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  1. 1. Slide 1:ANDROID Computer ScienceSlide 2:Contents What is an Operating System ? What Is Android ? History Of Android VariousVersions Logos Features Of Android Android Architecture Security Issues Comparison WithOther OS Disadvantages Conclusion ReferencesSlide 3:What is an Operating System ? An operating system is the program that, after being initiallyloaded into the machine by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a machine. Theother programs are called applications or application programs.Slide 4:What Is Android ? Android is a Linux-based mobile phone operating system developed byGoogle. Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system andapplications .Slide 5:History Of Android Android Inc. was founded in 2003 . It was founded in Palo Alto, California,United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White. GoogleInc. purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005 .Slide 6:Vari ous Versions Android has seen a number of updates since its original release. These updatesfocus on fixing bugs as well as adding new features. The most recent released versions ofAndroid are: 2.0/2.1 (Eclair) , which revamped the user interface and introduced HTML5and Exchange ActiveSync 2.5 support. 2.2 (Froyo) , which introduced speed improvementswith JIT optimization and the Chrome V8 JavaScript engine, and added Wi-Fi hotspot andAdobe Flash support. 2.3 (Gingerbread) , which refined the user interface , improved the softkeyboard and copy/paste features , and added support for Near Field Communication. 3.0(Honeycomb) , a tablet-oriented release which supports larger screen devices and many new userinterface features, and supports multicore processors and hardware acceleration for graphics. TheHoneycomb SDK has been released and the first device featuring the Motorola Xoom tablet,went sale in Feb 2011.Slide 7:
  2. 2. Logos The Android logo was designed with the Droid font family made by AscenderCorporation. Android Green is the color of the Android Robot that represents the Androidoperating system. Android Robot Android Eclair Android Froyo Android Honeycomb AndroidGingerbreadSlide 8:Features Of Android Connectivity Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM /EDGE , IDEN , CDMA , EVDO , UMTS , Bluetooth , Wi-Fi , LTE , NFC and WiMAX .Messaging SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messagingand now Android Cloud to Device Messaging Framework ( C2DM ) is also a part of AndroidPush Messaging service. Java support While most Android applications are written in Java ,there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classesare compiled into Dalvik executables and run on the Dalvik virtual machine . Dalvik is aspecialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-poweredmobile devices with limited memory and CPU .Slide 9:Media support Android supports WebM , H.263 , H.264 , MPEG-4 , AMR , AMR, AAC , HE-AAC , MP3 , MIDI , Ogg Vorbis , WAV , JPEG , PNG , GIF , BMP . Additional Hardwaresupport Android can use video/still cameras , touchscreens , GPS , accelerometers , gyroscopes ,magnetometers , dedicated gaming controls, proximity and pressure sensors , thermometers andaccelerated 3D graphics. Market The Android Market is a catalog of applications that can bedownloaded and installed to Android devices over-the-air, without the use of a PC. Multi-touchAndroid has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets suchas the HTC Hero . Multitasking Multitasking of applications is available.Slide 10:Voice based features Google search through Voice has been available since initial release.Voiceactions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards. StorageSQLite , a lightweight relational database , is used for data storage purposes. Tethering Androidsupports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired hotspot. Prior to Android2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturer customizations. Web browserThe web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit layout engine,coupled with Chrome s V8 JavaScript engine. These are some main features. Apart from thesethere are many other features .Slide 11:Android ArchitectureSlide 12:
  3. 3. Applications Android has a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program,calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Javaprogramming language. Application Framework By providing an open development platform,Android offers developers the ability to build extremely rich and innovative applications.Developers are free to take advantage of the device hardware, access location information, runbackground services, set alarms, add notifications to the status bar, and much, much more.Libraries Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Androidsystem. Some of the core libraries are listed below: System C library Media Libraries SGL - theunderlying 2D graphics engine 3D libraries - an implementation based on OpenGL SQLite - apowerful & lightweight relational database engine.Slide 13:Android Runtime Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of theDalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMsefficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format. Linux KernelAndroid relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memorymanagement, process management, network stack, and driver model.Slide 14:Security Android is a privilege-separated operating system. Each application runs with a distinctsystem identity (Linux user ID) Parts of the system are also separated into distinct identities. SoLinux isolates applications from each other and from the system. All Android applications (.apkfiles) must be signed with a certificate. Security Problems Android Faced In March 2011, Googlepulled 58 malicious apps from the Android Market, but not before the 58 apps were downloadedto around 260,000 devices. These apps contained Trojans hidden in pirated versions of legitimateapps. Trojan was Droid Dream. Google said the exploit allowed the apps to gather devicespecific information, as well as personal information. The exploit also allowed the apps todownload additional code that could be run on the device .Slide 15:In August 2010, an SMS Trojan called Trojan. SMS. Android OS. FakePlayer.a infected anumber of mobile devices. The Trojan, once installed sends out SMS text messages without theusers knowledge or consent. Almost six months ago, popular Voice over Internet Protocolcompany Skype unveiled the Skype for Android App . Android Police discovered a securityissue with Skype for Android App. According to Android Police, the latest version of Skype forAndroid stores chats logs and other information on the microSD card un-encrypted.Android v/s Symbian:
  4. 4. Android v/s Symbian Multiple Home Screens. You can change the base firmware. AndroidMarket has around 200,000 apps. Great processing power based on modern processors likeCortex-A8 and Cortex-A9 giving 1GHz speed. 512MB RAM is normal for Androids goes up to1 GB in Atrix . No Multiple Home Screens. You can never change the base firmware. OVI storehas around 40,000 apps only. Processor like OMAP2420 running at only 330 MHz . Symbianhave to leave with 256MB RAM. Android SymbianSlide 17:Android is its Open Source Platform. Android Market has around 200,000 apps. Associationwith Google has made it more powerful with Google Maps and Google Voice Apps. Largemarket share. Full, Multiple Account Sync, no outlook required . Windows Mobile is similar toWindows and has a lot of legal bindings. Windows Mobile have only around 800 applicationsand no gaming apps. No such features here. Market share fall by 70%. Gmail Support onlythrough outlook.Slide 18:Disadvantages There are various security issues that plague users of Google Android operatingsystem, if the users are not so savvy. Where Android identities are not secured, thefts and hacksare possible. Its open security free business model lacking security keys and code-signingcertificates allows any application to install and run, which is perhaps the biggest drawback. TheJava enabled system cannot be installed on the memory card. Thus apps and software have to bedownloaded direct onto the phone’s own memory, which obviously takes up much-needed space.The system shows up only the first frame. It does not support animated .gif files. NokiaCriticized Google’s Android System Is Not Open. The Google Android system, despite claims ofbeing an open source, does not make the source code completely available to all.Slide 19:Conclusion So besides having too many advantages of Android over little disadvantages its up tothe user to chose according to his needs, to chose Android over other Operating systems.Slide 20:References http://www.techtree.com