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20100420 Methods Of Multilingual Interoperability Of Art & Architecture Thesaurus(Sophy)

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  • 目標: 呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性 促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展 建立數位典藏與學習產業 深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用 奠定語文數位教學的國際地位 推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路 To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide. Serve as a leader in information technology and social development. To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 搜索目標物
  • 目標: 呈現臺灣文化與自然多樣性 促成典藏內容與科技融入產業、教育、研究與社會發展 建立數位典藏與學習產業 深化數位學習在正規教育及終身教育的應用 奠定語文數位教學的國際地位 推動數位典藏與學習成果國際化、建立國際合作網路 To build a life-long knowledge discovery environment and bridge the digital divide. Serve as a leader in information technology and social development. To showcase Taiwan’s biological, ecological, cultural, and social diversities
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.14
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.4
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.9
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.8
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.6
  • 藝術建築 SIG_ 多語言藝術與建築索引典 , p.6
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Methods of Multilingual Interoperability of Art & Architecture Thesaurus 藝術與建築索引典多語互通之方法 陳淑君 Shu-Jiun (Sophy) Chen CITI, Academia Sinica Program Office, Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program Workshop on the Construction and Multilingualization of a Lexical Knowledge Base April 20, 2010. Taiwan: Academia Sinica.
    • 2. Agenda
      • Preface & Introductions
      • The Key Issues
      • The Methodologies
      • Current Outcomes
      • Conclusions and Outlooks
    • 3. Preface
      • Throughout the years, TELDAP (Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program) has successfully accumulated more than 3 million digitized items.
      • We strive to explore new ways to share this abundant collection with the audience worldwide .
    • 4.
      • In order to bring our collection to the world, we face the following challenges:
      • Most of the digital objects and the metadata are in Chinese.
      • How to overcome the language barrier?
      • How to integrate different terms used by various institution and projects under the TELDAP in describing similar concept?
    • 5. Introductions
      • AAT-Taiwan multilingual research project
        • Officially launched by TELDAP Program Office at the beginning of 2009
        • The initial goal is to collaborate with GRI (Getty Research Institute) in developing the Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) ,
        • and ultimately provide the global
        • communities a fully integrated
        • multilingual thesaurus online (with
        • broader, narrower, and related concepts
        • of the designated search item).
    • 6. AAT-Taiwan 計畫
      • 與美國 Getty Research Institute (GRI) 進行 AAT (Art & Architecture Thesaurus) 中文化研究計畫(以下簡稱 AAT-Taiwan )
      • 由總計畫辦公室統籌規劃 AAT-Taiwan 計畫,以知識組織系統的方式進行多語化索引典,並將與典藏系統整合,提供多語言查詢及瀏覽
      • 本計畫旨在研發與落實本國家型科技計畫多語化的知識工程,以進行中英文詞彙對照與翻譯,達到多語化索引典(英文、法文、西班牙文、義大利文、荷蘭文及德文),並與典藏系統整合,以提供具語義的數位藏品多語查詢及瀏覽。
      • GRI 也希望能藉由與台灣國家型計畫的合作,提升「藝術與建築索引典」亞洲文化的內容,及中文化的落實。
    • 7. Art & Architecture Thesaurus 藝術與建築索引典
      • 由美國 J. Paul Getty Trust 研發與出版
      • 一套 結構性 的 字彙 ;層級式的資料庫
      • 包含約 34,000 個概念 , 131,000 個詞彙
        • 每筆 AAT 記錄的焦點都稱之為「概念」
      • 符合 ISO & NISO 標準的索引典
        • 等同關係 、 階層關係 、 聯想關係
      • 結構組成: 層面 (facet) 與 層級 (hierarchy)
    • 8.  
