Parameters

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
.............................................................................
Parameters
11. Spool Administration..........................................................................................
Parameters
Process of reorganization:........................................................................................
Parameters

List of Screenshots
Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List).....................................................
Parameters

List of Figures
Figure 1: SAP Architecture.......................................................................
Parameters

SAP
System Application Products for Data Processing

1. Introduction
It is developed in Germany.
It is an ERP....
Parameters

1.2

Database Types

1. Oracle
2. SQL Server
3. DB2
4. SYBASE
5. Informix
6. MaxDB ( SAP DB)
Note: We use Orac...
Parameters

1.4

High-Availability

1. Mirroring:

If one of the Hard disk fails another Hard disk will take
care.
It is a...
Parameters
5. Stand-by Servers:

In case of disorder/disaster recovery.
Different R/3, different locations, each transacti...
Parameters

2. Advantages of SAP
1. Rich set of modules
2. Data integrity
3. Easy administration
4. only one database
5. S...
Parameters
SAP:
SAP R/3 => SAP Release Three
Versions:


4.5 B



4.6 C



4.7 R/3 Enterprise Edition

Latest Releases ...
Parameters

3. Architecture of SAP
Presentation
Layer

Application
Layer

Database Layer

Figure 1: SAP Architecture

3.1
...
Parameters
2. Own memory and buffer
3. Own security
4. Own process to handle request from Application Layer

3.4

Terminol...
Parameters

4. Servers and Work process
4.1

SID:

It’s a three digit number. It is alphanumeric but never starts with a n...
Parameters

Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List)

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Parameters

servers.

Screenshot 2:

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Parameters

4.3

SM50: Work Process Overview

Types of Work Process:
D
V
E
B
M
G
S

Dialogue
Update
Enque
Background / Bat...
Parameters
This process is used to run the long running jobs in the background mode. This process is
used to run without a...
Parameters

Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview)

4.4 T-Code Prefixes:
n -- Next screen
o – Open new session / screen
nex...
Parameters

4.5 Menu Bar Buttons:
Back

F3

Search

Ctrl + F

First Page
Previous Page
Next Page
Last Page
Ascending Order...
Parameters

5. Profiles
There are three types of profiles:
1. Start up Profile
2. Default Profile
3. Instance Profile
Star...
Parameters
rdisp/wp_no_spool
Memory parameter
Buffer Parameter
Note: If there are three application servers there will be ...
Parameters

6. System Bounce:

# ps –ef|grep dw
# ps –ef|grep ora-

In order to shutdown the system we need to stop the ap...
Parameters
If there are six application servers first we log into each six servers by using hostnames at
OS level.
Then fi...
Parameters
Reasons for Shut Down and Start-up:
1. Maintenance
2. Backup
3. Patches
4. Upgrades[ Hardware, Software, Kernel...
Parameters

7. Market Place
SAP service Market Place
Service
Developer Key / Object
Problem Management
Notes Database
Admi...
Parameters
Here we will get a list of installation numbers, click on the appropriate installation
number
At the bottom cli...
Parameters

8. Installation
8.1 Hardware Sizing:
To analyze the business requirement and allocating the memory. Steps invo...
Parameters

8.3 High Availability:
Availability of systems 24 x 7 x 365 without any interruption so that customer can do h...
Parameters

8.4 Post installation activities:

1. Go to SICK / SM28  Installation check
2. Go to SE06  CTS Initializatio...
Parameters

9. Installation Process
Installation is done in three phases:
1. Central Instance (CI)
2. Database Instance (D...
Parameters
12. Continue installation.

9.2 Database Instance:
1. Select DbI
2. Specify SID, hostname and instance number
3...
Parameters
SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD5EXPORT5
SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD6EXPORT6
SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD7EXPORT7
11. Specify the passwords for <SI...
Parameters
NOTE: To uninstall old version go to SAPSWEEP.exe  then install SAPINST.exe

9.5 Checking Central Instances:
1...
Parameters

SAP<SID>
OP$<SID>adm
OP$SAPsercice<SID>
OP$: Operating system users <<SID>adm and SAPservice<SID> are also cre...
Parameters

10. Client Maintenance
Client can be created with T-Code ‘SCC4’.

10.1 SCC4

Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Mainte...
Parameters

Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2

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Parameters

Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1

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Parameters

Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2

In SCC4 we can see this list of all the clients present in the system
There w...
Parameters

The naming convention for the logical system:
Letter should be in Capitals
<SID>CLNT<clientnumber>
Example: A7...
Parameters
Note: The customizing client is only allowed for changing cross client
objects and repository. It is represente...
Parameters
d. Changes without auto recording, No transports allowed
3. Cross-client object changes:
a. Changes to reposito...
Parameters

10.2 Client copies:
There are three types of client copies:
1. Local Client Copy – SCCL
2. Remote Client Copy ...
Parameters

Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2

Procedure:
1. Log into the target client.
Example: 900
With

- A5B
...
Parameters
d. SAP_USER – User Master Record and Authentication Profiles.
e. SAP_UCUS – Customizing and User master Records...
Parameters

10.4 SCC3:

Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log)

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Parameters

Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis

Target client
Source client
Copy Type
Profile
Status

Processing, Suc...
Parameters

Prerequisites of client copy:
1. Check the target client number [ should be existing or create it]
2. There sh...
Parameters

10.5 Remote Client Copy:
Remote client copy is done from a client in one system to another system.
Example

:
...
Parameters

10.6 RFC
Remote Function Call
Different Type of RFC:
1. Synchronous

– SRFC

– SM59

2. Asynchronous

– ARFC

...
Parameters
e. In Logon Security TAB we specify
Client No:

<Source>

User ID
Password
Language
f. Save the Connection
2. T...
Parameters

11. Spool Administration
SPAD, SP12, SP01
Different types of servers which provide SPOOL process
1. Real Spool...
Parameters

Remote access method
The output process and spool process will be in two different places. Protocols S and U
a...
Parameters
7. Print job is deleted
8. The user is not having the authorization to print.
9. Out of paper
10. page format
N...
Parameters

Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration)

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

Process to setup Printer in SPAD:
1. Go to SPAD
2. Give the output device name
PR04 or HP08 (case sensitive)
3...
Parameters
3. Device class
4. Model
5. Location
6. Message
Access Methods:
1. Host spool access methods [

L

U

C

F]

S
...
Parameters

11.5 SP01 – Output control

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Parameters

This is used to check the status of the spool request once the test print is given:
go to SP01
Give spool requ...
Parameters

SP12 – TemSe Management

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Parameters

1. Go to SP12
2. Click on TemSe data Storage
 Consistency Check
 Delete All
This deletes all Temporary Seque...
Parameters

When we log into the OS level give the command
# printers
To check the various options for the printer
The var...
Parameters

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Parameters

NOTE:
i.

