Introduction about AAT-Taiwan Project

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  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 搜索目標物
  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • (左)寶藏巖-http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3140327
    (中)
    (右)台中樂成宮- http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3140470
  • 台灣民間信仰: http://61.60.100.220/%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E6%B0%91%E9%96%93%E4%BF%A1%E4%BB%B0/unit05-1.htm (交通部觀光局)
  • 台灣民間信仰: http://61.60.100.220/%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E6%B0%91%E9%96%93%E4%BF%A1%E4%BB%B0/unit05-1.htm (交通部觀光局)
  • (藻井同義詞) 南鯤鯓代天府 - http://temple.tnc.edu.tw/build/html/inside_05.htm and Wikipedia(中)
    (藻井釋意) 中國人民日報 英文- http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/features/architecture/zaojing.htm
    (圖: 藻井左& 右)- http://web.hach.gov.tw/hachweb/blog/justlove/myBlogArticleAction.do?method=doListArticleByPk&articleId=6536 (行政院文化資產委員會)
  • 寺廟古蹟欣賞: http://www.tonyhuang39.com/tony0622/tony0622.html
  • 右斗、 左斗: 聯合目錄
  • 右斗、 左斗: 聯合目錄
  • 明唐寅倣唐人仕女 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=539113
  • 宋代帝半身像 宋徽宗: http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=261046
  • 明文從簡禮佛圖 軸: http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=539099
  • 明唐寅倣唐人仕女 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=539113
  • Putti pic: http://www.google.com.tw/imgres?imgurl=http://www.samizdata.net/blog/~pdeh/poussin-putti_sml.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.samizdata.net/blog/archives/2006/08/putti_in_our_ha.html&usg=__dX_xU2OBg7kRlKdCytOHiSdeYRg=&h=317&w=350&sz=93&hl=zh-TW&start=22&sig2=NIcGsypF-bRxHa6eE_zCcA&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=xeHVH8xvWVaExM:&tbnh=109&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dputti%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dzh-TW%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4GGLL_zh-TWTW339TW339%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=i1frS7qeDMyfrAfvovnaCQ
    Putti glassware: http://www.google.com.tw/imgres?imgurl=http://www.chihuly.com/putti/Art/CdPutti2_029_94.1337.pu1_B.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.chihuly.com/putti/statement.html&usg=__WlvoVHKk1QchHG1zaPUZz9qkhBU=&h=400&w=584&sz=103&hl=zh-TW&start=18&sig2=gm_GSwrdDxRc3DAHwJQbCg&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=tqfd_I06oj9FXM:&tbnh=92&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dputti%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dzh-TW%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4GGLL_zh-TWTW339TW339%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=v3TrS6K3I4rW7AOjmK2cBg
  • Putti pic: http://www.google.com.tw/imgres?imgurl=http://www.samizdata.net/blog/~pdeh/poussin-putti_sml.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.samizdata.net/blog/archives/2006/08/putti_in_our_ha.html&usg=__dX_xU2OBg7kRlKdCytOHiSdeYRg=&h=317&w=350&sz=93&hl=zh-TW&start=22&sig2=NIcGsypF-bRxHa6eE_zCcA&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=xeHVH8xvWVaExM:&tbnh=109&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dputti%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dzh-TW%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1T4GGLL_zh-TWTW339TW339%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=i1frS7qeDMyfrAfvovnaCQ
  • 竹雕山水人物筆筒 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3345824 (origin 故宮)
    粉彩西洋仕女圖瓶 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1369880 (origin 史博館)
    北宋 定窯 白瓷嬰兒枕 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=835569(origin 故宮)
  • 明 羅小華 「山松脂」圓柱墨 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1094721
    明 吳元養 「赤水珠」墨 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=4371185
  • (左)明 方于魯 金剛法輪五色墨- http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=836827
    (中)明 吳元養 「赤水珠」墨 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=4371185
    (右)明 萬曆 「龍香御墨」http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3203225
  • (序) 文玩賞讀- 韓天衡 韓回之 (上海人民出版社)
    http://www.books.com.tw/exep/prod/china/chinafile.php?item=CN10086239
  • 南宋至元 雙蓮房水注- http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=836791
    明 癭木蕉葉盤 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1094790
    清 陳祖章 果核小舟- http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1094815
    白玉荷葉式洗 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1122025
    清 鴛錦雲章循連環田黃石印 - http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=1885289
    清 象牙雕山水人物筆筒- http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/dacs5/System/Exhibition/Detail.jsp?OID=3345839
  • Desk sets- AAT Taiwan
  • 目標:
    呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性
    促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展
    建立數位典藏與學習產業
    深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用
    奠定語文數位教學的國際地位
    推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路
    To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide.
    Serve as a leader in information technology and social development.
    To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • Introduction about AAT-Taiwan Project

    1. 1. Introduction about AAT-Taiwan Project Sophy Shu-Jiun Chen Assistant Research Engineer Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica 2010 AAT-Taiwan Workshop 2010/6/2 (Wed)
    2. 2. 2 AGENDA  Preface  Introductions  Current Outcomes  Methodology  Equivalence Mapping & Translation Issues  Future Strategic Development 2
    3. 3. 3 Preface  Throughout the years, TELDAP (Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program) has successfully accumulated more than 3 million digitized items.  We strive to explore new ways to share this abundant collection with the audience worldwide.
    4. 4. 4 In order to bring our collection to the world, we face the following challenges:  Most of the digital objects and the metadata are in Chinese. How to overcome the language barrier?  How to integrate different terms used by various institution and projects under the TELDAP in describing similar concept?
    5. 5. 5 Introductions  AAT-Taiwan multilingual research project The goal is to collaborate with GRI (Getty Research Institute) in developing the Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), and ultimately provide the global communities a fully integrated multilingual thesaurus online (with broader, narrower, and related concepts of the designated search item). 5
    6. 6. 6 Introductions – milestone 6 2008 July 12~20 AAT-Taiwan feasibility study (Workshop I) in Getty  A week-long visit to the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles for a series of working meetings and presentations organized by the Getty Vocabulary Program  Discussion includes: focuses, scope, methodology, agenda of the collaboration project and also its technical and licensing issues – The Getty Vocabularies: programmatic, structural, and content overview ( by GETTY / Patricia Harpring ) – AAT Overview and Design Principles ( by GETTY/ Patricia Harpring, Joan Cobb ) – Issues and challenges in multilingual equivalency work; lessons learned on the Spanish AAT translation project ( by GETTY / Murtha Baca ) – Overview of TELDAP Programs and Aactivities ( by TELDAP / D.T. Lee ) – The NDAP Union Catalogue and the use of controlled vocabularies (by TELDAP / Arthur Chen & Feng-Chien Chung) – Toward a Multilingual Thesaurus: Strategies and Approaches (by TELDAP / Shu- Jiun Chen) – Applying Getty AAT for the multilingual development of NTU Anthropology collection controlled vocabulary (by TELDAP / C.M. Tsai) – All possible words: creating controlled vocabulary to enhance the multilingual development of TELDAP (by TELDAP / Hsueh-Hua Chen & C.M. Tsai) – Personal Name Authority: Ming Qing Biographical Database (by TELDAP / Huei-jing Lin) The Getty’s Vocabulary Coordination Sytem (VCS) ( by GETTY/ by Joan Cobb and Gregg Garcia ) – Discussion of technical issues for building a Chinese-language AAT ( by GETTY & TELDAP ) – Discussion of editorial and workflow issues for Chinese AAT translation ( by GETTY, TELDAP ) – Wrap-up and next steps ( by GETTY, TELDAP )
    7. 7. 2009 February 20 AAT-Taiwan Pilot Study (Workshop II) in Academia Sinica  Dr. Murtha Baca of the Getty and Professor Marcia Zeng from Kent State University, Ohio were invited to Academia Sinica to share their insight with the AAT-Taiwan project members.  Discussion includes: translation, contribution, system development, and localization. – Notes on Translating and Contributing to the Getty’s Art & Architecture Thesaurus ( by Murtha Baca ) – AAT-Taiwan Progress Update ( by Sophy Chen ) – How Art Is Relevant : An Introduction to the Online Exhibition Time and Culture ( by Cheng-hua Wang ) – The collaboration in building Chinese AAT system for bilingual thesaurus services ( by Ya-ning Chen, Feng-chien Chung ) – Connecting indigenous knowledge to Global Society : Multilingual Development of TELDAP (by Sherry Chen, Chiung-min Tsai) – Knowledge Engineering for TELDAP (by Keh-Jiann Chen) – Authoring Tool of AAT with DADT : a Prototype (by Shih Lin) – AAT Translation Assessment Process (by Cingju Cheng, Sophy Chen) – Final Discussion and Wrap Up (by Marcia Zeng)
    8. 8. 2009 September 21~24 Work Meeting of the Development and Research of AAT-Taiwan (Workshop III) in Getty  Discussion includes: system development issues, translation issues and workflow, collaboration with ARTstor, translation and license of the Getty publications. September 27~ October 1 CIDOC 2009 Conference in Chile  Meet up with all the member countries of the Getty multilingual projects. As a result, a Multilingual Vocabulary Working Group has been set up by GRI as a means to establish close communication among international collaborators  international collaborators include Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales (DIBAM, Chile), Netherlands Institute for Art History (Netherland), and State Museums of Berlin/Institute for Museum Research (Germany). November 11~14 MCN 2009 Annual Conference in Portland  The Department of Asian Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art expresses interest in AAT-Taiwan. Discuss possible future collaboration in the conference – A Close Look at Bilingual Translation Methods and Issues – Bilingual Equivalence Mapping Methods and Issues – Contribution and Creation of New Concepts in the Bilingual Thesaurus Methods and Practices – AAT-Taiwan System Development – Collaboration between TELDAP and ARTStor – Translation of GRI Publication
    9. 9. 2010 January 28 ARTstor Pilot Study  Translating 500 digital collection from 14 TELDAP projects by utilizing AAT- Taiwan for control vocabulary purpose. Record types range from art, history, archeology, anthropology to material culture. Early March Art & Architecture Thesaurus Taiwan (AAT-Taiwan) System officially launched at the 2010 Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program Exhibition  Official Website: http://aat.teldap.tw  Of the total 34000 records, 15000 were translated by March 2010  Assessment on future sustainable development of AAT-Taiwan April 20 Workshop on the Construction and Multilingualization of a Lexical Knowledge Base in Academia Sinica  AAT-Taiwan and the Sinica Bow (Chinese WordNet) share methods and experience of the projects  Lewis Yeh from the Department of Asian Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art also attended the workshop. June License Agreement and Letter of Agreement for Contributions were signed by the Getty and TELDAP