    • 9. 涵蓋範疇包含以下詞彙類型:
      • 相關概念層面
        • 層級:相關概念
      • 物理屬性層面
        • 層級:屬性和特性、狀態和結果、設計元素、顏色
      • 風格和時期層面
        • 層級:風格和時期
      • 代理者層面
        • 層級:人、機構、生物
      • 活動層面
        • 層級:學科、功能、事件、體育和心智活動、過程和技術
      • 材料材質層面
        • 層級:材質
      • 物件層面
        • 層級:
          • 物件群組和系統
          • 物件種類
          • 組件
          • 建築環境:聚落和景觀、複合式建築和區域、單一建築作品、開放空間和位置元素
          • 裝潢和裝備:裝潢、服裝、工具和裝備、武器和彈藥、測量儀器、容器、聲音儀器、娛樂器物、交通工具
          • 視覺和聽覺溝通:視覺作品、交換媒材、資訊形式
    • 10.
      • AAT 的詞彙代表 抽象概念 和 外觀屬性
      • AAT 的一個概念 ( 或主題紀錄 ) ,代表著錄藝術領域時所需的術語學,但不包括正式名稱(如:人名、機構、地理位置、著名主題或著名事件的正式名稱)
      • AAT 包含的術語是用來描述作品的
        • 類型 (如:雕刻)這是什麼 ?
        • 材質 (如:青銅)它是由什麼作成 ?
        • 相關活動 (如:鑄造)它是如何作的 ?
        • 風格 (如:新藝術)它是屬於什麼風格 ?
        • 創作者角色 (如:雕刻家)誰製作了它 ?
        • 其他屬性或不同的抽象概念 (如:對稱性)它以什麼為題材 ?
    • 11. Semantic Relations
      • 3 relations need to be presented by a thesaurus:
      • 1. Equivalence relation ( 等同關係 )
      • present the same concept among terms, with one of them is description while the others is non description. 表達詞彙間有相同概念的關係。
      • Synonyms ( 同義詞 ): Canis 犬 ---Dogs 狗
      • Lexical variants ( 詞彙變異 ) groundwater---water, ground( 地下水 )
      • Quasi-synonyms ( 類同義詞 ) steel( 鋼鐵 )---metal( 金屬 )
      • Cross-reference to elements of compound terms ( 複合詞參照 ):
      • coal mining( 開採煤礦 )---coal + mining
    • 12.
      • 2. The relationship-Hierarchical 階層關係 :
      • The boarder context(s) for the concept record; parents refer to Hierarchical relationships, which are broader/narrower, reciprocal relationships between records. Hierarchical display are system-generated from the preferred term , the qualifier and the links to parents and other ancestors. ( 概念紀錄的上層脈絡 , 父節點 指出層級關係,表達概念間 廣義或狹義的關係 。層級的顯示是從偏好詞彙、修飾語和父節點的連結及其他上層中的系統產生。 )
      • e.g. vessel is the immediate parent of vase, and <container by form> is an ancestor. All the concepts below vase are its children, and they are siblings to each other.
      • Objects Facet
      • ....  Furnishings and Equipment (G)
      • ........  Containers (Hierarchy Name) (G)
      • ............  containers (receptacles) (G)
      • ................  <containers by form> (G)
      • ....................  vessels (containers) (G)
      • ........................  vases (G)
      • ............................  Alhambra vases (G)
      • ............................  arrow vases (G)
      • ............................  boughpots (G)
    • 13.
      • 3. The relationship- Associative:
      • including various types of ties or connections between concepts, excluding genus/species (hierarchical) relations. AAT is based on terms of types: person, activity, location, thing, field of study, style, material etc to categorize the relation with each other. 聯想關係 : 包含各種維繫或連接概念彼此之間的類型,但不包括屬 / 種 ( 層級的 ) 關係。 AAT 以人、活動、地點、事物、學習領域、風格、材質等不同詞彙紀錄,來歸納詞彙間的關係。
      • General :
      • related to( 與…相關 ) e.g. Emergency housing 緊急住屋 ---crisis shelters 庇護中心
      • distinguish from( 與…區別 ) e.g. columns 圓柱 ---posts 杆
      • People :
      • <person works/exists with another person> ( 一起工作 / 存在的相對應人 )
      • e.g. baron( 男爵 )---baronesses( 男爵夫人 )
      • <person and an activity> ( 人和活動 )
      • e.g. clock making( 製錶業 )---clockmaker( 鐘錶匠 )
    • 14.