Maximum number of spool requests is 32,000.

ii.

Printer can be licked in SPAD by checking the opti...
Parameters

12. Transport Management System
It specifies transport of objects from one system to another. There are two ty...
Parameters

Transport Groups:
The objects which share common transport directory
Development Class:
It is the collection o...
Parameters
# R3trans –d
Which generates a log file in the current directory. TP not only uses R3trans but also uses
RDDI* ...
Parameters

Change request: change request consists of changes made by the developer/functional
consultants.
Change Reques...
Parameters
Mass transport:
# tp import ALL <SID> client<no>
# pf = /usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_<SID>pfl
NOTE: When TP is ...
Parameters

Reallocation of Objects:
This is used to move the objects with or without development class; can be performed ...
Parameters

12.3 Transport Directory:
This is the directory where modifying the objects are stored. This consists of sub
d...
Parameters
EPS – Electronic Parcel Service.
This is used for applying support patches ( .ATT & .PAT files.)
Log Files: * *...
Parameters
If the domain controller is already created we need to include systems in domain.
Including systems in domain c...
Parameters

13. Support Packages
Also called as support patches
Support packages are used to enhance the functionality or ...
Parameters

13.2 Applying Support Patches:
1. Go to www.service.sap.com/patches
a. Select support packages and patches
b. ...
Parameters

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Parameters

NOTE:
i.

If a note is already applied to fix the bug or enhance the program thought ‘snote’,
SPAU phase will ...
Parameters

13.3 Pre-requisites:
1. There should be valid backup
2. SPAM/SAINT should be in latest version. There should n...
Parameters

13.4 Support Packages Errors:
1. TP could not get connected to database.
Resolution:
a. Execute ‘R3trans –d’ w...
Parameters
Difference between support package and plug in:
Support packages provide additional functionality for the exist...
Parameters
Note: For Support Packages the process takes around 30-45 minutes
For Kernel Patches it takes 5-10 minutes.

SA...
Parameters

13.6 Kernel Patches
1. Go to SAP market place, download the latest kernel executables
2. Kernel executables ar...
Parameters

14. Update Mechanism
Update Mechanism: When ever a user wants to update or create a transaction logs into
the ...
Parameters

14.2 Types of Update Process:
There are two types of updates: V1 & V2.
V1: Update is time critical update.
Ex:...
Parameters

SAP BASIS

89
Parameters
SM14: It is used to identify whether the update is active or inactive.
Update process will be deactivated when ...
Parameters

14.4 Update Problems:
1. Less number of Work processes is configured.
2. The update queue increases and more u...
Parameters

15. ENQUE
Enque process is used to provide locks in SAP system to obtain the transaction
consistency.
Enque lo...
Parameters

16. Data Transfer
There are various technologies from SAP transferring data from the legacy system to R/3
syst...
Parameters

17. Archiving
Archiving is a process of moving data from R/3 system to any other storage area.
This storage ar...
Parameters

SAP BASIS

95
Parameters

17.1 Reason for Archiving:
1. Database size is growing
2. Database _______________
3. During reorganization th...
Parameters

18. System Monitoring:
GUI Time
Dispatcher Wait Time
Rollout Time
Rollin Time
Processing Time
Load Time
Databa...
Parameters
10. The time taken by the work process to communicate with external device is called
RFC Time.
11. The time tak...
Parameters
20. Load time: it should be 100ms buffers are not effectively maintained, we may
need to change buffer paramete...
Parameters

Memory
Physical Memory:
It

is

a

memory

which

is

installed

on

the

system

RAM

Virtual Memory
Sum of p...
Parameters
A group of one or more keys bunched together for buffering. Ex: Primary and Foreign
Key
No Buffering:
Table is ...
Parameters
This parameter is used to set the initial memory which will be used
by work process to roll in. it is part of r...
Parameters
memory or we can restrict the number of work process that goes into private
mode.

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Parameters

19. Health Checks
For Performing Health Checks:
We need to perform following T-Codes:
SM51 / RZ03
SM50
ST02
ST...
Parameters

SM50:
Here we check the type of work process and status. The status will be shown either in
running / waiting ...
Parameters

ST02:
Here we check the ‘Max in Use’ and ‘In Memory’ of the
ROLL AREA
PAGE AREA
EXTENDED MEMORY
At any point M...
Parameters

SAP BASIS

107
Parameters
ST06: OS Monitor

Here we check the CPU
Utilization user %
System %
Idle %
I/O Wait %
NOTE: CPU idle % should n...
Parameters
ST03:
Go to Export mode, click on yesterday and check time for DB Request.
Also each process / transaction, tot...
Parameters

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Parameters

SMLG: Log on Load Balancing
Click on Menu
Select Load Distribution / Select F5 Directly.
Here we observe respo...
Parameters

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Parameters

SP12: TemSe management
In Menu Temse Data storage
Click on Consistency check
Click on Delete all.
ST22: Dump A...
Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

SM37
Run the House keeping jobs of SAP* and ARV Jobs

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Parameters

SM12
Click on List
Table Name

: ____________

Lock Argument

: ____________

Client

: ____________ (Business...
Parameters

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Parameters

DB02: Database Performance
Here we can find out the table space name, total size of the table space, free spac...
Parameters

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Parameters

DB12: Back up Locks
Here we check last successful backup and then overview of database backups.