    10. 10. 2010 June 2~7 AAT-Taiwan Workshop IV in Academia Sinica  Dr. Dagobert Soergel of SUNY Buffalo was invited to Academia Sinica to share his insight with the AAT-Taiwan research team.  Discussion includes: methodology, equivalence mapping, translation, and future strategic development.  Special Speech for AAT-Taiwan Workshop : Illuminating Chaos, Using Semantics to Harness the Web (Dr. Dagobert Soergel) August 23~26 Multilingual Vocabulary Project Workshop (Workshop V) in Getty  Members of the Multilingual Vocabulary Working Group (set up in October 2009 by GRI) will attend to discuss project progress and issues, including Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales (DIBAM, Chile), Netherlands Institute for Art History (Netherland), and State Museums of Berlin/Institute for Museum Research (Germany) September 6~10 ECDL 2010 (Workshop V ) in Glasgow  Attend the poster session of European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL) at Glasgow this fall.  Poster accepted : AAT-Taiwan: Toward a Multilingual Access to Cultural Objects
    11. 11. 11 Introductions – task forces  This project is comprised of five task forces: – Methodology R&D – Equivalence Mapping – Translation – Localization, Creation of New Concepts and Contribution – Technical and Functional development – Research & collaboration – System Maintenance & Service
    12. 12. 12 The Framework Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註撰寫 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) Expert Group 專家團隊 (E) Contribution 詞彙貢獻 (C)
    13. 13. 13 Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Sources 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence • mapped to a broader or narrower term • determine the importance of this concept • pass on the concept to (N)
    14. 14. 14 Translation (T) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 翻譯 Translation (T) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) 前置作業 (T1) Preparation for Translation 確認翻譯內容 (T1_I) Identify Translation Materials 資料整理 / 更新 (T1_F) File compilation and update 翻譯 (T2) Translation 募集兼任譯者 (T1_R) Translators recruitment 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 譯者品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Scope Note 範圍註 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system • translate matched AAT terms • add required fields in AAT- Taiwan (additional note, sources, variant terms, transliterated Chinese term, etc ) • translate the terms into English, submit to AAT 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment review (a) approved (b) revision
    15. 15. 15 Scope Note of New Concept (N) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 範圍註撰寫 Scope note of new concept (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 遵循 Getty 和 TELDAP 的指引 Follow editorial guideline to create a record in Chinese 搜集資料 (N1) Data Collection 參考權威資料 Authoritative References 增加相關圖檔 ( N 3) Find images Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 校訂 (T3) Proofread 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence review approved
    16. 16. 16 Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) Expert Group (E) 專家審訂 Expert Group (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 前置作業 (E1) Preparation 確認內容 (E1_I) Identify Content 審訂表整理更新 (E1_F) File compilation and update Scope Note 範圍註 (N) 完成新增中文詞彙所有的欄位資料 (N3) Create a new record with required fields 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 專家修訂 (E2_RE) Revision by Expert 範圍註準確性 (E2_NA) Scope Note Accuracy 翻譯準確性 (E2_TA) Translation Accuracy Content experts need to verify the accuracy of the provided terms. If they determine it’s accurate, then the data will be inputted into the system; if not, revision is needed before the data can be submitted to AAT and AAT-Taiwan. System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system review (a) approved (b) reject or modified 中翻英 (T2_EC) English to ChineseTranslation
    17. 17. 17 Contribution (C) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註撰寫 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) Expert Group 專家團隊 (E) Contribution 詞彙貢獻 (C)
    18. 18. 18 Current Outcomes
    19. 19. Translation Progress Update last updated: 2010/6/1 Total Terms in AAT-Taiwan : 12165
    20. 20. 20 Chinese Pinyin Records contributed to the AAT must include at least one transliterated (i.e. Romanized) term, in addition to the term(s) rendered with Chinese characters. At least one of the transliterated terms for each record should be in the Pinyin or Wade-Giles transliteration schemes...“
    21. 21. Contribution of New Concepts  17 cultural-specific concepts are contributed to AAT
    22. 22. 22 For Example :
    23. 23. 23 Search Result
    24. 24. 24 corresponding images Terms in different language
    25. 25. 25 Switch to English
    26. 26. 26 External links
    27. 27. 27 Citation
    28. 28. 28 Link to Content Expert
    29. 29. 29 External Link to AAT Taiwan : MCN Taiwan MuseFusion System MuseFusion adopts the following standards: • CDWA Lite • CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects) • AAT (Art & Architecture Thesaurus) TELDAP Union Catalog 41 Results for “graves” AAT-Taiwan
    30. 30. External Link to AAT Taiwan : Wikipedia
    31. 31. 31 From User’s Perspective (1) User searches for a term in AAT- Taiwan via query /browse (3) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from MCN Taiwan MuseFusion (5) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog (2) Use Subject ID to retrieve equivalent English term in AAT (4) Use the same Term to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog Adopt the following standards: • CDWA Lite • CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects) • AAT
    32. 32. Core Members Members Detail Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program, Program Office Project Coordination (mapping, translation, system maintenance & update) D.T. Lee, Sophy Chen (Project Coordinators) Full-Time: 3 | Part-Time: 4 Research and Development of Digital Archives and e-Learning Technologies Project AAT-Taiwan System Development Shih Lin Full-Time Assistance(s) : 1 Core Platforms for Digital Content Project Collaboration with TELDAP Union Catalogue Keh-jiann Chen Metadata Architecture and Application Team System Assessment Taiwan Digital Archives Expansion Project Assist in Mapping Taiwan Digital Archives Expansion Project, Map and Architecture Thematic Group Assist in Mapping International Collaboration and Promotion of Taiwan e-Learning & Digital Archives Program Assist in Translation
    33. 33. Expert Group Domain Experts Colors Hsu, Ming-ching; Associate Professor, Department of Information and Communication, Chinese Culture University (Expertise : image duplicate technology, electronic publishing, digital image processing, Colour science) Chinese Calligraphy Lu, Hui-Wen; Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Art History, National Taiwan Normal University (Expertise : Calligraphy) Chinese Bronzes Hwang, Ming-chorng; Associate Researcher,  Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica (Expertise : Bronze ritual vessels) Chinese Ceramics Shih, Ching-fei; Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Art History, National Taiwan University (Expertise : History of Chinese Ceramics 、 Northern Asian Art History) Chinese Paintings Chen, Margare; Curator of Hwa Kang Museum, Lecturer of Fine Arts Department, Chinese Culture University (Expertise : Art creation, Painting, Art Administrative) Environmental Concepts Dong, Dahui; Assistant Professor, Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies, Chang Jung Christian University (Expertise : translation in Legal, Scientific and Medical fields)
    34. 34. Expenses  September 2008 ~ January 2010 (17 months) TELDAP Program Office Expenses NTD Translation (5~18 translators) 1,024,084 NTD 31,032 USD Full Time Research Assistance (1~4 people) 1,015,000 NTD 30,7578 USD Part Time Assistance (3~4 people) 319,880 NTD 9,693 USD → Total Expenses of 17 months : 2,358,964 NTD (71,484 USD) → Average Monthly Expense : 138,763 NTD (4,205 USD)
    35. 35. 35
    36. 36. AAT-Taiwan Project Workflow: The focus and Methodology employed in each task force Sophy Shu-Jiun Chen, Diane Wu, Pei-Wen Peng & Yung-Ting Chang Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica 2010 AAT-Taiwan Workshop 2010/6/3 (Wed)
    37. 37. 37 AGENDA  Preface  Introductions  Current Outcomes  Methodology  Equivalence Mapping & Translation Issues  Future Strategic Development 37
    38. 38. 38 Methodologies
    39. 39. 39 The Framework Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註撰寫 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) Expert Group 專家團隊 (E) Contribution 詞彙貢獻 (C)
    40. 40. 40 Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Sources 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence • mapped to a broader or narrower term • determine the importance of this concept • pass on the concept to (N)
    41. 41. 4141  There are 3 approaches to identify Chinese terms for equivalence mapping.  1st approach : Equivalence mapping of the terms from specific institutes or organizations. Identify Chinese terms (M1) 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 台灣古建築圖解事典 Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典畫 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 聯合目錄關鍵詞 Chinese key word of TELDAP collection
    42. 42. 4242 Identify Chinese terms (M1) 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity  2nd approach : Equivalence mapping of authoritative references, which may require content expert to select terms for mapping. Dr. Feng-Tyan Lin, the professor  of  Graduate Institute Of Building And Planning, NTU 聯合目錄關鍵詞 Chinese key word of TELDAP collection
    43. 43. 4343 Identify Chinese terms (M1) 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Introduction to Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity  3rd approach : Equivalence mapping of Chinese key words that are extracted from the Union Catalogue. 聯合目錄關鍵詞 Chinese key word of TELDAP collection
    44. 44. 44 Example: Chinese Key words of TELDAP collection 聯合目錄關鍵詞比對 Equivalence Mapping (M) Step 1- 確認關鍵詞有無意義及其屬性 Identify key words and its attribution (Concept or Instance) Step 2- 三種可行的比對辦法 Three feasible approaches to find the equivalent term in AAT-Taiwan 1.Type the key word in AAT-Taiwan 2.Type the key word in possible English term on AAT-Taiwan or Getty AAT 3.search through the possible hierarchy 完全等同 (E.E) Exact Equivalence 進入系統連結 Connect terms in 2 systems 部份等同 (P.E) Partial Equivalence Applied the 34 relations of AAT, Define the nearest position in structure Discuss the importance of that term, and the necessity to create a new concept. 不完全等同 (I.E) Inexact Equivalence Save record in database for future need
    45. 45. 4545 Identify Chinese terms (M1) Original Key : Guangdong 廣東  1st step : Identify key words Equivalence mapping of key words that extract by computer program, which require the mapping team to double check whether the word make sense or not. ( 確認關鍵詞為有意義 ) Title : Guangdong incense burner 廣東熏爐 描述和 / 或圖片 : Description and/ or pictures: Define: Guangdong is a name of a province. As for this collection, the suitable key word should be “incense burner”, as “ 熏爐” in Chinese.