      • Activity :
      • <an activity and material> ( 活動與質材 )
      • e.g. dyeing( 染業 )---dye( 染色 )
      • <a field of study and an activity/event> ( 學習的領域和活動 / 事件 )
      • e.g. cinematography( 電影藝術 )---filmmaking( 電影製作 )
      • Location :
      • <an activity and location setting> ( 活動和地點場景 )
      • e.g. puppet theaters ( 偶劇場 )---puppetry( 木偶戲 )
      • <person and an activity> ( 人和活動 )
      • e.g. clock making( 製錶業 )---clockmaker( 鐘錶匠 )
      • Material :
      • <material and a thing> ( 材質與事物 )
      • e.g. mosaics (visual works)( 馬賽克 - 視覺作品 )---tesserae(mosaic components)( 鑲嵌物 - 馬賽克組件 )
      • Style :
      • <style/period preceded/followed> ( 之前 / 之後的風格時期 )
      • e.g. first Dynasty (Egyptian)( 第一王朝 - 埃及 )---second Dynasty (Egyptian)( 第二王朝 - 埃及 )---
    • 15. Key Issues 管理層面 結構層面 語言層面 語義層面 文化層面
    • 16. 管理層面
      • 目的語 (TL) 的詞彙庫與來源語 (SL) 索引典可能具下述不對等的詞彙範圍,導致詞彙對照時,可能面臨缺乏更精細的詞彙、或更廣義的詞彙等問題,而造成等同對照的類型多為部分等同關係類型:
        • 學科範圍與完整性
        • 收錄的範圍類型
        • 搜尋的資料或物件類型
        • 索引的詳盡度( exhaustivity )與專指度( specificity )。
    • 17. 結構層面
      • TL 與 SL 的詞彙
        • 不同的索引語言語法(如:前組合與後組合)
        • 不同內部結構(如:單一概念詞彙與複合概念詞彙)。
          • 若 SL 採單一概念、而 TL 採複合概念,則需建立複合詞分解原則,以使解構後的單一概念詞彙,分別對照至 SL 的等同關係詞彙
    • 18. 語言層面
      • 語言符號具有以民族文化和歷史、地域為變異因素的種種行為模式
        • 同一種語言( intralingual ),由於民族文化和和歷史、地域為變異都有可能導致語義功能的改變。
        • 英語和美語的差異;漢語在台灣與中國大陸的差異性也是典的例子。 Laser vs. 雷射,激光
      • 語言的模糊性( fuzziness )指詞義本身界限不明,無法用分類邏輯( class logic )對之劃出涇渭分明的界線。
        • light color (淡色):究竟「淡」到何等程度才算「淡色」,一般並沒有明確的界限。
        • 英漢詞義的對比,通常漢語詞義比較具體、精準,量詞很多但語義範疇偏窄,有時甚至比較凝滯,不宜於表示模糊的「變量」
          • Sister vs. 姐姐 , 妹妹 , 堂姐妹 , 表姐妹…
          • 上述在漢語中涇渭分明,進行雙語轉換,就出現了可譯性限度
    • 19. When English terms have broader meanings (1/3)
      • EX: Guide term < xxx components >
      • 先導詞 <xxx 組件 >
      • Originally “components” is set to be translated as 組件 (zu jian).
      • But since the words come before “components” could vary greatly in their properties or attributes, it’d be weird to apply 組件 (zu jian) to all of them.
