AAPN Miami 2010


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Peter Waeber, bluesign technologies

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AAPN Miami 2010

  1. 2. Pure materials. Pure benefit. American Apparel Producers' Network Tuesday May 4, 2010 “ Sustainability in the Textile Value Chain”
  2. 3. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>Agenda
  3. 4. bluesign technologies ag <ul><li>Founded in 2000, based in St.Gallen, Switzerland (EMPA building) </li></ul><ul><li>Emerged from a project with Schoeller Textil, Nike and Huntsman </li></ul><ul><li>Development of “Supply Chain Tools” for the textile and related industry </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized by leading chemical companies </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by well-known brands/retailer </li></ul><ul><li>SGS as shareholder since July 2008 </li></ul>The company
  4. 5. bluesign technologies ag <ul><li>“ One world – one standard” </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing together the entire textile manufacturing chain to jointly reduce the environmental footprint of the textile and related industry </li></ul>Vision bluesign ® standard Textile manu- facturers Fibre manu- facturers Chemical Suppliers Brands & Retailers
  5. 6. bluesign ® member <ul><ul><li>Patagonia, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain Equipment CO-OP, Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The North Face, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VAUDE Sports, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helly Hansen, Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eileen Fisher, USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haglöfs, Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jako-O, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R.E.I., USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deuter, Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and others </li></ul></ul>Brands and retailers
  6. 7. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>Agenda
  7. 13. World resources Mass flow Global Mass Flows Past Present Future unchangend development freezing current state corporate improvements and private economisation factor 10 Source: „The Earth“; Prof. Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek, Factor 10 Institute, F 83660 Carnoules
  8. 20. What you cannot see at the end-product Waste water treatment
  9. 21. What you cannot see at the end-product Exhaust-air
  10. 22. What you cannot see at the end-product Work place conditions
  11. 23. What you cannot see at the end-product Waste management
  12. 24. What you cannot see at the end-product Efficiency in processing
  13. 25. What you cannot see at the end-product <ul><ul><li>Cotton Mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>345 – 1050 g/kg textile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic Mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>110 – 820 g/kg textile </li></ul></ul>Use of chemicals
  14. 26. What you cannot see at the end-product <ul><li>Chemicals found in the waste water after the textile finishing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton Mill: approx. 65% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic Mill: approx. 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals found in the exhaust air after the textile finishing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General: approx. 1 to 60% </li></ul></ul>End-of-pipe situation
  15. 27. Textile production chain <ul><li>Chemicals give textiles the colour and the performance that the consumer demands </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals are not “bad”, it is what you do with them that can be bad </li></ul><ul><li>A “safe” chemical used badly can be many times more polluting than a classified chemical used correctly </li></ul>Need for chemicals
  16. 29. Retailer/Brand situation Strict control mechanism in the supply chain Consumers assume that retailers are managing all risks (EHS, ethical) on their behalf <ul><li>Just one case of allergy or health issue in the public is enough to put the brand at risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoring a damaged reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is extremely costly </li></ul></ul>&quot;Brand Protection&quot; Consequence Brand <ul><li>Customer loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>People wear it </li></ul><ul><li>(often next to skin) </li></ul><ul><li>People identify with it </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional binding </li></ul><ul><li>Customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>A safe product </li></ul><ul><li>An environmentally friendly product </li></ul><ul><li>A sustainable product </li></ul>
  17. 30. What happened in the last 20 years?
  18. 31. Current “ECO” approaches … <ul><li>Eco labels </li></ul>… the Solution? Restricted Substance Lists (RSL)
  19. 32. Analyses show <ul><ul><li>MAK-Amines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC & Phthalates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APEO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PFOA and PFOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitizing dyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other toxic substances </li></ul></ul>Harmful substances in textile products!