    46. 46. 4646 Identify Chinese terms (M2)  2nd step : 3 feasible approaches to find the equivalent terms Type the key word (Chinese) In AAT-Taiwan: Type the (possible English) key word In AAT-Taiwan or the Getty: Search through the possible Hierarchy in AAT-Taiwan:
    47. 47. 4747 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping (M3_EE) 匯入系統介面,發展連結 input into the interface, and create links Example: Chinese Key word from TELDAP collection: Teapots
    48. 48. 4848 Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping (M3_PE) 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence • mapped to a broader or narrower term • determine the importance of this concept • pass on the concept to (N) Applied the 34 relations of AAT, Define the nearest position in structure Discuss the importance of that term, and the necessity to create a new concept. Example: Chinese Key word from TELDAP collection: 銀錠 (silver ingot)
    49. 49. 4949 Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping (M3_IE) 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence Save record in database for future need 保留紀錄以供將來使用 Example: Chinese Key word from TELDAP collection: 文玩 Evaluate its importance, decide whether to create an new term or not 衡量該詞彙重要性,評估是否需新增詞彙
    50. 50. 50 Translation (T) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 翻譯 Translation (T) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) 前置作業 (T1) Preparation for Translation 確認翻譯內容 (T1_I) Identify Translation Materials 資料整理 / 更新 (T1_F) File compilation and update 翻譯 (T2) Translation 募集兼任譯者 (T1_R) Translators recruitment 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 譯者品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Scope Note 範圍註 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system • translate matched AAT terms • add required fields in AAT- Taiwan (additional note, sources, variant terms, transliterated Chinese term, etc ) • translate the terms into English, submit to AAT 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment review (a) approved (b) revision
    51. 51. 51 Preparation for Translation (T1) 前置作業 (T1) Preparation for Translation 確認翻譯內容 (T1_I) Identify Translation Materials 資料整理 / 更新 (T1_F) File compilation and update 募集兼任譯者 (T1_R) Translators recruitment Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) New Candidate Term 範圍註 (N) T1_I : Select translation terms based on equivalence mapping results (M3) or their relevance with the archived collections. T1_I : Translate the scope note of new candidate term after the content expert approved of the record. T1_F : Provide translators with the following files, Chinese-English terms list (updated weekly), translation reference list, word-count sheet, and copy of English master file. T1_R : Recruit professional translators, maintain a minimum of 10 translators at all time.
    52. 52. 52 Translation (T2) 翻譯 (T2) Translation 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation • translate matched AAT terms • add required fields in AAT- Taiwan (additional note, sources, variant terms, transliterated Chinese term, etc ) • translate the terms into English, submit to AAT T2_EC : clerical script 隸書 is partially equivalence to scripts (writing) Example: Metadata Specification version 1.2 (p23) inscriptions > forms > calligraphy > clerical script 隸書 T2_CE : contribute a new term, clerical script 隸書 Complete form Complete form
    53. 53. 53 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 譯者品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_U : Check for inconsistency in the translations of guide terms according to Chinese-English term list. T3_QC :  Authoritative References  Translation Fluency  Quality Evaluation  Work Attitude  Unified File Format  Answering Questions T3_R : Recruit professional proofreaders, maintain a minimum of 5 proofreaders at all time.
    54. 54. 54 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_U1 : Check for inconsistency in the translations of guide terms according to Chinese-English term list. English guide terms fixed Chinese translation format
    55. 55. 55 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_U2 : Check for inconsistency in the translations of common words according to Chinese-English term list. English words fixed Chinese translation
    56. 56. 56 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_U3 : Update Chinese-English term list when new guide terms are found. Chinese translation new English guide termsupdate date the facet and hierarchy of the new guide term
    57. 57. 57 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC1-1 : Confirm the accuracy of the term translation based on the translation reference list filled out by the translators. Check if the references are reliable; mostly the sources from educational and governmental institutions, or major dictionaries and encyclopedias are preferred, and if the box is left blank, the proofreader has to look up the term to make sure the translation is correct.
    58. 58. 58 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC1-2 : The translators are also provided with a list of authoritative references compiled by us on the internet. The sources include specialized dictionaries, common online dictionaries, glossaries from museums and governmental institutes, etc.
    59. 59. 59 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC2 : Examine the fluency and accuracy of the translations of scope notes. Frequently encountered problems: 1. The Chinese sentences are redundant or awkward, making it hard to understand the meaning. confusing and unreadable
    60. 60. 60 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment 2. The translation is not detailed enough to carry specific information. 3. The meaning of the English text is misunderstood. vague and general a misunderstanding of the meaning
    61. 61. 61 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment 4. The note translation does not match the meaning of the term. 5. Parts of the scope note are not translated. Does not match the term “flammability” translation of this part is missing
    62. 62. 62 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment 6. The term representing a Western concept is mistaken for another term in the Oriental concept. The term refers to an ancient Chinese weapon that looks like… The term represents a Western weapon that looks like… So “partisans” should be transliterated as “ 帕提 森” , plus a translation of “ 刃部寬廣之矛” as the non-preferred term
    63. 63. 63 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment 7. Lack of common sense or carelessness in information-seeking that leads to obvious mistakes. ≠ “coat of arms” (a design on a shield that signifies a particular family, university, or city) is mistaken for “the arms of a coat,” which should be translated into “ 盾徽” instead.
    64. 64. 64 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC3-1 : Decide whether or not the translators are proficient enough to meet our demand for high quality. If more than 50% of a translator’s works are not satisfactory Stop employing the translator
    65. 65. 65 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC3-2 : make sure the translators have good time management ability to meet the deadlines. If a translator does not submit his/her work on time, without informing us of the reasons in advance Stop employing the translator Happening for more than 3 times
    66. 66. 66 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC4-1 : evaluate the translators’ work quality and raise/lower their payment accordingly If a translator keeps a good and stable performance, also having a positive work attitude Give the translator a raise Over a certain period of time
    67. 67. 67 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC4-2 : adjust the translators’ payment according to the level of difficulty of terms from a certain field. If a translator is assigned a group of terms that are highly specialized, and the relevant references are rare Give the translator a raise (case by case) It is challenging to translate
    68. 68. 68 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC5 : establish a set of formats for the reference list, translation sheet and word- count sheet for the translators to follow. to be filled out by the translators reference list
    69. 69. 69 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment translation sheet word-count sheet to be filled out by the translator type the translation in the column to be filled out by the translator fill in the Chinese translation for word count
    70. 70. 70 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC6 : find solutions to the technical questions asked by the translators. Question Types: •About the due date and late submission •About the change of previously translated terms •About the file format •About when to use transliteration The translation forum of AAT-Taiwan Questions and discussions
    71. 71. 71 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_R1 : recruit professional proofreaders, maintaining a minimum of 6 proofreaders at all time Proofreader Academic background Career 陳玉華 (Eva Chen) English language and literature Translator for SDL (UK) 張家綺 (Jia-chi Chang) Foreign languages and literature, translation studies Translator for Xtreme Information (UK) 陳宛萱 (Agnes Chen) Journalism, philosophy Freelance journalist, writer and translator for Radio Nederland Wereldomroep (the Netherlands) and La Vie Magazine (Taiwan) 張瀚云 (Han-yun Chang) English language and literature, history of art and architecture Researcher at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens (USA) 高文萱 (Vanina Kao) History of art, art studies Freelance translator 余慧君 (Hui-chun Yu) Art and archaeology, history of art, Chinese studies Freelance translator
    72. 72. 72 Proofreader Published Works 陳宛萱 (Agnes Chen) Publications: - The Travel of Global Exhibitions, Taipei, Taiwan: La Vie Magazine (My House Publishing), 2008 (Co- writer) - Designology 300, Taipei, Taiwan: La Vie Magazine (My House Publishing), 2008 (Co-writer) - Creative City: Berlin, Taipei, Taiwan: La Vie Magazine (My House publishing), 2008 (Co-writer) - Soong May-ling, Taipei, Taiwan: Vastplain Publishing House, 2003 (Co-writer) - Lei Chen Letters Collection, Taipei, Taiwan: Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003 (Co-writer) - My Childhood: Lo Ta-yu, Taipei, Taiwan: Unitas Publishing Co., 2002 (Co-writer) 高文萱 (Vanina Kao) Translations: - Oil Painting, Cube Mook Publishing, 2003 Research Papers: - The depiction of floating world: Investigation on Philibert-Louis Debucourt’s colour prints made before 1800. M.A. dissertation, History of Art Department, University College London 余慧君 (Hui-chun Yu) Publications: - Qianlong’s Divine Treasures: The Bells in the Rhyming-the-Old Hall (Asia Major, 2009) Research Papers: - “Imperial Glories: Qianlong’s Bronzes from Frontiers,” Association for Asian Studies (AAS) Annual Meeting, Boston, March 2007 - “Intersection of Past and Present: the Qianlong Emperor and His Ancient Bronzes,” Center for the Art of East Asia, University of Chicago, November 2007 - “Whose National Treasures?” Association for Asian Studies (AAS) Annual Meeting, Atlanta, April 2008 張瀚云 (Han-yun Chang) Joint Editors: - Chinese for the exhibition catalogue Treasure through Six Generations: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Weng Collection, edited by T. June Li (UC Press & The Huntington Library Press, 2009) - Another World Lies Beyond: Creating Liu Fang Yuan, The Huntington’s Chinese Garden, edited by T. June Li (UC Press & The Huntington Library Press, 2008) Research Papers: - “He Tianjian (1891-1977) and Defense of Guohua” (Ph D diss., University of California, 2007) Publications: - English and Chinese entries for the exhibition catalogue Double Beauty—Qing Dynasty Couplets from the Lechangzai Xuan Collection, co-edited by Jason C. Kuo and Peter C. Sturman (The Chinese
    73. 73. 73 Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_R2 : give the proofreaders a training and test their abilities before employing them provide them with proofreading guidelines (T3_QC1~6) Assign the proofreader a workload of about 30-40 terms a week, keep overseeing his/her performance and give suggestions when needed let them do proofreading for one or two weeks on trial to see if they are competent No Stop Yes +
    74. 74. 74 Proofread (T3)  The proofreaders are asked to highlight the problems they meet with in the translation sheets.  After the proofreaders submitted their work, the translation sheets would be reviewed in two ways:  Detailed review = second proofreading  Quick review = scanning through and addressing those highlighted problems  The two ways are adopted simultaneously, with at least one proofreader’s work being reviewed in-depth at one time, in order to evaluate each proofreader’s ability for stable performance on a regular basis.