      • Now “components” has a variety of translations to choose from, such as:
            • 組件 (zu jian) (ex: weapon components 武器組件 )
            • 構造 (gou zao) (ex: egg components 蛋的構造 )
            • 成分 (cheng fen) (ex: material components 材料成分 )
            • 構成要素 (gou cheng yao su) (ex: motion picture components 電影購成要素 )
            • 結構 (jie gou) (ex: watercraft components 船舶結構 )
    • 20. When English terms have broader meanings (2/3)
      • The same approach may apply to terms such as temple, structure, space, artifact, etc.
      神殿 (shen dian) 神廟 (shen miao) temple structure Greek temple Hindu temple Dao temple 寺 (si) Buddhist temple 結構體 (jie gou ti) 結構 (jie gou) social structure garden structure residential structure 建築 (jian zhu)
    • 21. When English terms have broader meanings (3/3) space 場所 (chang suo) 空間 (kong jian) assembly space open space artifact 人工製品 ( ren gong zhi pin) Information artifact cultural artifact 工藝品 (gong yi pin)
    • 22. 語義層面
      • 語義表述障礙( semantic obstruction ),是基於英語詞義的含糊性及漢語詞義的偏窄性因素。其在語際轉換時常表現為:多詞一義,及一詞多義。
      • 「多詞一義」,英語中有許多義詞詞義常常頗有差別,但轉換成漢語時卻找不到相互對應的漢語詞。其中一個典型的例子是「會議」。英語中有很多詞都可以而且只得漢譯為「會議」。實際上,它們之間都有微差。以下詞語都是「會議」: meetings, conferences, colloquiums, symposia ,等等。
      • 「一詞多義」,漢英一詞多義現象都很突出。比如「意見」一詞,在「他對這件事很有意見」與在「有意見你還可以再來」中,這個詞的詞義是不盡相同的。但以上二者的意思似乎很難在 contrary opinion, different views, complaints, reservation, objection, dissatisfaction, challenge, criticisms, disagreement 等等中確定下來;而在漢語中,我們將毫不猶豫地都用「意見」(劉宓慶,民 82 : 150-151 )。
    • 23. When Chinese terms have broader meanings (1/3)
      • ID: 300056172 Record Type: concept
      • tint (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color) 
      • Note: Color produced by mixing a basic hue with white in order to lighten it.
      • 色調 ( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩)
      • 範圍註: 指混合基本色相與白色以提高明度所產生的色彩。
      • ID: 300056173 Record Type: concept
      • tone (color effect) (<color-related effects>, color (perceived attribute), ... Color) 
      • Note: The variation of color produced by changes in intensity or value.
      • 色調 (色彩作用)( < 色彩相關作用 > ,色彩(知覺特質),… 色彩)
      • 註釋: 改變色彩的強度或明度所產生的色彩變化。
      Both terms translate into 色調 (se diao) Reference: [tint] Mayer, Ralph. Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Term and Techniques. P.456 Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture, Longman English-Chinese Science & Technology Dictionary, p.1686 [tone] : Longman Dictionary of English Language & Culture, p. 1854 The New Oxford Illustrated English-Chinese Dictionary, p.1923 tint tone (color effect)
    • 24. When Chinese terms have broader meanings (2/3)
      • Changing the tint percentage :
      more white Less white
      • Changing the tone percentage :
      包括色度、明度與彩度的改變
    • 25. 文化層面
      • 文化障礙( cultural obstruction )
        • 語言中的文化信息符號是一個龐大的「象徵系統」,包含:語言中的民族意識化符號、聲象化符號、社會化符號、域化符號,及物質化符號等五個方面(劉宓慶,民 82 : 152-154 )。
        • 漢語中「詩」、「詞」並不是一回事,但譯成英語後都成了 poetry 。將「詞」譯成 poetry 屬於「半衝突式」轉換,因為它只譯出了「類概念意義」,沒有譯出「屬概念意義」。
      • 人們活動頻繁的領域,分類標準越高,詞彙也就越豐富細緻
        • 西方民族愛養狗,除了 dog 以外,還有許多指狗的,像是在漢語中統稱為「獵狗」的項下,就有 hound 、 spaniel 、 mastiff 、 pointer 、 setter 、 retriever 、 terrier 等不同的詞彙
        • 中華文化的烹調用語特別豐富,例如熱鍋用油通常分煎、炒、烹、炸,而英語通用的就只有 fry 一個詞。
        • 詞彙和宇宙的視角,英語一個 aunt ,漢語有姑、姨、嬸、妗等許多詞,表現的是兩種社會結構的不同。
    • 26. An Example of Mapping Issues Culture-dependent Concepts :福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (1/2)
      • Hierarchical position :
      • motifs> characters > symbol > fu/lu/shou
      • 紋飾資料庫 > 文字 > 符號 > 福 / 祿 / 壽
      • Since most motifs from NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications are cultural specific, many terms cannot be found in AAT. We recommend to create new terms, so these cultural-dependent terms may be added.