SAP BASIS

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Parameters

ST01 / ST05:
System trace / Performance Analysis
ST01
Automation Trace
SQL Trace
RFC Trace
Buffer Trace
Enque ...
Parameters
Buffer Trace:
When ever the user is having problem with buffers, programs and Swaps identify the
time and switc...
Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

ST07: Application Monitor
It is used to find the number of users created in the system, number of instances (R...
Parameters

DB13: DBA Planning Calendar
It is used to schedule backups of database and log files, adapt next extents, chec...
Parameters

SM21: System Logs
Here all the system messages are recorded. TIME, TYPE OF MSG, CLIENT, USER and
all informati...
Parameters
NOTE: rdisp/trace=0/1/2
Is having the information about database, dispatcher and message server.

SAP BASIS

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

Background Work Process
SM36, SM37
The trace which consumes more time or long running reports or time consumin...
Parameters

CLASS –A Priority:
1. Priority is high
2. We require a dedicated background process of type A to execute these...
Parameters
RFC connection, program name, target host are required to define Ex: Program.
External Commands: The commands w...
Parameters
Reasons for Termination of Jobs:
1. Programmatical Errors:
Programs changed manually or modified. Applying supp...
Parameters
SAP Standard Jobs (House Keeping)
These are used to delete log files, checking the consistency of system, etc.
...
Parameters
 Go to Menu
 Go to SAVE AS Variant
Popup screen appears
 Specify variant details
 SAVE.
Variants are stored...
Parameters

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Parameters

SAP BASIS

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

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Parameters

Solving Max-Extents issues

sesu - ora<sid>
sapdba -u /
1. d - Reorganization
2. b - Alter/show table or index...
Parameters
Working ... (altering table)
Table 'SAPR3.T425' altered.
Press <return> to continue...
to confirm: bs

Note: If...
Parameters

020

Check the value of MAXEXTENTS

Choose either of the methods below depending on whether you are checking a...
Parameters

Type “c” to continue to reach the “Alter tables” main menu.

In this menu, choose “4 - Show tables”. This will...
Parameters

For indexes:

Go back to the main menu of BRTOOLS by “b”. Choose “3 - Segment management”, then “6 + Al
indexe...
Parameters

Choose “7 ~ Index names (index)” to specify the index name.
e.g. the screenshot below shows the index to be US...
Parameters

Choose the correct index. E.g. in the example above, type “1” to choose the USR02_____0 index.
This will show ...
Parameters

040

Specify parameters to BRCONNECT

In the “BRCONNECT main options for adaption of NEXT extents” menu, just ...
Parameters

050

Commit the changes

Type “c” to continue to run BRCONNECT. If you have specified a table, the tool will f...
Parameters

060

Verify new MAXEXTENTS value

Verify if the new MAXEXTENTS value has taken effect to the table/index(es) b...
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60950106 basis-latest-till-interview-questions-130104015104-phpapp02