    75. 75. 75 Proofread (T3) 6 proofreaders turn in their work Pick proofreader A’s work for detailed review Other 5 proofreaders’ work is checked in quick review The Review Process (the first round) Therefore, in the second round, proofreader B’s work is picked for detailed review, while other 5 proofreaders’ work is checked in quick review. The rest can be deduced accordingly.
    76. 76. 76 Scope Note of New Concept (N) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 範圍註撰寫 Scope note of new concept (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 遵循 Getty 和 TELDAP 的指引 Follow editorial guideline to create a record in Chinese 搜集資料 (N1) Data Collection 參考權威資料 Authoritative References 增加相關圖檔 ( N 3) Find images Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 校訂 (T3) Proofread 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence review approved
    77. 77. 77 Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) Expert Group (E) 專家審訂 Expert Group (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 前置作業 (E1) Preparation 確認內容 (E1_I) Identify Content 審訂表整理更新 (E1_F) File compilation and update Scope Note 範圍註 (N) 完成新增中文詞彙所有的欄位資料 (N3) Create a new record with required fields 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 專家修訂 (E2_RE) Revision by Expert 範圍註準確性 (E2_NA) Scope Note Accuracy 翻譯準確性 (E2_TA) Translation Accuracy Content experts need to verify the accuracy of the provided terms. If they determine it’s accurate, then the data will be inputted into the system; if not, revision is needed before the data can be submitted to AAT and AAT-Taiwan. System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system review (a) approved (b) reject or modified 中翻英 (T2_EC) English to ChineseTranslation
    78. 78. 78 Content Verification(E2)  Experts need to fill out the content verification form Possible hierarchical Position suggested by TELDAP to the experts Expert provides new scope note, broader term, narrower term, related term, and synomyms References And images
    79. 79. 79 Chinese to English Translation(T2_CE)  The experts recheck the English translation before contribution
    80. 80. 8080 Expert Group (E) 中國書體 Chinese Script 盧慧紋老師 Hui- Wen Lu 台灣大學藝術史研究所 助理教授 Assistant Professor Graduate Institute of Art History, National Taiwan University 普林斯頓大學藝術考古研究所博士 Ph.D., Princeton University 專長領域 Expertise: 中國書法史 History of Chinese Calligraphy 西方收藏東亞藝術研究 Collection and Study of East Asian Art in the West 色彩學 Color 徐明景老師 Ming-Ching Hsu 中國文化大學資訊傳播學系 副教授 Associate Professor Department of Information And Communication Chinese Culture University 美國羅徹斯特大學 影像色彩科學碩士 MA, Rochester University 專長領域 Expertise: 影像複製科技 Image duplicate technology 電子出版 Electronic publishing 數位影像處理 Digital image processing 色彩科學 Color Science 中國青銅禮器 Bronze ritual vessels 黃銘崇老師 Ming-Chorng Hwang 中研院史語所 副研究員 Associate Researcher Institute of History and Philology 美國哈佛大學 東亞系博士 Ph.D., Harvard University East Asia Study 專長領域 Expertise: 青銅禮器 Bronze Ritual Vessels
    81. 81. 8181 Expert Group (E)- Forms for Expert’s inspection E2 偏好詞彙是否恰當? Is the prefer term appropriate 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 同義詞是否恰當? Is the synonym appropriate? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 詞彙英譯是否正確? Is the translation correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : E3 對照到的 AAT 架構是否恰當? Is the structure that matched appropriate? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 建議架構 suggest sturcture : E4 範圍註內容是否正確? Is the content of scope note corrct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : E5 上位詞是否正確? Is the broader term correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 下位詞是否正確? Is the narrower term correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 相關詞彙的關聯性是否恰當? Is the related term appropriate? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : E6 參考文獻是否具有權威性? Is the reference authoritative? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 建議參考文獻 suggest reference : 補充資料是否具有參考價值? Is the additional information valuable? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 建議參考文獻 suggest to add : 其他建議: Other suggestion: 中文概念詞彙 Terms of Chinese concept
    82. 82. 8282 Expert Group (E)- Forms for Expert’s inspection E2 詞彙中譯是否正確? Is the translation correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 若有一個以上的中譯,何者較為普 遍 ( 即 : 偏好詞彙 ) ? If there’s more than one translation, which one is more common (preferred term?) 原因 / 參考資料 reason/ reference: E3 AAT 的架構是否恰當? Is the structure in AAT appropriate? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 建議架構 suggest sturcture : E4 範圍註內容是否正確? Is the content of scope note correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : E5 上位詞是否正確? Is the broader term correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 下位詞是否正確? Is the narrower term correct? 是 Yes □ 否 No □ 更正 correct : 其他建議: Other suggestion: Original terms from the Getty
    83. 83. 8383 Expert Group (E) 2. 色彩 Color 故宮後設資料需求書 Metadata of National Palace Museum 中國書體詞彙組 Chinese Scripts Those 5 terms are meant for the inscription of bronze vessels, which are not comprehensive to present the whole picture of Chinese scripts. Suggestion: Based on the 5 categories above, add their own subcategory terms, contributing 17 terms in total. Expert Group 篆書 seal script 鳥蟲書 Bird-worm seal script 隸書 clerical script 行草書 running cursive script 楷書 standard script 篆書 seal script 隸書 clerical script 楷書 standard script 行書 running script 草書 cursive script 1. 書體 Chinese Scripts
    84. 84. 8484 Expert Group (E) 中國書體 Chinese Script 篆書 Seal script 隸書 Clerical script 楷書 Standard script 行書 Running script 草書 Cursive script (1) 甲骨文 Oracle Bone script (2) 金文 Bronze inscriptions (3) 大篆 Great seal script (4) 小篆 Small seal script (1) 秦隸 Qin Clerical script (2) 漢隸 Han Clerical script (1) 行楷 Running-standard script (2) 行草 Running-cursive script (1) 章草 Draft cursive Script (2) 今草 Modern cursive script (3) 狂草 Wild cursive script
    85. 85. 8585 Expert Group (E) 3. 禮器 Ritual Vessels Objects Facet 19 terms in total Firstly exam 19 terms in total Two main problems: 1. The content of scope note could be written in a more standard manner. 2. The list of ritual vessels is not comprehensive yet to present some important Ritual vessels in Chinese Culture. Ritual Vessels ... ding (ritual vessels) 鼎 … dou 豆 … gu (ritual vessles) 觚 … gui 簋 ... he 盉 ... Expert Group
    86. 86. 8686 Expert Group (E) 2. 色彩 Color Physical Attributes Facet Color 578 terms in total Firstly exam 290 terms in total (Part 1) Two main problems: 1. The scope notes tend to focus on architecture field 2. The whole structure of color is not complete enough Color ... colors (hues or tints) ... <color and color-related phenomena> Expert Group
    87. 87. 8787 Expert Group (E) Experts Suggestion: • Consult with Getty about the possibility to adjust the structure • Standardize content of scope note, take ritual vessels for example, the content could be: 1. disruption of vessels shape ( 器型描述 ) 2. function ( 功能 ) 3. date and history( 年代歷史 ) • Invite other experts from the fields of color and bronze vessels for further discussion regarding the feasible adjustment.
    88. 88. 88 Contribution (C) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註撰寫 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) Expert Group 專家團隊 (E) Contribution 詞彙貢獻 (C)
    89. 89. 89 Contributing to the Getty  All contributors need to follow the extensive editorial manuals available online  Required Fields for AAT • preferred term • variant terms: alternate descriptor (singular/plural) • sources for the terms • scope note • source(s) for the scope note
    90. 90. 90 Contribution Guideline for TELDAP  Records contributed by TELDAP to the AAT must include at least one transliterated (i.e. Romanized) term, in addition to the term(s) rendered with Chinese character.  At least one of the transliterated terms for each record should be in the Pinyin or Wade-Giles transliteration schemes – 72571 Chinese (traditional) – 72572 Chinese (simplified) – 72581 Chinese (transliterated) – 72582 Chinese (transliterated Wade-Giles) – 72583 Chinese (transliterated Pinyin)
    91. 91. 91  Compile a contribution list of new terms Preferred Parent Preferred Term variant terms Scope Note
    92. 92. 92  Log on to Getty’s contribution website to submit new terms
    93. 93. 93  The new terms are assigned temporary TELDAP IDs before receiving the official Getty IDs.