      • 因故宮後設資料需求規格書的詞彙有其文化特殊性,許多並不存在於 AAT ,可以獨立新增一個先導詞,在其下直接增列這些中華文化特有的詞彙
      Source : NPM Metadata Requirement Specifications (p. 22) 「故宮器物數位典藏子計畫 後設資料需求規格書 version 1.2 」 (p. 22)
    • 27. An Example of Mapping Issues Culture-dependent Concepts :福 / 祿 / 壽 fu/lu/shou (2/2)
      • The motif shou is found in AAT
      • under the following hierarchical
      • position :
      • Physical Attributes Facet ....  Design Elements ........  <design elements> ............  motifs ................  shou
      • According to the Metadata Requirement Specifications, under Chinese characters > symbols ( 文字 > 符號 ), there are 9 cultural-specific terms , including:
      • bagua, wan, fu, lu, shou, xi, shuang xi, chun
      • ( 八卦 , 萬字 / 卍 , 福 , 祿 , 壽 , 喜 , 雙喜 , 春 )
    • 28. Methodologies Mapping Translation Localization Contribution
    • 29. Equivalence Mapping (M) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 等同關係對照 Equivalence Mapping (M) Translation 翻譯 (T) 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中英對照 (M2) Mapping 確認詞彙來源 Identify Sources 詞彙英譯 Identify the Eng term 參考資料 References 在 AAT 對照到的架構 Locate the term in AAT 確認中文詞彙 (M1) Identify Chinese terms 故宮器物 National Palace Museum 台灣古建築圖解事典 Traditional Architecture in Taiwan 中國工藝美術辭典 Dictionary of Chinese Arts and Crafts 知識網 Knowledge Web of Taiwan’s Diversity 人類學 / 科博館 Anthropology / NMNS Scope Note 範圍註撰寫 (N) 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation 確認詞彙類型 (M3) Identify Types of Equivalence Mapping 完全等同 (M3_EE) Exact Equivalence 不完全等同 (M3_IE) Inexact Equivalence 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 一對多 (M3_SM) Single to Multiple 不等同 (M3_NE) Non-Equivalence
      • mapped to a broader
      • or narrower term
      • determine the
      • importance of this
      • concept
      • pass on the concept
      • to (N)
    • 30. 1st Pilot Study
      • The Preliminary Results
        • Frequencies of equivalence mapping types
          • Exact Equivalence (35 terms, 58%) has the highest match ratio, followed by Partial equivalence (18 terms, 30%) , Non-equivalence (6 terms, 10%), Inexact equivalence (1 term, 2%)
        • Similarity Types of Conceptual Structures
          • Type 1 Similar Structure
          • Type 2 Similar Structure , but required further expansion or correction of the structure
          • Type 3 Dissimilar Structure
          • Type 4 Lack of Structure
      Chen, H. H. & Chen, S.J. (2009). Analysis of Multilingual Equivalence Mapping for Knowledge Organization Systems. Presented at 2009 TELDAP International Conference, Feb. 24, 2009, Academic Sinica, Taipei
    • 31. Range of Equivalence X 彌勒佛 Non-equivalence (beyond scope) 5-3 X 龍泉窯 Non-equivalence (culture-dependent) 5-1 dots 乳丁紋 Partial Equivalence (species-genus relationship … Subordination) 3-2 censers 香爐 Inexact Equivalence 2-1 filigree enameling 掐絲 Exact cross-reference match 1-2 Yangshao 仰韶文化 Exact Equivalence 1-1 AAT’s examples TELDAP’s examples Sample Definition code of Match Type
    • 32. 仰韶文化 玉鑿 5000 B.C.-3000 B.C . The TELDAP Collection Yangshao (<Chinese Neolithic periods>, <Chinese prehistoric periods>, ... Styles and Periods) 仰韶文化 (< 考古學文化 ) Exact Equivalence 1-1 AAT term TELDAP term Example Match Type Code of Match Type
    • 33. Translation (T) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 翻譯 Translation (T) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 前置作業 (T1) Preparation 確認翻譯內容 (T1_I) Identify Translation Materials 資料整理 / 更新 (T1_F) File compilation and update 募集兼任譯者 (T1_R) Translators recruitment Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Scope Note of New Concept 範圍註 (N) 翻譯 (T2) Translation 英翻中 (T2_EC) English to Chinese Translation 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation
      • translate matched AAT terms
