Unlimited multilingualexpansion?<br />
  77. 77. Candidate-terms<br />Differencebetween American culture and culture of the Low Countries<br /><ul><li> missing words in target language
  78. 78. contribution of users
  79. 79. do not meet the requirements
  80. 80. noEnglishsources / not in English</li></ul>sources<br />
  81. 81. Multilingual ‘universal’ thesaurus<br />Aalsmeersegrundel<br />ganzenbord<br />aalbessenschuiten<br />scheepsschraapmessen<br />schrootschaarmachines<br />
  82. 82. Caps from Brabant<br />Brabantse mutsen<br />
  83. 83. GettyEditorialGuidelines<br />Do original Dutch words, somehowtranslated in English, require 3 Englishsources?<br />Possiblesolution:<br /><ul><li> AAT International
  84. 84. AAT National
  85. 85. AAT Local</li></li></ul><li>Positive:<br /><ul><li> ‘the AAT encloseseverything’
  86. 86. univocalterminologyworldwide</li></ul>Subject of discussion:<br /><ul><li>nolinguisticvariantsfor all terms
  87. 87. amount of workcompared to the amount of users</li></li></ul><li>Import and export newversions<br />By<br />Reinier van ‘t Zelfde<br />
  88. 88. Export/import new versions <br />Import AAT concepts<br />Add Dutch Terms <br />
  89. 89. Add Dutch terms<br />Export Dutch Terms for Getty in XML <br /><Subject Subject_ID="300001662"><br /> <dutch_term_preferred><br /> <dutchTerm>kapitelen</dutchTerm><br /> <AATNedTermID>800000514</AATNedTermID><br /> </dutch_term_preferred><br /> <dutchAlternateTerm><br /> <termText>kapiteel</termText><br /> <aatNedTermId>800037796</aatNedTermId><br /> </dutchAlternateTerm><br /> <dutchScopeNote>De bovenstedelen van <br />zuilen, pijlers en pilasters.<br /> </dutchScopeNote><br /></Subject><br />
  90. 90. Import Dutch Terms into Getty database<br />Getty exports concordance Term ID and AATNedTermID’s<br />
  91. 91. Import Term ID’s into Getty RKD database<br />Now the update is complete. RKD can match the Getty termchanges on TermID’s<br />
  92. 92. Term i.e. concept suggestions from AAT-ned<br /><ul><li>User from AAT in the Netherlands or Belgium makes a request for adding a new concept
  93. 93. New concept would be created, terms in Dutch and English are added
  94. 94. The terms get an AATDutchID. The concept will get a AATDutchConceptID.
  95. 95. Accepted concepts will get a Getty concept idea in the RKD database by importing a concordance for ConceptID’s. </li></li></ul><li>Update version 2007 to 2010: items for translation into Dutch <br /><ul><li>New concepts
  96. 96. Scope note added </li></ul>These items can be found without an update<br />history. Blank spaces into translation fields.<br /><ul><li>Changed terms? </li></ul> Concept doesn’t change, no retranslation needed?<br /><ul><li>Scope note added </li></li></ul><li>Update version 2007 to 2010<br />Items for retranslation into Dutch <br />Changed terms? Concept doesn’t change, no retranslation needed?<br />Scope note added <br />
  97. 97. Scope note added <br />Revision history: Aspect: scope note; Action: updated; Date: yyyy-mm-dd<br />Exist only for terms till 2000?<br />
  98. 98. Scope note added <br />Adding a Revision history for changed scope notes should be a great help for updating the translation.<br />This Revision note should only be added if needs retranslation. <br />
  99. 99. Thank you for your attention!<br />Do you have any questions?<br />

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