  1. 1. Parameters Table of Contents Table of Contents .............................................................................................................................................2 List of Screenshots.............................................................................................................5 List of Figures....................................................................................................................6 1. Introduction....................................................................................................................7 1.1 Operating System...................................................................................................7 1.2 Database Types......................................................................................................8 1.3 Basic Jobs: Two Types..........................................................................................8 1.4 High-Availability...................................................................................................9 1.5 Connectivity.........................................................................................................10 2. Advantages of SAP......................................................................................................11 3. Architecture of SAP.....................................................................................................13 3.1 Presentation Layer...............................................................................................13 3.2 Application Layer................................................................................................13 3.3 Database Layer:...................................................................................................13 3.4 Terminology.........................................................................................................14 4. Servers and Work process..........................................................................................15 4.1 SID: .................................................................................................................15 4.2 SM51: Shows only Active servers.......................................................................15 4.3 SM50: Work Process Overview...........................................................................18 4.4 T-Code Prefixes:..................................................................................................20 4.5 Menu Bar Buttons:...............................................................................................21 5. Profiles..........................................................................................................................22 6. System Bounce:............................................................................................................24 7. Market Place................................................................................................................27 7.1 Developer Key:....................................................................................................27 7.2 Developer Object:................................................................................................28 8. Installation....................................................................................................................29 8.1 Hardware Sizing:.................................................................................................29 8.2 Users:...................................................................................................................29 8.3 High Availability:................................................................................................30 8.4 Post installation activities:...................................................................................31 9. Installation Process......................................................................................................32 9.1 Central instance:...................................................................................................32 9.2 Database Instance:...............................................................................................33 9.3 Dialogue Instance:...............................................................................................34 9.4 Installation of GUI:..............................................................................................34 9.5 Checking Central Instances:................................................................................35 10. Client Maintenance....................................................................................................37 10.1 SCC4..................................................................................................................37 10.3 SCCL:................................................................................................................44 10.5 Remote Client Copy:..........................................................................................50 10.6 RFC....................................................................................................................51 SAP BASIS 2
  2. 2. Parameters 11. Spool Administration.................................................................................................53 11.1 Types of Access Methods:.................................................................................53 11.4 SPAD: Spool Administration.............................................................................55 11.5 SP01 – Output control........................................................................................62 SP12 – TemSe Management......................................................................................64 12. Transport Management System...............................................................................69 12.1 Change Request management:...........................................................................71 12.3 Transport Directory:...........................................................................................75 12.4 Configuring STMS:...........................................................................................76 12.5 Defining Landscape:..........................................................................................77 13. Support Packages.......................................................................................................78 13.1 Types of Support packages:...............................................................................78 13.2 Applying Support Patches:................................................................................79 13.3 Pre-requisites:....................................................................................................82 13.4 Support Packages Errors:...................................................................................83 13.5 Applying Add-ons:.............................................................................................84 13.6 Kernel Patches...................................................................................................86 14. Update Mechanism....................................................................................................87 14.1 Advantages:............................................................................................................87 14.2 Types of Update Process:.......................................................................................88 14.3 Update Monitoring:................................................................................................88 14.4 Update Problems:...................................................................................................91 15. ENQUE.......................................................................................................................92 15.1 Problems with Enque:............................................................................................92 16. Data Transfer.............................................................................................................93 17. Archiving....................................................................................................................94 17.1 Reason for Archiving:............................................................................................96 17.2 Advantages:............................................................................................................96 18. System Monitoring:...................................................................................................97 Memory...........................................................................................................................100 19. Health Checks..........................................................................................................104 Background Work Process...........................................................................................133 Solving Max-Extents issues...........................................................................................149 SAPDBA.........................................................................................................................159 Client