      • add required fields in AAT-
      • Taiwan (additional note, sources,
      • variant terms, transliterated
      • Chinese term, etc )
      • translate the terms into
      • English, submit to AAT
      review (a) approved (b) revision 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment
    • 34. Proofread (T3) 校訂 (T3) Proofread 統一詞彙翻譯與格式 (T3_U) Unified terms and format 翻譯品質管理 (T3_QC) Translation Quality Control 募集校訂人員 (T3_R) Proofreaders recruitment T3_QC2 : make sure the translated scope note is both fluent and idiomatic Frequent problems: 1. Translated text is redundant or awkward, and does not assimilate to the cultural context of the target language. Not understandable in Chinese
    • 35. Scope Note of New Concept (N) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 範圍註撰寫 Scope note of new concept (N) 增加相關圖檔 ( N 3) Find images Equivalence Mapping 等同關係對照 (M) Expert Group 專家審訂 (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 中翻英 (T2_CE) Chinese to English Translation System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 校訂 (T3) Proofread 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 部分等同 (M3_PE) Partial Equivalence 撰寫範圍註 (N2) Create a new record with required fields 遵循 Getty 和 TELDAP 的指引 Follow editorial guideline to create a record in Chinese 搜集資料 (N1) Data Collection 參考權威資料 Authoritative References review approved
    • 36. Create a new record with required fields (N2)
      • provide partial equivalence mapping (M3_PE) result to the scope note writer.
      • the scope note writer needs to fill out a worksheet(N2)
      • collect at least 3 authoritative references.
      • follow the Getty editorial
      • guideline to create a new record with required fields, including source, note, related term, preferred term, non-preferred term, and additional information.
    • 37. Contribute New Candidate Terms (1/11)
      • Equivalence mapping of the following terms :
      • - seal script ( 篆書 )
      • - bird and insect script ( 鳥蟲書 )
      • - clerical script ( 隸書 )
      • - semi-cursive script ( 行草書 )
      • - regular script ( 楷書 )
      • These 5 terms are mapped to a broader term in AAT :
      • Objects Facet
      • ....  Components (Hierarchy Name)
      • ........  components (objects)
      • ............  <components by specific context>
      • ................  <information form components>
      • ....................  <script and type forms>
      • ........................  scripts (writing)
      • ................................  add new terms
      • After determine the relevance of these terms, the information is then passed on to the Scope Note team (to create new records with required fields. Finally, the new records are provided to the Expert Group for verification
    • 38. Expert Group (E) Cross-Division Coordination 跨分項協調 (C) 專家審訂 Expert Group (E) Translation 翻譯 (T) 內容準確性 (T3_A) Translation Accuracy 1 Scope Note 範圍註 (N) 完成新增中文詞彙所有的欄位資料 (N3) Create a new record with required fields System Development 系統開發 (S) 著錄翻譯內容、圖片、參考書目 Input data into the system 前置作業 (E1) Preparation 確認內容 (E1_I) Identify Content 審訂表整理更新 (E1_F) File compilation and update 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 專家修訂 (E2_RE) Revision by Expert 範圍註準確性 (E2_NA) Scope Note Accuracy 翻譯準確性 (E2_TA) Translation Accuracy Content experts need to verify the accuracy of the provided terms. If they determine it’s accurate, then the data will be inputted into the system; if not, revision is needed before the data can be submitted to AAT and AAT-Taiwan. review (a) approved (b) reject
    • 39. Preparation (E1) 前置作業 (E1) Preparation 確認內容 (E1_I) Identify Content 審訂表整理更新 (E1_F) File compilation and update
      • After translation (T3) or the scope note (N3) is completed , the records are passed to content experts for review.