    94. 94. 94
    95. 95. A Close Look at Equivalence Mapping & Translation Issues Sophy Shu-Jiun Chen, Pei-Wen Peng & Yung-Ting Chang Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica 2010 AAT-Taiwan Workshop 2010/6/3 (Thursday)
    96. 96. 96 AGENDA  Preface  Introductions  Current Outcomes  Methodology  Equivalence Mapping & Translation Issues  Future Strategic Development 96
    97. 97. 97 Mapping Issues
    98. 98. 9898 The Task Forces of Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調小組 (C) Equivalence Mapping (M) Methodology R&D Translation & Contribution (T) Localization & Creation of New Concepts Expert Group (E) Scope Note of New Concept (N) System Development (S)
    99. 99. 99 Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Sources 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence • mapped to a broader or narrower term • determine the importance of this concept • pass on the concept to (N)
    100. 100. 100100 A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issues - 1  How to ensure the accurate results of equivalence mapping – Problem of Insufficient Chinese references – need to determine the importance of this concept in relation to our culture. – It is a key to invite domain experts to participate in the process  Partial equivalence with cultural-specific concepts – Carefully evaluate and provide AAT with enhanced version of Asia-related art and cultural concepts.  Compound Terms – Some of Chinese terms are presented as compound terms, which need to be separated into individual concept before mapping to the appropriate term in AAT.
    101. 101. 101101 A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issues - 2  When the Chinese terms are from collection institutes – Every institution has its own classification method and terms, we need to re-examine and sometimes adapt to their logic in order to find the matching concept in AAT. – We need to determine when it is necessary for a Chinese term to become an individual concept, and whether to add a descriptor or be a none preferred term.  preferred term vs. non-preferred term – what should be the divide line between preferred and non- preferred term? – If the official name of a term is rarely used, is it still the preferred term?
    102. 102. 102102102 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Terms in specific fields When terms related to some specific fields, for example: architecture, the mapping team find it is difficult to search the equivalent word, or sometimes even the suitable hierarchy. Take Chinese building- temple for example. In order to get the correct result, what we need to conquer is not only the language barrier, but also the unique concepts of Asian type of building style. The mapping team needs to undergo some research, and sometimes even have to consult with experts in that domain.
    103. 103. 103103 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 1: temples (one-to-many relationships) The word “temples” is frequently considered as an equivalent term “ 廟 miao” in Chinese. However, due to different purposes of the building and the spirit that it worships, names of religious buildings in Taiwan are varied. (including: ci 祠 , si 寺 , an 庵 , guan 觀 , yan 巖… etc.) Temples (buildings) (religious buildings, <religious structures>, ... Built Environment (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Buildings housing places devoted to the worship of a deity or deities. In the strictest sense, it refers to the dwelling place of a deity, and thus often houses a cult image. In modern usage a temple is generally a structure, but it was originally derived from the Latin "templum" and historically has referred to an uncovered place affording a view of the surrounding region. For Christian or Islamic religious buildings the terms "churches" or "mosques" are generally used, but an exception is that "temples" is used for Protestant, as opposed to Roman Catholic, places of worship in France and some French-speaking regions. The mapping team has found that “temple” in AAT is broader than the concept in Chinese, that is one-to-many relationship. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish the differences in each Chinese terms before mapping.
    104. 104. 104104 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 1: temples (one-to-many relationships)Case 1: temples (one-to-many relationships) Despite the similar appearance, each of them has slight difference from the others. Miao( 廟 ): In the past, it was a place to worship ancestors. Since Han dynasty, it had been used as a place both worship ancestor and the spirits. •ci ( 祠 ): It is built for the purpose to worship/ commemorate saints, or some famous scholars, poets, people with great achievement. Sometimes also refers to those places that worship ancestors. • si ( 寺 ): Generally refers to a place that worship the Buddhist spirits. Sometimes it also refers to the place where buddhist monk live. • an ( 庵 ): used to refers to scholars’ study place ( 書齋 ). Nowadays it refers to where Buddhist nuns live. • guan( 觀 ): only refers to Taoist building • yan( 巖 ): refers to those miaos( 廟 ) established nearby or at mountain. Q1. The mapping team has found only “Miao” is exact equivalent to the term temples (building). Is it more feasible to include rest of the terms “ci, si, an .guan, yan” directly under temples? Or should them be separately categorized into other guide terms such as <temples by function>?
    105. 105. 105105105 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 2: 藻井 caisson? (unable to identify the equivalence of TL & SL) When encountered a relatively uncommon concept, for example: 藻井 , the mapping team has to undergo a certain level of research before mapping. Step1: search the definition of “ 藻井” and possible term in English Literately “algae well”, can also be called as “ 蜘蛛結網、龍井、綺井、天井、方 井、復海、斗八 ” , refers to a traditional ceiling component in Chinese building, that is generally a sunken panel set into the otherwise largely flat ceiling. It is often layered and richly decorated. Common shapes include square, octagon, hexagon, circle, and a combination of these. But in AAT, "coffer" can also be translated into " 藻井 ", and its non-preferred terms include "caisson". Other translations of "coffer" include 方格鑲板 and 平頂 鑲板 , which makes it hard to identify the most authoritative translation.
    106. 106. 106106106 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 2: 藻井 caisson? (unable to identify the equivalence of TL & SL) Step 2: Search with possible English term or Search through possible hierarchy
    107. 107. 107107107 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 3: 雙獅座 lion stand 、麒麟座 Kylin stand Step 1. the definition of 雙獅座、麒麟座 : A Dou, locates on transverse beam, with the function to distribute the weight of roof to the walls or columns. It is often curved in lions, kylin, elephant, melons for the auspicious meaning. ( 斗座的一種,位於橫樑之上,具有承托穩定的功能,將屋頂的重量傳遞到屋牆 或柱子上,最常見雕刻獅、麒麟、象、花果等吉祥造形。 ) Lion stand Kylin stand When encountered a relatively uncommon concept like this, the mapping team has to undergo a certain level of research before mapping.
    108. 108. 108108108 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 2: 雙獅座 lion stand 、麒麟座 Kylin stand Dou 斗座 Description: it locates at the middle of arch or the wooden components at the two sides. The main function of it is to distribute the vertical weight from whatever lays on the top of it, and then transfer the stress to the column or beam below. 描述:位於栱中心或兩端的木構件 ( 位置描述 ), 其主要的功能為傳遞上方的 垂直載重 , 並將之傳遞至下方的柱或樑上 ( 功能描述 ) 左斗 (Left Dou) 右斗 右斗 (Right Dou) Step 2. Search reference information of Dou
    109. 109. 109109109 Lack of authoritative informationLack of authoritative information Case 2: 雙獅座 lion stand 、麒麟座 Kylin stand The mapping team could temporarily categorize “Dou” as the narrower term of <supporting and resisting elements>, while both Lion and Kylin stands are the narrower term of Dou. However, the mapping team suggests that the relation should delegate to experts in this field for optimum result. ( 暫時將斗座歸類於 < 支撐與抗力元素 > 之下位詞,並將麒麟、雙獅座歸類於斗 座下位,仍須與專家諮詢確認。 ) <supporting and resisting elements> (<structural elements>, <structural elements and structural element components>, ... Components (Hierarchy Name)) Step 3. Find the possible hierarchical position of Dou by its function
    110. 110. 110110110 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures Human figures can be found on many objects, such as on paintings, the surface of vessels or as a component of architectural structure. figures (representations) (<visual works by subject type>, <visual works (Guide Term)>, ... Visual and Verbal Communication) Note: Representations of humans, animals, or mythical beasts, in any medium. However, when it comes to human figures showing on objects, the mapping team find it is quite ambiguous to define the suitable structure that it belongs to. Lades of Tang Dynasty 明唐寅倣唐人仕女
    111. 111. 111111 New Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures The mapping team finds that the figures above are bounded by the concepts motifs, and therefore can only be categorized into <figure- and animal-derived motifs>. However, sometimes a term can also be found in Agents Facet, for example “ 帝王 monarch” Q2 : We have tons of figures of Chinese characters, should we contribute all of them?
    112. 112. 112112 Take the figure in the painting for example, this term can be found in Agents Facet ( 帝王 monarch), New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures 宋代帝半身像 宋徽宗 monarchs (rulers (people), <people in government and administration>, ... People) Note: Absolute rulers of sovereign states, usually by hereditary succession. The term is generally used as a substitute for the specific title of the sovereign, for example, "king," "queen," or "emperor." Q3. Which hierarchy position is more appropriate? Should it be categorized as a motif rather than an agent?
    113. 113. 113113 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures monks (religious (people), <people in religion>,... people) 明文從簡禮佛圖 軸
    114. 114. 114114114 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures There are a couple of positions that might be suitable: • physical Attribute Facet • Agent Facet (*according to Getty’s suggestion)
    115. 115. 115115115 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human Figures putti (motifs) (<figure- and animal-derived motifs>, motifs, ... Design Elements) Note: Motifs representing chubby, sometimes winged and naked figures of little boys, derived from Greco-Roman depictions of Eros. Common in art from Renaissance through the 18th century. Under <figure- and animal-derived motifs>, terms like putti and mascarons are similar to human figures:
    116. 116. 116116116 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human Figures mascarons (<figure- and animal-derived motifs>, motifs, ... Design Elements) Note: Motifs representing grotesque or otherwise caricatured faces of humans or animals, usually viewed frontally; found in various architectural and decorative arts contexts. Hierarchical Position Additional Position
    117. 117. 117117117 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 1: Chinese human figures In Chinese culture, human figures are widely used on objects: Q4. Based on those examples above, there are 3 possible positions for the Chinese human figures: 1. Figures (representations), <visual works by subject type>,…Object Facet 2. People (agent), people, Agent Facet 3. figure- and animal derived-motifs>,motif,…Physical Attributes Facet Which one is more appropriate? Bamboo pen holder with human figures 竹雕山水人物筆筒 famille rose vase with lade figure 粉彩西洋仕女圓瓶 White porcelain baby shaped pillow 白瓷嬰兒枕
    118. 118. 118118118 New Concept:New Concept: Case 2: ink v.s. inkstick (one-to-many relationships) ink (<coating by form>, coating (material), ... Materials (Hierarchy Name)) Note: A fluid medium used for drawings or tracings. An opaque, usually black, pigment is mixed with a vehicle such as water to produce a fluid which can be applied with a pen or stylus. Through the end of the 19th century, ink was supplied dried in stick or block form which was ground and mixed with water as needed. At the beginning of this century prepared ink became popular. Ink (liquid)= 墨 水 Ink (stick) = 墨條
    119. 119. 119119119 New Concept:New Concept: Case 2: ink v.s. inkstick (one-to-many relationships) In Chinese culture, ink often appears as a dried stick, that plays a significant role of valuable collection. Q5. Is it feasible to create a term “ink stick” under objects facet, along with ink (material), and establish multiple parents (under <drafting, drawing and writing equipment by specific type> and desk set ?