Transport............................................................................................................161 Client Export............................................................................................................161 Client Import............................................................................................................161 Operation Modes...........................................................................................................163 Database..........................................................................................................................164 DBA ARCHTECTURE...........................................................................................164 Directories................................................................................................................169 Database Startup......................................................................................................170 Database Shutdown..................................................................................................171 Storage Management...............................................................................................172 Creation of Table Space...........................................................................................172 Reorganization.........................................................................................................173 SAP BASIS 3
  3. 3. Parameters Process of reorganization:........................................................................................174 Backup restore and recovery:...................................................................................174 Types of backups:....................................................................................................175 Users and Maintenance.................................................................................................183 Creation of Users.....................................................................................................184 Creating User...........................................................................................................184 Security....................................................................................................................186 Activity....................................................................................................................186 Role Creation:..........................................................................................................188 Defining a Derived Role:.........................................................................................188 User Comparison.....................................................................................................189 Missing Authorizations SU53..................................................................................189 Security Parameters.................................................................................................190 Central User Administration....................................................................................191 Types of users:.........................................................................................................193 Logon Load Balancing..................................................................................................194 Advantages...............................................................................................................194 Defining Logon groups............................................................................................194 Mechanism of Logon on Load Balancing................................................................194 SNOTE............................................................................................................................196 Applying SNOTE.....................................................................................................196 SCOT.......................................................................................................................199 OS Directory...................................................................................................................200 Important T Codes........................................................................................................201 Programs........................................................................................................................204 Parameters......................................................................................................................205 Tables..............................................................................................................................207 Top Ten Problems..........................................................................................................209 Interview Questions.......................................................................................................210 SAP BASIS 4
  4. 4. Parameters List of Screenshots Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List).....................................................................16 Screenshot 2: ...................................................................................................................17 Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview).......................................................................20 Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1.................................................................37 Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2.................................................................38 Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1..........................................................................39 Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2......................................................................................40 Screenshot 8: Client Roles...............................................................................................41 Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy)......................................................................44 Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2.................................................................45 Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log).......................................................................47 Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis......................................................................48 Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration)..............................................................56 SAP BASIS 5
  5. 5. Parameters List of Figures Figure 1: SAP Architecture............................................................................................13 Figure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts..........................................................................27 Figure 3: Transport Routes............................................................................................69 Figure 4: Health Checks................................................................................................104 Figure 5: SAP Database Architecture..........................................................................164 Figure 6: SAP Authorizations.......................................................................................183 Figure 7: SAP OS Directory.........................................................................................200 SAP BASIS 6
  6. 6. Parameters SAP System Application Products for Data Processing 1. Introduction It is developed in Germany. It is an ERP. Enterprise Resource Planning: Planning the resources in an Organization is called ERP. A Company having different modules like: 1. Sales 2. Financials 3. Purchasing 4. Production 5. Human Resources Integration of all these modules is done by ERP 1.1 Operating System 1. Windows 2. UNIX a. HP-UX b. Linux c. Solaris d. IBM AIX Note: We use HP-UX 11i SAP BASIS 7
  7. 7. Parameters 1.2 Database Types 1. Oracle 2. SQL Server 3. DB2 4. SYBASE 5. Informix 6. MaxDB ( SAP DB) Note: We use Oracle 9i. 9.2 (9.2.0.4) 1.3 Basic Jobs: Two Types On-site: • Here we can see all hardware. • Here we are working with client, so we can see all the servers. Off-shore: • Servers are located in USA, UK or some other remote locations • We will be in India and work on it. Data centre: It is a Server Room where your entire data is stored in an Organization 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Bytes 1024 KB = 1 Mega Bytes 1024 MB = 1 Giga Bytes 1024 GB = 1 Tera Bytes 1024 TB = 1 Pico Bytes SAP BASIS 8
  8. 8. Parameters 1.4 High-Availability 1. Mirroring: If one of the Hard disk fails another Hard disk will take care. It is a technique in which data is written to two duplicate disks simultaneously. In this way if any one of the disks fails, the system will switch to another disk with out analysis of data or service. 2. RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks Storing same data in different places on multiple hard disks. If any of the Hard disks fails, the data will store automatically in a disk called HOT SPARE. 3. SAN: Storage Area Network. If we have five applications, for each application we require one server so we need five servers. Maintaining five servers is tough. So SAN is coming into scenario, where we will store all data in common place. 4. Clustering: In case if overload. When the load is more on CI automatically it will transfer with transaction to DB directly. In other words connecting two or more computers together will behave like single computer is called clustering. It is used fir parallel processing If any one of the servers fails, another server will take care of the user. SAP BASIS 9