  20. 33. Approach by brands and retailers <ul><li>Fact: Still a growing number of “problems” </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing in locations with unknown EHS standards </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical industry can‘t handle more then 160 RSLs </li></ul><ul><li>EHS data of chemical components are often not available </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, the decision maker at the manufacturing level does not possess the necessary chemical and toxicological know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty through “new” problem substances e.g. PFOA / PFOS </li></ul>Unsatisfying implementation of RSLs
  21. 34. Practical experience <ul><li>Recent European ECLIPS study shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many MSDS are of generally poor quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amount of products and substances not classified correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of important information not available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of EU-Directive deficient in 69% </li></ul></ul>Material Safety Data Sheet l
  22. 35. Practical experience <ul><li>MSDS from company with high EHS-Standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written for environmental chemistry specialists and toxicologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation complicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to predict outcome for final fabric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For decision maker in production difficult to implement </li></ul></ul>Material Safety Data Sheet ll
  23. 36. Practical experience <ul><li>MSDS of insufficient quality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data content does not allow prediction of impact on environment, workplace or consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often simply no data or inaccurate data available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical substances listed in RSLs are often not mentioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to know if RSL requirements are met </li></ul></ul>Material Safety Data Sheet lll
  24. 37. If You Don’t Know, You Don’t Care! Consequence Practical experience
  25. 38. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>
  26. 39. The bluesign ® standard <ul><li>Environment, health & safety </li></ul><ul><li>No dangerous emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer protection </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace situation </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Resource productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Economic success </li></ul>Worldwide industry standard
  27. 40. The bluesign ® standard <ul><li>No compromise in functionality, quality or design! </li></ul><ul><li>Solution provider </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up concept: Developed in close cooperation with the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Best Available Technology (BAT) </li></ul>Set-up
  28. 41. EHS Aspects … … in textile production work place ground-water contamination Soil contamination NO x CO 2 UFP‘s CH 4 SO 2 water raw material energy waste water waste products emission noise
  29. 42. Conventional approach Focus on end-product End-product Brands need more information Textile production chain Blackbox STOP
  30. 43. bluesign ® approach bluesign ® standard Input Process / Technology Focus on input streams End-product Textile production chain Blackbox Monitoring & Optimisation STOP STOP
  31. 44. Input stream management <ul><li>Over 850 restricted and banned substances are monitored within the bluesign ® standard </li></ul>The five pillars of the bluesign ® standard
  32. 45. <ul><li>Various “Restricted Substance Lists” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The North Face, Nike, Levi’s, New Balance, R.E.I., Columbia, adidas, PUMA, H&M, C&A, M&S, IKEA, Coats and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REACH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of „Substances of Very High Concern“ (SVHC) in bluesign ® approved fabrics is smaller than 0.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No reporting requirement according to article 33 REACH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notification according to article 2 REACH does not apply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current list of SVHC on ECHA website http://echa.europa.eu/chem_data/candidate_list_table_en.asp </li></ul></ul>The bluesign ® standard in summary Manufacturers fulfill the following guidelines
  33. 46. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>Agenda
  34. 48. Environmental Impacts … … of the textile industry <ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of the chemicals produced worldwide are used directly or indirectly for textiles (Source: Greenpeace Germany) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>» Environmental impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High energy consumption in production, transport, retail and use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>» Contribution to global warming (CO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing of cotton: 4,000 – 30,000 l / kg cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing of textiles: up to 700 l freshwater / kg textile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste water in production: up to 600 l / kg textile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of water for a large brand – 1,200 small lakes or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43,000 Olympic-size swimming pools per annum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>» Mostly drinking water quality </li></ul></ul>Water
  35. 49. Resource management <ul><li>Resource inflation components (ric i ): </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Energy ric 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Water ric 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Base Chemicals ric 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Additives ric 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Calorific Energy ric 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Resource inflation components: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource inflation factor: rif = 2.01 </li></ul>Resource inflation ric i = 1.0 1.55 1.0 1.77 1.0 2.24 1.0 1.67 1.0 2.61 BAT current
  36. 50. Resource management Cost inflation BAT rif 2.01 Cost 0.07 €/kWh 2 €/m 3 0.45 €/kg 1.1 €/kg 0.015 €/kWh cif 2.09 Cost savings 897’000 €
  37. 51. Examples from manufacturing sites Resource management Manufacturer Cost inflation factor Savings expected Savings realized ROI of bluesign in Knitwear EU 1.05 587.460.-€ ca. 250.000.-€ < 2 Weeks Woven’s EU 1.06 242.587.-€ ca. 170.000.-€ < 2 Months Woven’s Asia 1.07 354.270.-€ ca. 240.000.-€ < 1 Month Knitwear Asia 1.07 106.260.-€ ca. 80.000.-€ < 4 Months Knitwear Asia 1.56 565.000.-€ ca. 340.000.-€ < 2 Weeks Woven’s Asia 1.22 486.000.-€ ca. 400.000.-€ <3 Weeks Woven’s EU 1.09 238.000.-€ ca. 190.000.-€ 3 Months Knitwear Asia 1.32 268.670.-€ ca. 220.000.-€ 2 Months Woven’s EU 1.10 532.070.-€ ca. 356.000.-€ < 1 Month Woven’s Asia 1.48 4.245.980.-€ ca.2.450.000.-€ <1 Week Knitwear EU 1.23 328.900.-€ ca. 100.000.-€ < 2 Month