    120. 120. 120120120 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: compound nouns as a set term In Chinese culture, the term “ 文房四寶” , literally “four treasuries in the study”, stands for four most common writing equipments: • brush pens ( 毛 筆 ) • papers ( 紙 ) • inkstones 硯 • inksticks ( 墨條 )
    121. 121. 121121121 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: compound nouns as a set term inkstones (<drafting, drawing and writing equipment by specific type>, <drafting, drawing and writing equipment>, ... Furnishings and Equipment) Note: Stones with hollows or depressions deeper at one end than at the other; used for preparing calligrapher's ink. paper (fiber product) (<fiber products>, <fiber and fiber products>, ... Materials (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Refers generally to all types of thin matted or felted sheets or webs of fiber formed and dried on a fine screen from a pulpy water suspension. The fibers may be animal, such as hair, silk or wool, or mineral, such as asbestos, or synthetic. However most paper is made from cellulosic plant fiber, such as from wood pulp, grass, cotton, linen, and straw.
    122. 122. 122122122 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: compound nouns as a set term • brush pens ( 毛筆 ) • inksticks ( 墨條 )
    123. 123. 123123123 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 3: compound nouns as a set term desk sets (sets (groups), <object groupings by general context>, ... Object Groupings and Systems) Note: Sets of matching articles intended to be used on a desk including such articles as inkstands, pen trays, and stampboxes. Q6. Is it possible to create a new concept for the compound term “ 文房四寶” , under set (groups) in line with desk sets? Or is it better to remain its four components separating in different hierarchies?
    124. 124. 124124124 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: a set term stands for broader meaning 文玩 (Wenwan) •   A word combined with two words “ 文物 cultural object” and “ 古玩 antique curio”.     ( 文玩兼有文物與古玩的特點 ) •   It specifically refers to those objects used in the educated people’s reading room, including those writing equipments, small tools and decorations. ( 特指文人書齋中的書寫設備、小工具和擺飾 ) •   It represents the culture of reading room, by combining the practical function of educated people’s study equipments and art crafts for people’s appreciation. ( 文玩是種書齋文化,結合了文人書生的實用器物與具觀賞價值的藝術品 ) •   Common objects including: ink stones, seals, washing vessels, fine sculptured decoration…etc. “Elegant” and “exquisite” are its essential characters. ( 文玩為以下器物的泛稱 : 古硯、印章、洗器、牙雕…等,“雅” 與“巧”是其基本特徵 ) •   It is produced in a highly artistic manner. Nowadays it has become popular collection that values more as an artifact than equipment. ( 以高藝術性的方式製造,現今多為賞而勿用的文房珍玩 )
    125. 125. 125125125 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: a set term stands for broader meaning • lotus pod shaped vessel for injecting water 雙蓮房水注 • banana leaf shaped wooden plate 癭木蕉葉盤 • olive stone boat sculpture 果核小舟 • blue snuff bottle 藍地金星套料鼻煙 壺 • lotus leaf shaped washing vessel 白玉荷葉式洗 • seal 鴛錦雲章循 連環田黃石印 • ivory desk tidy 象牙 雕山水人物筆筒
    126. 126. 126126126 New Concept: Cultural DifferenceNew Concept: Cultural Difference Case 4: a set term stands for broader meaning desk sets (sets (groups), <object groupings by general context>, ... Object Groupings and Systems) Note: Sets of matching articles intended to be used on a desk including such articles as inkstands, pen trays, and stamp boxes. Q7. Is it feasible to create a new term “Wenwan” in the desk sets structure that is parallel to desk sets? Do we need to establish multiple parents to link all the objects that can be called as Wenwan?
    127. 127. 127 Translation Issues
    128. 128. 128 A Summary of Translation Issues  Non-English terms (TP 1) – Interpretation difficulty due to non-English terms  Single (Eng.) to Multiple (Chi.) (TP 2~4) – When English terms have broader meanings  Multiple (Eng.) to Single (Chi.) (TP 5~6) – When Chinese terms have broader meanings  Insufficient information (TP 7~12) – Problems occurring in term & scope note  Japanese terms (TP 13) – Kanji vs. Chinese character  References in the scope notes (TP 14) – How to display the references  Classification to be clarified (TP 15~17) – Ritual vs. Ceremonial, Ceremonial Objects vs. Li Qi, Chinese Ritual Objects (li qi) in AAT  Non-distinguishable Chinese translation (TP 18) – Similar terms with overlapping meanings Out of 7298 proofread terms, the number of the occurred translation problems is 622, mostly resulting from non-English terms or insufficient information (no scope note).
    129. 129. 129 Translation Problems 1 : Non-English Terms (1/1) EX1: Dutch  ID: 300264492  Record Type: concept Beweging van Tachtig Note: Dutch literary movement of the 1880s, the members of which were young writers and poets determined to express real emotions in highly individualistic language, avoiding cliché and traditional rhetoric. Notable members included Willem Kloos, Jacques Perk, Frederik van Eeden, and Hélène Swarth. EX2: French  ID: 300265531 Record Type: concept mises en carte Note: Layouts marked on a card or paper, used as guides for motifs for weaving or lacemaking. EX3: Russian  ID: 300178577 Record Type: concept lubki Note: Russian popular prints of the 18th and 19th centuries.  These words are from foreign languages other than English, no previous translation available, and difficult to transliterate without proper understanding of the languages. The translators can only make a close guess on their pronunciation. Q1: Can the transliteration base on English pronunciation of the word? A: Keep the original spelling of the word, and transliterate it when the pronunciation is confirmed. Q2: Do we have to provide Han Yu Pin In of these terms to AAT?
    130. 130. 130 Translation Problems 2 : When English terms have broader meanings (1/1)  EX1 : Guide term < xxx by location or context > 先導詞 < 依地點或背景區分之 xxx> <gardens by location or context> < 依地點和脈絡區分之庭園 > <organizations by location or context> < 依地點或背景區分之 組織 >  EX2: Guide term < xxx by location or context > 先導詞 < 依位置或脈絡區分之 xxx> <structures by location or context> < 依地點位置或背景脈絡區分之結構 > <coating by location or context> < 依地點位置或背景脈絡區分之塗層 > <paintings by location or context> < 依地點位置或背景脈絡區分之繪畫 作品 >  Location can be translated into 地點 (di dian = geographical location) and 位 置 (wei zhi = position).  Context can be translated into 背景 (bei jing = background) and 脈絡 (mo luo = situation or condition).  To avoid confusion, the translation team has decided to use both Chinese terms in translating “location and “context”, so < xxx by location or context > becomes < 依地點位置或背景脈絡區分之 xxx> Q: Is this approach acceptable? A: Yes.