  9. 9. Parameters 5. Stand-by Servers: In case of disorder/disaster recovery. Different R/3, different locations, each transaction is replicated in all servers. In case of any disorders or calamities like Tsunami or Earthquakes, there will be a chance for not working of server. If one server is not working another server will take responsibility and provide service to the users. 1.5 Connectivity 1. HUB: In a network all the systems are connected to each other via HUB 2. SWITCH: All companies use switches for communication between systems. Provides network connectivity between various systems and networks. 3. ROUTER: Connectivity between one network to another network. It provides secure network connectivity between network and outside world. Note 1: To communicate from India to another country we need VPN, Dial-Up or ISP VPN : Virtual Private Network. ISP : Internet Service Provider. Note 2: We use VPN normally. In case of VPN failure we switch to Dial-Up. SAP BASIS 10
  10. 10. Parameters 2. Advantages of SAP 1. Rich set of modules 2. Data integrity 3. Easy administration 4. only one database 5. SAP supports all Databases and operating systems 6. Global Support 7 x 24 x 365 7. SAP supports Multi Languages I.e.; almost all the languages available using UNICODE 8. One GUI for all R/3 systems 9. SAP supports JAVA 10. easy add-ons ( to add functionality to existing systems) 11. High security 12. User friendly 13. Common Programming Language which supports OOPs and ABAP. UNICODE: It is R/3 software; provide access to almost all languages in the world. It uses two bytes NON UNICODE: It is a version of R/3 which supports only few languages in the world using technology MDMP – Multi Display Multi Program. It is used for providing support for other languages. SAP BASIS 11
  11. 11. Parameters SAP: SAP R/3 => SAP Release Three Versions:  4.5 B  4.6 C  4.7 R/3 Enterprise Edition Latest Releases are:  ECC 5.0  ECC 6.0 SAP BASIS 12
  12. 12. Parameters 3. Architecture of SAP Presentation Layer Application Layer Database Layer Figure 1: SAP Architecture 3.1 Presentation Layer Identifying the server which is least loaded from the GUI (Graphical User Interface) with the help of message servers. During GUI logon following files are evaluated. 1. SAPLOGON.INI 2. SAPMSG.INI 3. SAPROUTE.INI 4. SAPDOCCD.INI 3.2 Application Layer 1. Database Client to communicate with Database Server 2. Kernel executables 3. Dispatcher 4. Configure Work Process 5. Buffer areas can be maintained, buffers in memory 6. It has message server in Central Instance 7. Run Time Executables 8. CPU and Process 3.3 Database Layer: 1. Predefined Tables SAP BASIS 13
  13. 13. Parameters 2. Own memory and buffer 3. Own security 4. Own process to handle request from Application Layer 3.4 Terminology Work Process: An application server contains work process, which are components that can run applications. Each work process is linked to memory area. Instance: This is nothing but group of process and their memory. Basically it is an application server. Central Instance This is the application server where message server and ENQUE server are installed along with other work processes. During installation central instance needs to be installed first. Database Instance: This is the instance where exactly Database is installed. Dialogue Instance: This is an additional application server which is installed to provide more number of work processes to gather more number of users. Dispatch This is nothing but, which allocates the work process. Application server is nothing but the Dispatcher. Is also called as an Instance. SAP BASIS 14
  14. 14. Parameters 4. Servers and Work process 4.1 SID: It’s a three digit number. It is alphanumeric but never starts with a number. Examples: Right Way N6A BLD BLQ BLP N62 NA6 sid Wrong Way 2N6 2ND 2LQ 2NP 262 2A2 => bld <SID> => b1c 4.2 BLD B1C SM51: Shows only Active servers Note: • Server Name Syntax: <Host name>_<SID>_<Instance Number> Bdhp4431_N6P_00 • Instance Number: Ranges from 00-99 (Two Digit) • There will be only one Database Server and only one central instance. • Remaining all are Dialogue Instances • Central Instances can be identified where ENQUE is installed. • Database server Name is same as central instance name. SAP BASIS 15
  15. 15. Parameters Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List) SAP BASIS 16
  16. 16. Parameters servers. Screenshot 2: SAP BASIS 17
  17. 17. Parameters 4.3 SM50: Work Process Overview Types of Work Process: D V E B M G S Dialogue Update Enque Background / Batch Message Server Gateway Spool Dialogue: [D] This process is used to communicate with system interactively. This process is used to select data from the database, update the database, print from the database. This is the only process where users will be communicated with their request. Update: [V] This process is used to update the database; user never uses this process directly. But user in turn send request through dialogue process to update the database. Dialogue processes are used to update temporary tables. Update process reads from the temporary tables and upload the database. Enque:[E] In order to have transaction consistency the records have to be locked while updating the database. There will be only one ENQUE work process by the R/3 system. Background/ Batch:[B] SAP BASIS 18
  18. 18. Parameters This process is used to run the long running jobs in the background mode. This process is used to run without any user interaction and also scheduled at predefined intervals. Message Server:[M] It controls dispatches, provides a log from ENQUE to work process. Message Server also decides least loaded server during user logon. Gateway:[G] Gateway is used to communicate between the systems (R/3 Systems). Spool: [S] Spool process is used to print the document to the user. User cannot print the document directly but prints to the temporary sequential tables spool process reads the sequential files and sends the output request to the output device or any print server. Servers Dialogue Update Enque Batch Message Server Gateway Spool System wide >=2 >=1 1 >=1 1 >=1 >=0 SAP BASIS Per Instance >=2 >=0 0/1 >=1 0/1 1 >=0 19
  19. 19. Parameters Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview) 4.4 T-Code Prefixes: n -- Next screen o – Open new session / screen nex -- Exit Whole session. E.g.: 1}/nsm50 2}/osm50 3}/nex SAP BASIS 20
  20. 20. Parameters 4.5 Menu Bar Buttons: Back F3 Search Ctrl + F First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page Ascending Order Descending Order Refresh Execute F8 Save Select All Edit – Select All / Deselect All Spreadsheet: Saving values in Excel %PC – Spreadsheet - Location SAP BASIS 21
  21. 21. Parameters 5. Profiles There are three types of profiles: 1. Start up Profile 2. Default Profile 3. Instance Profile Startup Profile: start_DVEBMGS00_<hostname> Start Database Start Message Server All the three consistently called as Central Instance Start Dispatcher Default Profile: Changes effect globally across all the systems Logon/systemclient Logon/system_language Database host Instance Profile: <SID>_DVEBMGS00_<hostname> Applicable only to application servers rdisp/wp_no_btc rdisp/wp_no_dia rdisp/wp_no_upd SAP BASIS 22
  22. 22. Parameters rdisp/wp_no_spool Memory parameter Buffer Parameter Note: If there are three application servers there will be three startup profiles, three instance profiles and only one default profile Example: App. servers Profiles 1 3 2 5 3 7 ns + ni + 1d {s-startup, i-instance, d-default} 2n+1 SAP BASIS 23
  23. 23. Parameters 6. System Bounce: # ps –ef|grep dw # ps –ef|grep ora- In order to shutdown the system we need to stop the application servers first and then the database server The commands used are # stopsap r3 - Application server shutdown # stopsap - Database server Shutdown In order to start the system the database server has to be started first and then application servers. The commands used are: # startsap - database server startup # startsap r3 - application server startup In order to check the status of the application server and database server at OS level we check by using the following commands #ps –ef|grep dw - Application server shutdown #ps –ef|grep ora - Database server Shutdown SAP BASIS 24
  24. 24. Parameters If there are six application servers first we log into each six servers by using hostnames at OS level. Then first stop application servers and then check them again and stop the database server. For restarting we use Vice Versa Note: In order to differentiate between database server and application servers in the system we mark them in two different colors. When we logon at SAP level, go to SM51 in order to check the number of server. We can also check through RZ03, where it shows whether the server is active or inactive. If it is not active log on to the hostname of server which is not active and then execute the command # startsap r3 Then come back to the RZ03 screen and click the refresh button to check if the server is active /inactive Interview Question: If the system could not start what might be the reason Answer: 1. Check all the services 2. check all the environment variables 3. Check alert Log 4. check Achieve Struck 5. Changes in profile parameters 6. Table space overflow 7. Check network connectivity 8. Kernel executables may be corrupted SAP BASIS 25