      • The expert should examine closely the accuracy of the translated or written materials to ensure the precision and credibility of the content
      • The content expert will receive the following files for review :
      • 1) scope note worksheet (N3) or translation files (T3)
      • 2) content expert checklist
      • 3) a brief summary of the thesaurus and the hierarchical structure
    • 40. Scope Note Accuracy (E2_NA) 內容審訂 (E2) Content Verification 修訂 (E2_RE) Revision by Expert 範圍註準確性 (E2_NA) Scope Note Accuracy 翻譯準確性 (E2_TA) Translation Accuracy Example: Metadata Specification version 1.2 (p23) inscriptions > forms > calligraphy > clerical script E1: are the concepts of Chinese scripts complete? E2: is it the appropriate preferred term? E3: is it the appropriate non-preferred term? E4: is the content of the scope note accurate? E5: are these the appropriate broader, narrower, and related terms? E6: are the references and images credible? 範圍註審訂表 Content expert checklist
    • 41. Contribute New Candidate Terms (2/11)
      • For content verification (E2), each assigned expert will receive the worksheet (N2) and a checklist. The worksheet includes content of new candidate terms, references, source, suggested hierarchical position, record type…etc.
      Candidate term source Suggested hierarchical position record type
    • 42. References Additional references Scope note Preferred term Non-preferred term Broader term Narrower term related term (3/11)
    • 43. Contribute New Candidate Terms (4/11)
      • After the experts reviewed the content, they need to fill out the following checklist to verify the accuracy of the content :
      Are the concepts complete? Are the preferred terms, non-preferred terms, and English translation correct ? Is the term mapped to the correct hierarchical position? Is the scope note content correct?
    • 44. Contribute New Candidate Terms (5/11) Are the broader terms, narrower terms, and the related terms correct? Are the references and the additional references valuable?