    131. 131. 131 Translation Problems 3 : When English terms have broader meanings (1/3)  EX3: Guide term < xxx components> 先導詞 <xxx 組件 >  Originally “components” is set to be translated as 組件 (zu jian).  But since the words come before “components” could vary greatly in their properties or attributes, it’d be weird to apply 組件 (zu jian) to all of them.  Now “components” has a variety of translations to choose from, such as: • 組件 (zu jian) (ex: weapon components 武器組件 ) • 構造 (gou zao) (ex: egg components 蛋的構造 ) • 成分 (cheng fen) (ex: material components 材料成分 ) • 構成要素 (gou cheng yao su) (ex: motion picture components 電影購成要素 ) • 結構 (jie gou) (ex: watercraft components 船舶結構 )
    132. 132. 132 Translation Problems 3 : When English terms have broader meanings (2/3)  The same approach may apply to terms such as temple, structure, space, artifact, etc. 神殿 (shen dian) 神廟 (shen miao) temple structure Greek temple Hindu temple Dao temple 寺 (si) Buddhist temple 結構體 (jie gou ti) 結構 (jie gou) social structure garden structure residential structure 建築 (jian zhu)
    133. 133. 133 Translation Problems 3 : When English terms have broader meanings (3/3) Q: Is this approach acceptable? space 場所 (chang suo) 空間 (kong jian) assembly space open space artifact 人工製品 (ren gong zhi pin) Information artifact cultural artifact 工藝品 (gong yi pin)
    134. 134. 134 Translation Problems 4 : When English terms have broader meanings (1/2) EX1:  ID: 300053660 Record Type: concept stitching (<processes and techniques by specific type>, <processes and techniques>, Processes and Techniques) Note: Refers to the process of fastening, joining, closing, uniting, mending, or creating ornamentation by stitches, which are the portions of thread left in fabric or another material by the in and out movement of a threaded needle through the thickness or surface of the material, or the loops of thread created on a needle in knitting or other needlework. In the context of textiles and needleworking, its meaning overlaps with "sewing." In the context of bookbinding, it refers to the fastening together a number of leaves or gatherings by passing the thread or wire through all of the sheets at once; it is distinct from "sewing," which, in the context of bookbinding, is used for the joining of leaves or gatherings together one by one by drawing thread or wire backwards and forwards through the back fold of each sheet to attach it to the cords. 縫綴 / 縫訂 (< 依特定種類區分之過程與技術 >, < 過程與技術 >, 過程與技術 ) 範圍註:意指藉由針線進出穿過材料或其表面的動作,將針腳留在布料或其他材料上,或是在編織或針織時形成 針目,以固定、結合、閉合、合併、修補或製作裝飾的過程。若指涉的是紡織品與手工繡品方面,則其意義與「縫 紉 (sewing) 」一詞重疊。若指涉的是書籍裝幀方面,則意指將若干頁面或疊層,用線或金屬線一次穿過所有紙張固 定在一起。而「線訂( sewing )」在書籍裝幀方面,是指用針線或金屬線,在一疊書頁的摺縫處上下穿梭,使其與 裝訂線固定的方法。  In different contexts (bookbinding vs. needleworking), the meaning of stitching may change accordingly. In AAT, two kinds of meanings are explained in the same record, but when translating the term into Chinese, there will be two ways of translation, 縫綴 (feng zhui) for needleworking and 縫訂 (feng ding) for bookbinding. The same problem occurs in the record of sewing (ID: 300053658). Stiching in needleworking Stiching in bookbinding
    135. 135. 135 Translation Problems 4 : When English terms have broader meanings (2/2) EX2:  300266238 Record Type: concept maculatures (<prints by process or technique>, prints (visual works), ... Visual and Verbal Communication) Note: Prints made by taking a second impression without reinking the plate, often used for cleaning the plate. May also refer to blotting paper. Also used for scrap paper that can reinforce fabric in Medieval embroidery.  The term maculatures could be used in three different contexts (prints, blotting paper, and scrap paper) , and there are three kinds of translations ( 吸墨紙版畫、吸墨紙、固定刺繡布料的紙片 ). EX3:  300266238 Record Type: concept patios (<uncovered spaces>, <rooms and spaces by form>, ... Components (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Paved recreation areas adjoining contemporary houses and the paved interior courts of Spanish or Spanish-style buildings.  The term refers to two types of open spaces, so the translations could be 屋外休憩區 or ( 西班牙 ) 內院 . Q: In this case, since the record contains multiple meanings, it’s not a problem of which one being the preferred term, so how should the Chinese translations be displayed? Spanish patio Patio adjoining a house
    136. 136. 136 Translation Problems 5 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (1/5)  ID: 300041273 Record Type: concept prints (visual works) Note: Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. When emphasizing the individual printed image, use "impressions." Avoid the controversial expression "original prints," except in reference to discussions of the expression's use. If prints are neither "reproductive prints" nor "popular prints," use just "prints." With regard to photographs, see "photographic prints"; for types of reproductions of technical drawings and documents, see terms found under "reprographic copies. 印刷 ( 視覺作品 ) | 版畫(視覺作品) 範圍註:以印版、圖塊及字塊,或網版等印製模轉印而成,並運用各種不同的印刷程序製作的圖畫作品。當 強調個別的印刷圖像時,請使用「壓印」一詞。避免使用具爭議性 的詞語「版畫原作」,除非是做討論之用 。如果印刷品既非「複製圖」,也不是「普及印刷」,那麼就使用「印刷」一詞即可。關於相片類的作品,請 參閱「攝影相 片」;技術圖或文件的種類則請參閱「機印副本」項下之詞彙。  Prints can be translated into 印刷 (yin shua) and 版畫 (ban hua) according to Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture (p.1385) and the Oxford Illustrated English-Chinese Dictionary(p.1465). Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture (p.1385) - 版畫 (ban hua) : a picture printed from a small sheet of metal or block of wood.
    137. 137. 137 Translation Problems 5 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (2/5)  版畫 (ban hua) as printmaking : [References] National Taiwan Craft Research Institute (國立台灣工藝研究所) National Taiwan University of Arts (國立台灣藝術大學) [Hierarchical Position in AAT ] Activities Facet .... Processes and Techniques ........ <processes and techniques> ............ <processes and techniques by specific type> ................ <image-making processes and techniques> .................... printmaking  版畫 (ban hua) as graphic arts : [References] Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Term and Techniques (p. 202) [Hierarchical Position in AAT ] Activities Facet .... Processes and Techniques ........ <processes and techniques> ............ <processes and techniques by specific type> ................ <image-making processes and techniques> .................... graphic arts  But from 版畫 (ban hua) to English, there are quite a few different English translations based on various sources:
    138. 138. 138 Translation Problems 5 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (3/5)  版畫 (ban hua) as woodblock print : [References] Taiwan Folklore Museum [Hierarchical Position in AAT ] Objects Facet .... Visual and Verbal Communication ........ Visual Works (Hierarchy Name) ............ <visual works (Guide Term)> ................ <visual works by medium or technique> .................... prints (visual works) ........................ <prints by process or technique> ............................ <prints by process: transfer method> ................................ relief prints .................................... woodcuts (prints)
    139. 139. 139 Translation Problems 5 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (4/5) Ban hua as non-preferred term This Chinese term 版畫 (ban hua) has broader meanings
    140. 140. 140 Translation Problems 5 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (5/5) Objects Facet .... Visual and Verbal Communication ........ Visual Works (Hierarchy Name) ............ <visual works (Guide Term)> ................ <visual works by medium or technique> .................... prints (visual works) ........................ <prints by process or technique> ............................ <prints by process: transfer method> ................................ relief prints .................................... woodcuts (prints) 木刻版畫 Activities Facet .... Processes and Techniques ........ <processes and techniques> ............ <processes and techniques by specific type> ................ <image-making processes and techniques> .................... graphic arts 平面藝術 Activities Facet .... Processes and Techniques ........ <processes and techniques> ............ <processes and techniques by specific type> ................ <image-making processes and techniques> .................... printmaking 版畫複製 Q: Should we address the multiple meanings of 版畫 (ban hua) by making it the non-preferred term of printmaking, graphic arts, and woodcuts (prints) ? A: Use different qualifiers to distinguish.
    141. 141. 141 Translation Problems 6 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (1/3)  ID: 300056172 Record Type: concept tint (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color)  Note: Color produced by mixing a basic hue with white in order to lighten it. 色調( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩) 範圍註:指混合基本色相與白色以提高明度所產生的色彩。  ID: 300056173 Record Type: concept tone (color effect) (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color)  Note: The variation of color produced by changes in intensity or value. 色調(色彩作用)( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩) 註釋:改變色彩的強度或明度所產生的色彩變化。 Both terms translate into 色調 (se diao) Reference: [tint] Mayer, Ralph. Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Term and Techniques. P.456 Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture, Longman English-Chinese Science & Technology Dictionary, p.1686 [tone] : Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture, p. 1854 The New Oxford Illustrated English-Chinese Dictionary, p.1923 tint tone (color effect)
    142. 142. 142 Translation Problems 6 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (2/3)  Changing the tint percentage : more whiteLess white  Changing the tone percentage :
    143. 143. 143 Translation Problems 6 : When Chinese terms have broader meanings (3/3)  ID: 300056172 Record Type: concept tint (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color)  Note: Color produced by mixing a basic hue with white in order to lighten it. 色調( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩) 範圍註:指混合基本色相與白色以提高明度所產生的色彩。  ID: 300056173 Record Type: concept tone (color effect) (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color)  Note: The variation of color produced by changes in intensity or value. 色調(色彩作用)( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩) 註釋:改變色彩的強度或明度所產生的色彩變化。  Both terms are commonly known as 色調 (se diao), as suggested by most dictionaries. In order to distinguish the two, tint is translated into 淡色調 (dan se diao) based on less authoritative reference (http://www.pokok.edu.hk/engvocabulary/HE.htm). 淡色調 Q: Under such circumstance, is this approach acceptable? A: It’s up to TELDAP team to decide, and this approach is acceptable to the Getty team.
    144. 144. 144 Translation Problems 7 : Insufficient information – similar terms & scope notes (1/1)  ID: 300265024 Deianeira lekythoi (lekythoi, jugs (vessels), ... Furnishings and Equipment) Note: An early black-figure form of lekythoi featuring an ovoid body. 德雅涅拉萊基托斯陶瓶(萊基托斯陶瓶,罐(貯存容器),… …裝飾與設備) 範圍釋:一種早期的黑彩萊基托斯陶瓶,瓶身為卵圓形。  ID: 300264935 deianira lekythoi (squat lekythoi, lekythoi, ... Furnishings and Equipment) Note: Early black-figure form of the squat lekythoi with an ovoid body. 德雅涅拉萊基托斯陶瓶(矮胖型萊基托斯陶瓶,萊基托斯陶瓶 ,……裝飾與設備) 範圍註:一種早期的黑彩矮胖型萊基托斯陶瓶,瓶身為卵圓形。 http://www2.ocn. ne.jp/~greekart/va se/s_oil.html http://www.christies.com/LotFinder/lot_details .aspx?intObjectID=4688737 > Because of the similarity between the spellings of Deianeira lekythoi and deianira lekythoi, the transliteration is the same. Han Yu Pin In of the two terms is “de ya nie la lai ji tuo si tao ping”   Q: Since the scope notes and the spellings of the terms are nearly identical. are these terms describing the same thing? Is it necessary to contribute Han Yu Pin In of these terms to AAT? A: They are the same things and should be integrated into one record. There is no need for Han Yu Pin In here.
    145. 145. 145 Translation Problems 8 : Insufficient information – definition problem (1/3)  nautilus shell (seashell, shell (animal material), ... Materials) Note: The shell of the pearly nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, native to the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, used to make decorative objects such as cups, salts, and jewelry, and as carving material. 鸚鵡螺貝 ( 海貝,貝殼 ( 動物材料 ) , ... 材料 ) 註釋:圓珠般的深臍鸚鵡螺的貝殼,原生於太平洋與印度洋熱帶地區,常用來 製作裝飾物品,如杯、鹽、珠寶首飾,也用來作為雕刻材料。  The English scope note mentioned this shell can be used “to make decorative objects such as cups, salts, and jewelry.” But the translators are unsure about the connection between nautilus shell and salts. Q: Is there an error in the English scope note? If not, how can we prevent this type of translation setback from happening in the future? A: “Salts” here means “the container of salt”, which can be looked up in AAT to verify the meaning.