  25. 25. Parameters Reasons for Shut Down and Start-up: 1. Maintenance 2. Backup 3. Patches 4. Upgrades[ Hardware, Software, Kernel] 5. Parameter Changes 6. Mass transports. SAP BASIS 26
  26. 26. Parameters 7. Market Place SAP service Market Place Service Developer Key / Object Problem Management Notes Database Administration of service connections Registration of naming environments Requesting License Key Requesting Migration Key Downloading support packages User Administration Example : www.service.sap.com/sscr Link sscr Message Notes Service connections Namespaces License key Migration Key patches User_admin Figure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts 7.1 Developer Key: Log into the system specified and then go to system menu and then click on status button Note down the installation number Example: 123456789534 (10-20 Digits) Go to www.service.sap.com/sscr Give OSS ID and Password Market Place Id is called as OSS ID Example: S0001234567 S0007654321 Click on registered developers Specify the user ID or Object BA9823 Company User Id of Person who generated the TICKET SAP BASIS 27
  27. 27. Parameters Here we will get a list of installation numbers, click on the appropriate installation number At the bottom click a register and finally gives Developer Key 7.2 Developer Object: Log into the required system and system status (Copy installation number) Log into www.service.sap.com by OSS ID Click on register object Then on screen specify the BASIS Release Program ID Type Object Name Click on Installation Number and click on register A registration Key is generated SAP BASIS 28
  28. 28. Parameters 8. Installation 8.1 Hardware Sizing: To analyze the business requirement and allocating the memory. Steps involved on getting size of the hardware based on the business requirement given by the client 1. Contact SAP 2. get OSS ID 3. go to www.service.sap.com/sizing 4. go to Quick Size tool 5. Enter the project name / customer number 6. Create Project 7. Number of Users: (Low/ medium/ High) 8. Amount of legacy data 9. Number of Modules 10. Select Operating System 11. Select Database version 12. Select Peak Load Time 13. High Availability 14. data Security(Mirror / RAID / Cluster) 15. Save the details 16. calculate the result 8.2 Users: Low Activity: Occasional Users 400-480 Transactions per week 40 Hours per week Medium Activity: Transactional Users 400-4800 transactions per Week High Activity: Power Users 4800 and above transactions per week SAP BASIS 29
  29. 29. Parameters 8.3 High Availability: Availability of systems 24 x 7 x 365 without any interruption so that customer can do his operation without any stoppages. Pre-requisites for Installation 1. verify SAP software 2. Internet connections to search for Run Time Errors(SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com) 3. Download Install guide (SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com – Install guide) 4. Document all the steps 5. Install Java Runtime Environment 6. Set virtual memory to Three times of physical memory + 500 MB 7. set environmental variables for JAVA JAVA_HOME=c:jdk1.4JREbin 8. Specify an entry in: C:windowssystem32driversetchost To 192.168.0.1 <hostname> SAPTRANSHOST 9. Enable file sharing for Networks to maximum. Go to LAN Icon  Right Click  Properties  Select Files and Printers. 10. Install Oracle/SQL Server RDBMS software. 11. Check for Oracle Environmental variables. 12. Dump all necessary media into Hard disk a. SAP Inst b. SAP Kernel c. Export DVDs (1 to 7) NOTE: There should not be any spaces or special characters while creating directories SAP BASIS 30
  30. 30. Parameters 8.4 Post installation activities: 1. Go to SICK / SM28  Installation check 2. Go to SE06  CTS Initialization 3. Go to SE03  System Settings 4. Go to RZ10  Import profiles of active servers 5. Go to STMS  6. Go to SLIC  License Management 7. Go to SR13  Library configuration 8. client creation 9. Local client copy 10. Remote client copy 11. SU25  Initiate Profile generator. 12. Setting up work process, memory and buffer parameters. 13. Support packages and kernel package 14. Register system in SAP. 15. establish remote connectivity to SAP 16. SGEN 17. Define backup of the system 18. Create users in SU01 and assign roles 19. Establish remote connectivity to BI, PI, CRM, SRM and other systems. 20. Define operation modes, logon load balancing 21. Configuring users GUIs 22. Configuring CCMS (RZ20, RZ21) 23. Allow the system for configuration and development. 24. Schedule for standard background jobs SAP BASIS 31
  31. 31. Parameters 9. Installation Process Installation is done in three phases: 1. Central Instance (CI) 2. Database Instance (DbI) 3. Dialogue Instance (DI) 9.1 Central instance: Which is located centrally applicable to all the dialogue instances and database instances 1. Go to Dump double check on SAPINST NT/I386/SAPINST.EXE Select central Instance 2. Specify SID and instance number 3. Specify host name 4. Specify Oracle_Home Path. 5. Assign 60% of memory for CI (Remaining 40% for DbI) Example: 1 GB RAM – 600 MB 512 MB RAM – 330 MB 6. Specify path for user directory C: ; D: 7. Specify passwords for <SID>ADM, SAPSERVICE<SID>. <SID>ADM : 8. R/3 system administration which is used to start R/3 systems and this administrative privileges 9. SAPSERVICE<SID>: This is a service user which is used to run all the SAP services like SAPSOL. 10. Specify Kernel Patches 11. Specify the dispatcher / gateway / Message Server: Port Number. By default: (32_ _ / 33 _ _ / 36_ _). _ _  Instance Number. SAP BASIS 32
  32. 32. Parameters 12. Continue installation. 9.2 Database Instance: 1. Select DbI 2. Specify SID, hostname and instance number 3. Specify the installation on New Database or use the existing Database. 4. Specify the database, schema ID Xxx SAP xxx Schema ID: It is the owner of Database. ----------------5. Select 40% of physical memory 6. Specify the log files location: a. Mirror log a, ORIGNAL log B  1 Device b. Original log b, Mirror log B  1 Disk 7. Specify the kernel directory. Kernel Directory is used to extract database executables into RUN directory. 8. Specify the path for SAP directory: a. sapreorg b. sapcheck c. saptrace d. sapbackup e. saparch 9. Specify the path to Data Dictionary (sapdata1, sapdata2, sapdata3, … .. sapdatan) 10. Specify export DVD Dump: SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD1EXPORT1 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD2EXPORT2 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD3EXPORT3 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD4EXPORT4 SAP BASIS 33
  33. 33. Parameters SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD5EXPORT5 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD6EXPORT6 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD7EXPORT7 11. Specify the passwords for <SID>adm, sapservice<SID>. 12. Number of parallel processes to expedite the installation process. 13. Select MNLS( MN Log Support) Yes / No  No 14. Specify password for System, SYS, DBS, NMP and ANPLN. 15. Continue. 9.3 Dialogue Instance: 1. select dialogue instance 2. Specify the CI host name 3. specify the DB Host name 4. Specify Instance name and number. D01, D02 D  Dialogue. 01, 02  Instance Number 5. Specify the kernel path 6. Specify passwords and continue 9.4 Installation of GUI: 1. If users are minimal (10-15), go to user desktop and install 2. If we have more number of users, copy the GUI installation CD into a File server, share the folder to every one Inform the users to install GUI from the below location: fileserverSAPGUI 3. Write a logon script and host it in active directory service or give the logon script to network system administrator to trigger the user logon. 4. Using a third party tool like Microsoft Monitoring Server, where all user desktop are monitored centrally. SAP BASIS 34
  34. 34. Parameters NOTE: To uninstall old version go to SAPSWEEP.exe  then install SAPINST.exe 9.5 Checking Central Instances: 1. Check the service: a. saposcol b. sap<SID>_00 c. ORATNSLISTNER d. Oracleservice<SID> SAPOSCOL: it is SAP OS collector, there is only one SAPOSCOL in the system. SAP<SID>_00 : It is an instance service which is used to start the SAP instance ORATNSLISTNER: this is a listener service when the oracle database is started. If the listener could not be started Go to command Prompt and Type > lsnrctl - Listener Control Lsnrctl> status ------------------> help start stop status ORACLESERVICE<SID>: This is an oracle service user <SID>, which is used to start oracle USERS: <SID>adm sapservice<SID> SAP BASIS 35
  35. 35. Parameters SAP<SID> OP$<SID>adm OP$SAPsercice<SID> OP$: Operating system users <<SID>adm and SAPservice<SID> are also created in database prefixing with OP$. This mechanism provides logon to the database by operating system users without prompting a password. LOGS: • SYSLOG in MMC Microsoft Management Console in WINDOWS • Application_syslogs in event viewer (WINDOWS) • SAPINST_LOG • Alert_<SID>.log in SAPTRACE directory. Interview Question: * Cd orac;e<SID>saptracebackground * Developer traces in work directory Dev_wp, dev_disp, dev_ms SAP BASIS 36