    • 45. Contribute New Candidate Terms (6/11)
      • After reviewing the worksheet, the content expert decides to add more concepts under Chinese scripts, a total of 16 terms :
      Chinese scripts seal script clerical script regular script running script cursive script
    • 46. Contribute New Candidate Terms (7/11)
      • The content expert provides a revised worksheet :
      revised hierarchical position revised scope note
    • 47. Revised narrower terms References Additional references (8/11)
    • 48. Contribute New Candidate Terms (9/11)
      • All the required fields are translated into English, scope note included, before submit the record to AAT
    • 49. Contribute New Candidate Terms (10/11)
      • New candidate terms : Chinese scripts
      • Add new guide term <Chinese scripts > under <scripts by form> :
      • Objects Facet
      • ....  Components (Hierarchy Name)
      • ........  components (objects)
      • ............  <components by specific context>
      • ................  <information form components>
      • ....................  <script and type forms>
      • ........................  scripts (writing)
      • ................................  <scripts by form>
      • ....................................  <Arabic scripts>
      • ....................................  <Chinese scripts>
      • ....................................  cuneiform
      • ....................................  hieroglyphics
      • ....................................  <ideographic scripts>
      • ....................................  <Latin and Greek alphabet scripts>
      • ....................................  Linear A
      • ....................................  Linear B
      • ....................................  ogham
      • ....................................  shorthand
    • 50. Contribute New Candidate Terms (11/11)
      • Hierarchical position recommended by expert :
      • ........................  <Chinese scripts> 書體
      • .............................. seal script 篆書
      • ................................... oracle bone script 甲骨文
      • ................................... bronze inscriptions 金文
      • ................................... great seal script 大篆
      • ................................... small seal script 小篆
      • .............................. clerical script 隸書
      • ................................... Qin clerical script 秦隸
      • ................................... Han clerical script 漢隸
      • .............................. regular script 楷書
      • .............................. running script 行書
      • ................................... running-standard script 行楷
      • ................................... running-cursive script 行草
      • .............................. cursive script 草書
      • ................................... draft cursive script 章草
      • ................................... modern cursive script 今草
      • ................................... wild cursive script 狂草
    • 51. Current Outcomes
    • 52. Translation Progress Update Total Terms in AAT-Taiwan : 11781 last updated: 2010/4/15 Hierarchy 19605 Total Translated Terms 8940 Objects Facet 3833 Materials Facet 791 Processes and Techniques 0 Physical and Mental Activities 273 Events 50 Functions 328 Disciplines Activities Facet 25 Living Organisms 185 Organizations 180 People Agents Facet 2136 Styles and Periods Facet 578 Color 288 Design Elements 48 Conditions and Effects 552 Attributes and Properties Physical Attributes Facet 1398 Associated Concepts Facet Terms Hierarchy Facet
    • 53. For Example :
    • 54. Search Result
    • 55. corresponding images Terms in different language
    • 56. Switch to English
    • 57. External links
    • 58. Citation
    • 59. Link to Content Expert
    • 60. From User’s Perspective (1) User searches for a term in AAT-Taiwan via query /browse (3) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from MCN Taiwan MuseFusion (5) Use the term in AAT-Taiwan to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog (2) Use Subject ID to retrieve equivalent English term in AAT (4) Use the same Term to retrieve records from TELDAP Union Catalog
      • Adopt the following standards:
      • CDWA Lite
      • CCO (Cataloging Cultural Objects)
      • AAT
    • 61. Conclusion and Outlook
      • Provide global Asian cultural heritage communities with a knowledge-based database as reference to collection access and data value standard.
      • The Multilingual Vocabulary Working Group has been set up on October 2009 by the Getty Research Institute (GRI), as a means to establish close communication among the international collaborators .
        • (Chinese) Academia Sinica, TELDAP, Taiwan
        • (Dutch) Netherlands Institute for Art History, Netherland
        • (Spanish) Centro de Documentación de Bienes Patrimoniales, DIBAM, Chile
        • (German) State Museums of Berlin/Institute for Museum Research, Germany
      • The pilot test has been carried out by GRI and TELDAP between October2009 and March 2010 to test the feasibility of contributing transliterated terms and new concepts to AAT.
    • 62. References
      • Chen, S.J. (2009). Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus: methods and issues. Presented at CIDOC 2009, Chile, 29 September 2009.
      • Chen, S.J. and Wu D. and Chang, Y.T. (2009). Bilingual equivalence mapping: methods and issues. Presented at Getty Research Institute.
      • Chen, S.J. and Wu D. and Peng, P.W. (2009). A Close look at bilingual translation: methods and issues. Presented at Getty Research Institute.
      • Chen, S.J. and Wu D. (2009). Contribution and creation of new concepts in the bilingual thesaurus: methods and practices. Presented at Getty Research Institute.
      • Cheng, C., Chen, Y.N., Chen, S.J., Chung, F.C., Lin, Y.H., and Wu, D. (2009). AAT-Taiwan System: initiative and progress. Presented at Getty Research Institute.
    • 63. Thank you for your attention! Sophy Shu-Jiun Chen [email_address]