(Final) cidoc 2009 chinese lang translation of the aatPresentation Transcript
Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus: Methods and Issues Shu-Jiun (Sophy) Chen Program Office, Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program CIDOC 2009, Chile, 29 September 2009 Special Session on Multilingual Access: "Developing Tools for Multilingual Access to Cultural Materials: the Experience of the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)"
Conclusions and Outlooks
AAT-Taiwan research project
Officially launched by TELDAP Program Office at the beginning of 2009
The goal is to collaborate with GRI (Getty Research Institute) in developing the Chinese version of Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) .
The project is comprised of five task forces :
Localization, Creation of New Concepts and Contribution
Technical and Functional development
Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation
mapped to a broader
or narrower term
importance of this
pass on the concept
Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Sources 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence
Translation (T) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 翻譯 Translation (T) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) 前置作業 (T1) Preparation 確認翻譯內容 (T1_I) Identify Translation Materials 資料整理 / 更新 (T1_F) File compilation and update 翻譯 (T2) Translation 募集兼任譯者 (T1_R) Translators recruitment 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註 (N) System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system
translate matched AAT terms
add required fields in AAT-
Taiwan (additional note, sources,
variant terms, transliterated
Chinese term, etc )
translate the terms into
English, submit to AAT
review (a) approved (b) revision 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment
Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC2 ： make sure the translated scope note is both fluent and idiomatic Frequent problems: 1. Translated text is redundant or awkward, and does not assimilate to the cultural context of the target language. Not understandable in Chinese
Scope Note of New Concept (N) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 範圍註撰寫 Scope note of new concept (N) 搜集資料 (N1) Data Collection 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 遵循 Getty 和 TELDAP 的指引 Follow editorial guideline to create a record in Chinese 參考權威資料 Authoritative References 增加相關圖檔 ( Ｎ 3) Find images Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 校訂 (T3) Proofread 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence review approved
Expert Group (E) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 專家審訂 Expert Group (E) 前置作業 (E1) Preparation Translation 翻譯 (T) 內容準確性 (T3_A) Translation Accuracy 1 確認內容 (E1_I) Identify Content 審訂表整理更新 (E1_F) File compilation and update 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification Content experts need to verify the accuracy of the provided terms. If they determine it’s accurate, then the data will be inputted into the system; if not, revision is needed before the data can be submitted to AAT and AAT-Taiwan. Scope Note 範圍註 (N) 完成新增中文詞彙所有的欄位資料 (N3) Create a new record with required fields 專家修訂 (E2_RE) Revision by Expert 範圍註準確性 (E2_NA) Scope Note Accuracy 翻譯準確性 (E2_TA) Translation Accuracy System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system (a) approved review (b) reject
Translation Progress Update Total Terms in AAT-Taiwan ： 5957 last updated: 2009/9/1
For Example : ceramic
corresponding images Terms in different language
Switch to Chinese
MCN Taiwan MuseFusion System
MuseFusion adopts the following standards:
CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects)
AAT (Art & Architecture Thesaurus)
TELDAP Union Catalog Results 41 for “graves” AAT-Taiwan
From User’s Perspective (1) User searches for a term in AAT-Taiwan via query /browse (3) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from MCN Taiwan MuseFusion (5) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog (2) Use Subject ID to retrieve equivalent English term in AAT (4) Use the same Term to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog
Adopt the following standards:
CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects)
A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issue 1
Invite domain experts to participate in the process
Problem of Insufficient Chinese references
need to determine the importance of this concept in relation to our culture.
Need to ensure the accurate results of equivalence mapping
Partial equivalence with culture-dependent concepts
Carefully evaluate and provide AAT with enhanced version of Asia-related art and cultural concepts.
Some of Chinese terms are presented as compound terms, which need to be separated into individual term before mapping to the appropriate concept in AAT .
An Example of Mapping Issues Culture-dependent Concepts ：福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (1/3)
Hierarchical position ：
motifs> characters > symbol > fu/lu/shou
紋飾資料庫 > 文字 > 符號 > 福 / 祿 / 壽
Since most motifs from NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications are cultural specific, many terms cannot be found in AAT. We recommend to create new terms, so these cultural-dependent terms may be added.
According to the Metadata Requirement Specifications, under Chinese characters > symbols ( 文字 > 符號 ), there are 9 cultural-specific terms , including:
bagua, wan, fu, lu, shou, xi, shuang xi, chun
( 八卦 , 萬字 / 卍 , 福 , 祿 , 壽 , 喜 , 雙喜 , 春 )
A Summary of Equivalence Mapping Issue 2
When the Chinese terms are from collection institutes
Every institution implements its own classification methods and terms , we often need to re-examine and sometimes adopt their logic to find matching concepts in AAT.
We need to determine when it is necessary for a Chinese term to become an individual concept , and whether to add a descriptor or a none preferred term.
Preferred term vs. non-preferred term
what should be the divide line between preferred and non-preferred term?
If the official name of a term is rarely used, is it still the preferred term?
A Summary of Translation Issues
Interpretation difficulty of Non-English terms
Single (Eng.) to Multiple (Chin.)
When English terms have broader meanings
Multiple (Eng.) to Single (Chin.)
When Chinese terms have broader meanings
Term, scope note
Record Type: concept
Beweging van Tachtig
Note: Dutch literary movement of the 1880s, the members of which were young writers and poets determined to express real emotions in highly individualistic language, avoiding cliché and traditional rhetoric. Notable members included Willem Kloos, Jacques Perk, Frederik van Eeden, and Hélène Swarth .
Beweging van Tachtig
範圍註 : 一八八零年代荷蘭的文學運動，其中成員為年輕的作家和詩人，他們致力於非常個人的語言傳達真實情緒，避免陳腔濫調或傳統修辭技巧。著名的成員包括 Willem Kloos 、 Jacques Perk 、 Frederik van Eeden 、 Hélène Swarth 。
It’s a Dutch term, no Chinese translation available, and difficult to transliterate without proper understanding of the language. And the Dutch names as well, the translators can only make a close guess on its pronunciation .
An Example of Translation Issues Translation completeness ： Beweging van Tachtig (1/1) Solution: Keep the original Dutch term as preferred term, unless domain experts can verify the accurate transliteration in the future.
Lesson Learned - 1
different experts should be involved and work together.
include domain experts from art history, lexical semantics, bilingual translation, museum and library studies, project management, etc.