    146. 146. 146 Translation Problems 8 : Insufficient information – definition problem (2/3)  ID: 300041668 Record Type: concept mirlitons (<sound device components>, <components by specific context>, ... Components (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Membranes used in musical instruments and other sound devices to modify the sound made by that device or by the human voice; their vibrations color the tone with a buzzing nasal timbre.    According to Wiki, mirliton is a type of membranophone, and the Free Dictionary defines it as “a kind of musical toy into which one sings, hums, or speaks, producing a coarse, reedy sound.” Q: Is there an error in the scope note? Should mirlitons be classified as “a type of musical instrument” or merely “the membrane part of certain instruments”? MIRLITON: a pseudomusical instrument, it produces the sound when the player’s voice makes a membrane vibrate.
    147. 147. 147 Translation Problems 8 : Insufficient information – definition problem (3/3)  ID: 300014136 Record Type: concept cartridge paper (Manila paper, wood pulp paper, ... Materials (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Fifty- to eighty-pound Manila paper, waxed on one side, originally used for muzzle-loading cartridges, but now employed where a stiff, waterproof material is needed.  Generally “cartridge paper” is translated into 繪圖紙 or 圖畫紙 , designating its current use for drawing. Many major English dictionaries also refer to this kind of paper as “thick drawing paper,” but this feature is not mentioned in the scope note, which makes the Chinese translation 繪圖紙 or 圖畫紙 look weird in the context. Q: Is it necessary to add some explanations about its drawing purpose?
    148. 148. Translation Problems 9 : Insufficient information – vague scope note (1/2)  ID: 300311062 Record Type: concept copen blue (<variable blue colors>, <blue colors>, ... Color) Note: Range of light, strong shades of blue. 哥本哈根藍色( < 各種藍色 > , < 藍色 > ,…色彩) 範圍註:指色澤深淺不同的各種藍色。  The Chinese translation of the scope note does not identify any specific characteristic of this color, and the internet search results vary as follows: Q: Is the content of the scope note complete? A: Yes, it’s the correct scope note. Q: But the scope note is still vague and not specific, so is it possible to add more descriptions about its use and origins? http://www.colourlovers.com/color/5173B0/copen_blue http://www.michaels.com/art/online/displayProductPage? productNum=cp0055 http://mor-micronpaints.co.za/colour_chart.html
    149. 149. 149 Translation Problems 9 : Insufficient information – vague scope note (2/2)  ID: 300055593 Record Type: concept cultural property (property (legal concept), <property and related concepts>, ... Associated Concepts) Note: Part or whole of an object of archaeological interest or an object of ethnological interest which was first discovered within, and is subject to export control by the State Party.  Does it mean the state party ( 締約國 ) to the “Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage” 《世界文化與自然遺產保護公約》 ? Q: If so, is it necessary to add more information about the Convention to the scope note in order to prevent confusion?
    150. 150. 150 Translation Problems 10 : Insufficient information – confusing words (1/2)  ID: 300056351 Record Type: concept sight lines (<visual and representational concepts>, <formal concepts>, ... Associated Concepts) Note: Lines that define an unimpeded field of vision,(RHDEL2) as within rooms or open spaces or along city streets.  RHDEL2 could be Random House Dictionary of English Language 2? Q: What does the abbreviation mean?
    151. 151. 151 Translation Problems 10 : Insufficient information – confusing words (2/2)  ID: 300012875 Record Type: concept gum thus (gum, organic material, ... Materials (Hierarchy Name)) Note: The oleoresin or balsam from pine trees of the southern United States, from which turpentine and rosin are obtained;(MAYER) used especially in oil paints. 松脂 ( 樹膠 , 有機材料 , ... 材料 ( 層級名稱 )) 範圍註:一種取自美國南部松樹的油性樹脂或香脂,可製成松 節油及松香;( MAYER )特別用於油畫。 Q: What does (MAYER) in the scope note mean?
    152. 152. 152 Translation Problems 11 : Insufficient information - term (1/2)  ID: 300183644  Record Type: concept Carborundum (TM) Note: Sharp, hard, artificial abrasive in solid or powdered form composed of silicon carbide. Available in several degrees of coarseness, it is often used for polishing by abrasion. The finest particles are useful for grinding glass. 金剛砂 ( 商標 TM) 範圍註:固體或粉狀碳化矽中又尖又硬的人工研磨料。有 多種不同粗細度,常用作研磨拋光。最細微的顆粒對研磨玻 璃很有用。  ID: 300190283 Record Type: concept Plastic Wood (TM) Note: A paste of wood flour or wood cellulose compounded with a synthetic resin used for filling cavities or seams in wood products. 塑性填料 ( 商標 TM) 範圍註:  一種漿糊,由木粉或木材纖維素及人造樹脂混合 而成,用來填補木製品內的蛀孔或縫隙。 Q: TM currently is translated into 商標 (trademark) , is this translation correct?
    153. 153. 153 Translation Problems 11 : Insufficient information - term (2/2)  ID: 300265654 Record Type: concept Mixografia (R) Note: Embossed print process developed by Rufino Tamayo, Lea Remba and Luis Remba that produces textured prints in color on handmade paper. 米索格拉斐亞版畫 ( 註冊商標 R) 範圍註:由魯菲諾‧塔馬約( Rufino Tamayo )、李亞.瑞巴( Lea Remba )、路易斯. 瑞 巴( Luis Remba )共同研發之浮雕版畫程序,這種版畫程序是將彩色紋理版畫印製於手工 紙張 上。  ID: 300265623 Record Type: concept Piezography (( 註冊商標 R) Note: Process invented in the late 20th century by Jon Cone, where special, monochromatic inks are used in conjunction with software to produce black and white inkjet prints using consumer printers.  ID: 300265622 Record Type: concept Piezo (R) prints Note: Inkjet prints made using the Piezography (R) process, which utilizes monochromatic inks developed by photographers, and software that works in conjunction with consumer printers.  Piezo ( 註冊商標 R )版畫 範圍註:意指以 Piezography ( R )程序印製的噴墨版畫,這種印刷程序使用的是攝影 師研發的單色墨水,以及一般印表機使用的軟體。 Q: (R) currently is translated into 註冊商標 (registered trademark) , is this correct? And should these trademarks be transliterated or translated?
    154. 154. 154 Translation Problems 12 : No scope note available (1/1)  We have translated several terms without scope notes. Sometimes it’s difficult to determine the accuracy of the translation, when the terms are western-oriented, for example: ................................ plays (document genre)   戲劇 ( 文件類型 ) .................................... morality plays   道德劇 .................................... mystery plays   神秘劇 .................................... passion plays 受難劇  And also corporate collections 共同收藏 , pairs 雙 , elem 邊 , knots 結 , berber knots 柏柏爾結 , jufti knots 菊孚體結 , Tibetan knots 西藏結… etc. http://www.duke.edu/web/rpc/pastti mes/theatre/theatre/theatre.html http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Libra ry/SLT/stage/mysteries.html http://campus.udayton.edu/mary/reso urces/drama.html Q: Is it possible to receive notices when AAT update the scope notes? When we contribute new terms to AAT, does it always have to include the scope notes or can it be added later? A: The scope notes will be added afterwards, and it’s necessary to give scope notes when contributing new terms.
    155. 155. Translation Problems 13 : Japanese terms (1/1)  ID: 300183795 Record Type: concept gasenshi (Japanese paper (handmade paper), <paper by form>, ... Materials (Hierarchy Name)) Note: Handmade Japanese paper, made of 10% mitsumata. 畫仙紙(日本紙(手工紙), < 依形式區分之紙張 > ,…材料) 範圍註:手工和紙,含有 10 %的三椏。  ID: 300183813 Record Type: concept hosho (Japanese paper (handmade paper), <paper by form>, ... Materials) Note: Thick, absorbent, handmade paper made primarily of kozo. 奉書紙(日本紙(手工紙), < 依形式區分之紙張 > ,…材料) 範圍註:厚且吸水的手工紙,主要原料為楮皮。  ID: 300041502 Record Type: concept beni-e (woodcuts (prints), relief prints, ... Visual and Verbal Communication) Note: Japanese prints on which the principal hand coloring was executed with beni, a red pigment. 紅繪 (木刻版畫,凸版版畫,…視覺與語言傳達) 範圍註:一種以紅色顏料為主要手繪色彩的日式版畫。  Kanji ( 漢字 ) are the Chinese characters used in modern Japanese writing system, but after its own local development, now there may be significant differences between kanji used in Japanese and Chinese characters used in Chinese. Such differences include simplification or variant forms of the characters, as shown in the 3 examples. Japanese: 紅絵 (different) Japanese: 奉書紙 (same) Japanese: 画仙紙 (different) Q: Is it necessary to add the Japanese kanji (borrowed term) as the non- preferred term?
    156. 156. 156 Translation Problems 14 : References in the scope notes (1/1)  ID: 300056206 Record Type: concept tensile strength (mechanical strength, mechanical properties, ... Attributes and Properties) Note: The maximum pulling or ductile stress that a material can be subjected too without breakage. It is usually measured by taking a bar of the material and stretching it to destruction. The ultimate tensile strength is the maximum load divided by the bar's cross-sectional area and is measured in newtons per square meter. Macmillan Encyclopedia 2001 (2000)  ID: 300056190 Record Type: concept electrical conductivity (electrical properties, <electrical attributes and properties>, ... Attributes and Properties) Note: The ease with which an electrical current will pass through a material. Dictionary of Earth Sciences (1999)  ID: 300010338 Record Type: concept zoomorphic (<figure-derived form attributes>, <form attributes>, ... Attributes and Properties) Note: Representing or imitating animal forms, as in decorative art or symbolism. Oxford English Dictionary Online Q: Why is the reference (ex: Oxford English Dictionary Online) displayed in the scope note instead of the Sources column? Should we just translate it into “ 牛津線上英文字典” and leave it there or move it into the Sources column?
    157. 157. 157 Translation Problems 15 : Ritual vs. Ceremonial  Both “ritual” and “ceremonial” are translated into 儀式 (yi shi) in Chinese • ritual objects is the non-preferred term of ceremonial objects • But ritual vessels and <ceremonial vessels> become two separate terms (1/2)

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