  38. 52. Example from manufacturing site <ul><li>Last year, bluesign technologies was able to save a total of 3120 tons of solvents thanks to various bluesign ® screenings and the subsequent implementation of the bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is equivalent to a cargo train with 78 wagons </li></ul></ul>Resource savings
  39. 55. Everest Textile Co., Ltd. <ul><li>In 2007, Everest partnered with bluesign technologies ag to meet the highest environmental, health and safety requirements for our customers and the environment. Beside the environmental aspects, also the resource analysis, which led to resource and cost saving potentials, proved to be very useful. As a result, we reduced 40% of wastewater emission and 20% of energy consumption in 2007 compared to the previous year. Our customers are impressed by our efforts and glad to have &quot;bluesign ® approved fabrics&quot;. The bluesign ® standard combines eco-friendliness and economic benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Ching-Lai Yeh, President, Everest Textile Co., Ltd. Taiwan </li></ul>Progress after screening
  40. 56. Resource management Moving toward BAT Resource Inflation Factor (rif) Cost Inflation Factor (cif) Initial-Screening Optimum 0 1 2 3 1 1. Re-Screening 2. Re-Screening 2.5 1.75
  41. 57. Comparison current practice – BAT Cotton knits (batch) 591 325 30 60.3 27.2 1.64 Worst Average BAT Water [l/kg] Total Energy [kWh/kg]
  42. 58. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>Agenda
  43. 59. bluesign ® screening <ul><ul><li>Rating of all components in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data acquisition and balancing of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening report with recommendations considering the current local situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indication of resources and cost saving potentials compared to “Best Available Technology” </li></ul></ul>Full factory analysis
  44. 60. bluesign ® screening <ul><ul><li>Transparency in the production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down complex EHS-issues to a manageable level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance with all common RSLs and meeting SVHC requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Insurance” for manufacturers, retailers and brands </li></ul></ul>Outcome
  45. 61. bluesign ® applications <ul><li>An extensive knowledge base is the basis of the bluesign ® standard and the applications </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria define the framework of the bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessments and exposure scenarios yield EHS limits </li></ul><ul><li>Homologation of chemical products </li></ul>Behind the scenes
  46. 63. bluesign ® bluetool – the science gateway <ul><li>Access to an independent, expert third party to evaluate and improve your chemical products </li></ul><ul><li>bluesign ® approved chemical products comply with global RSLs, eco labels and legislations </li></ul><ul><li>Get your bluesign ® approved chemical products published on the bluesign ® bluefinder </li></ul>Benefits
  47. 64. bluesign ® bluefinder – the advanced search engine <ul><li>Optimise chemical sourcing regarding consumer safety using the bluesign ® bluefinder </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® bluefinder provides comprehensive information about sustainable production </li></ul><ul><li>Get extensive access to manufacturers of bluesign ® approved chemicals, dyestuffs and auxiliaries </li></ul>Benefits
  48. 65. bluesign ® blueguide – the comprehensive database <ul><li>Access to a comprehensive sourcing instrument for sustainable textiles, accessories and trims </li></ul><ul><li>Get extensive information about environment, health and safety issues </li></ul><ul><li>Access to manufacturers of bluesign ® approved fabrics </li></ul>Benefits
  49. 66. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current situation: Today’s management of complex “Environment, Health & Safety” (EHS) problems </li></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating transparency with input stream management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry challenges – resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bluesign ® tools </li></ul><ul><li>End of life considerations </li></ul>Agenda
  50. 67. End-of-Life Amount of waste (Switzerland) Source: NZZ Folio 709 kg per person and year Textiles correspond to 0.9 % of total waste
  51. 68. End-of-Life Options for textiles today <ul><li>Re-use, Re-pair, Re-purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial recycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composting? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incineration and/or L andfill </li></ul>
  52. 69. End-of-Life Example re-use
  53. 70. End-of-Life <ul><li>ECOLOG Recycling-Network (Vaude) </li></ul><ul><li>GORE™ BALANCE PROJECT™ (Gore) </li></ul><ul><li>Common Threads Recycling Program (Patagonia), ECOCIRCLE™ (Teijin) </li></ul><ul><li>Composting? </li></ul>Examples recycling
  54. 71. End-of-Life <ul><li>„ As a basic principle a recycling system is only sensible if an ecological benefit results and if the collection and processing is economically bearable and assured from a long term perspective.“ (Source: Marianne Stünzi, Associat General Manager Pusch [Swiss NGO]) </li></ul><ul><li>If we don‘t stop the streams of resources currently flowing into the production of goods, but instead force them into cycles that require additional transport, use up new resources and need even more energy, we will eventually experience a material „blockage“ of the economy – with non-assessable ecological consequences (Source: Friedrich Schmidt-Bleek, President Factor 10 Institute, F 83660 Carnoules) </li></ul>Basic principles for recycling
  55. 72. Recycling Limits for recycling
  56. 73. Composting <ul><li>Generally unfavorable composting conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes designed to be stable </li></ul><ul><li>It sounds green to say „this article can be composted“, but the reality is local facilities do not exist, old garments end up in incineration or landfill </li></ul>Limits for composting
  57. 74. „ End-of-Life“ thinking <ul><li>“ End-of-Life” starts with the design </li></ul><ul><li>Products must be „mono-material“ </li></ul><ul><li>Products must be designed for disassembly </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling loops must be established (e.g. ECOCIRCLE™) </li></ul>Consequence for design
  58. 76. Conclusion <ul><li>Input stream management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use resource efficient materials and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation of sustainability tools in the supply chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy manageable tools to reduce workload and complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of resource productivity – optimization of MIPS (Material Input Per Service-unit) (Prof. Schmidt-Bleek, Factor 10 Institute, France) </li></ul></ul>Reducing the ecological footprint
  59. 77. Thank you bluesign technologies ag EMPA Building Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH-9014 St. Gallen Fon +41 (0) 71 272 29 90 Fax +41 (0) 71 272 29 99 [email_address] www.bluesign.com