  36. 36. Parameters 10. Client Maintenance Client can be created with T-Code ‘SCC4’. 10.1 SCC4 Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1 SAP BASIS 37
  37. 37. Parameters Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2 SAP BASIS 38
  38. 38. Parameters Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1 SAP BASIS 39
  39. 39. Parameters Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2 In SCC4 we can see this list of all the clients present in the system There will be always 000, 001 and 066 present in the system and the remaining will be the business clients. We can see settings of business clients by double clicking on client (line). In order to create a new client, click on the TAB  New Entries. Here we need to specify: 1. Specify the description 2. Specify the location 3. Specify the currency 4. Specify the logical system. As a client is three digited we can’t identify and distinguish between the clients in the landscape. Logical system names are defined in SALE / BD64 T-codes. SAP BASIS 40
  40. 40. Parameters The naming convention for the logical system: Letter should be in Capitals <SID>CLNT<clientnumber> Example: A7BCLNT430 A7B430 Normal Usage Go to SALE / BD64; click on new entries; a pop up box prompts saying that it is a CROSS CLIENT, i.e.; the entry created in this table is visible to all clients. Define the logical system name and save the entries. Come back to the client creation screen SCC4: Enter the logical system name 5. Specify the client roles: Screenshot 8: Client Roles Different types of client roles are: a. Customizing Client: this is the only client where changes are initiated in entire landscape. This is also called as Golden / Master Client. SAP BASIS 41
  41. 41. Parameters Note: The customizing client is only allowed for changing cross client objects and repository. It is represented by CUST/CUSTOMIZING. The setting for this client will be i. Automatic recording of changes ii. Changes to repository and cross client objects alone iii. Protection Level should be zero, i.e.; No restriction b. Sandbox Client: It is called as SAND client where changes are allowed but not carried forward. Note: All the additional clients except customizing client are not allowed for any changes in repository and cross client objects. c. Testing Client: this client is used for UNIT TESTING. No changes are allowed in this client, only it is allowed to test the objects. d. Quality Testing Clients: the changes which are made in customizing clients developed in system and are transported into this client by using STMS. The integration between modules, Stress Testing, Load Testing etc is performed in this client. Note: in SAND client and testing client we are copying client specified objects. e. Training Client: All the approved changes in quality testing clients are copied into this client. This client is used for end users of the company which they are going to perform on production box. f. Production Client: Most of the environment there will be only one Client in the production box. This is the client where real time business applications are performed. Most of the activities are tied with financial implications. The changes which are approved in quality are transported to the system. 2. Changes and transports for client specific objects: a. Changes without automatic recording b. Automatic recording of changes c. No changes allowed SAP BASIS 42
  42. 42. Parameters d. Changes without auto recording, No transports allowed 3. Cross-client object changes: a. Changes to repository and cross client customizing allowed b. No changes to cross client c. No changes to repository d. No changes to both cross client and repository 4. Protection: a. Protection level 0 (Zero) – No restriction b. Protection level 1 – No overwriting c. Protection level 2 – No overwriting. No external availability 5. CATT and eCATT a. CATT – Computer Aided Testing Tool b. eCATT – Extended Computer Aided Testing Tool NOTE: For Production – eCATT & CATT not allowed 6. SAVE the entries NOTE: If the client role is production then the settings should be as follows: i. No changes allowed ii. No changes to repository and cross client iii. Protection level -1 – No overwriting iv. eCATT & CATT Not Allowed T000 – Table stores all the list of created clients. SAP BASIS 43
  43. 43. Parameters 10.2 Client copies: There are three types of client copies: 1. Local Client Copy – SCCL 2. Remote Client Copy – SCC9 3. Client Transport – SCC7 (Import), SCC8 (Export) 10.3 SCCL: Example: A5B400 – Source A5B900 – Target Copying the client from one client to another client with in the same system. Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy) SAP BASIS 44
  44. 44. Parameters Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2 Procedure: 1. Log into the target client. Example: 900 With - A5B User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Go to T-code: 3. Specify the SCCL - source client Ex: 400 - Profile Types of Profiles: a. Ex: SAP_ALL SAP_ALL – All clients specified data b. SAP_APPL – Customizing and application data c. SAP_CUST – Customizing SAP BASIS 45
  45. 45. Parameters d. SAP_USER – User Master Record and Authentication Profiles. e. SAP_UCUS – Customizing and User master Records. 2. Schedule in Background 3. Schedule Job 4. Click on Immediate and SAVE 5. Click on continue 6. Popup box prompts saying client copy can be monitored in SCC3 NOTE: i. Local client copy takes around 4 Hours. ii. There will be around 13000 tables. SAP BASIS 46
  46. 46. Parameters 10.4 SCC3: Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log) SAP BASIS 47
  47. 47. Parameters Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis Target client Source client Copy Type Profile Status Processing, Successfully Completed, Failed. User sap* … .. . Number of Tables __ of __ SAP BASIS 48
  48. 48. Parameters Prerequisites of client copy: 1. Check the target client number [ should be existing or create it] 2. There should be at least two background files available free. 3. No users should be logged into the Target and Source Clients [ Locked] 4. There should be enough Table Space. 5. /usr/sap/trans should have enough space while performing client export and client import [ only for Transports] 6. Monitor the client copy progress in SCC3, SM37 and SM50. 7. Check the RFC connection (Remote Function Call) 8. Check the size of the client using RS Table Size / RS Check (SE38) 9. Version Should be same [ For Remote Client Copy] Errors while performing Client Copy: 1. Not enough space in the Disk / Table Space 2. Objects are locked 3. Memory restrictions. SAP BASIS 49
  49. 49. Parameters 10.5 Remote Client Copy: Remote client copy is done from a client in one system to another system. Example : N6P 600 A5P 700 Procedure: 1. Log into the target client with User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Check the RFC connection between two systems in SM59 If the connection exists it shows in green Color If there is no connection we establish RFC connection at SM59 [Create…] 3. If the client exists we delete the client data by using SCC5. [ For low error rate] 4. Then go to SCC9, here we specify the profile, source client, source SID. 5. Schedule as Background, schedule job, Immediate, SAVE and Continue. 6. Popup box prompts saying “Monitoring can be done in SCC3” NOTE: i. Creation of RFC is checked by Authorization Team ii. If the RFC is created by us, we need to delete the RFC once client copy is done. iii. Unlock the users at both source and target systems after client copy. iv. Remote client copy all together takes around 6-8 Hours [ delete(3) + copy(4)] SAP BASIS 50
  50. 50. Parameters 10.6 RFC Remote Function Call Different Type of RFC: 1. Synchronous – SRFC – SM59 2. Asynchronous – ARFC – SM59 3. Transactional – TRFC – SM58 4. Queued – QRFC – We Use it ***** – SMQ1, SMQ2 NOTE: To establish connection between two systems we need to configure i. TMS Configuration ii. Configuring CUA iii. Communication between R/3. Create RFC: 1. Go to SM59 2. Click on R/3 Connection 3. Click on CREATE 4. a. Name the RFC: <SID>CLNTNO N6P400 b. Type of Connection: R/3, R/2, TCP/IP, etc c. Description about RFC Client Copy to System xxx / Data Transfer / Etc d. In technical setting TAB, we specify GATEWAY HOST / IP ADDRESS SAP BASIS 51
  51. 51. Parameters e. In Logon Security TAB we specify Client No: <Source> User ID Password Language f. Save the Connection 2. Test the connection 3. Test authorization NOTE: Prerequisites: i. Version should be same ii. RFC connection should be existing iii. Source and target system should be available. SAP BASIS 52
  52. 52. Parameters 11. Spool Administration SPAD, SP12, SP01 Different types of servers which provide SPOOL process 1. Real Spool Server 2. Logical Spool Server Real Spool Server: These are those which are configured with spool process. Spool process can be defined based on the available resources, using parameter RDISP/WP_no.spo Real spool server is a server which physically exists. Logical Spool Server: These servers are defined to handle the load balancing and fail over of spool servers. 11.1 Types of Access Methods: Access methods define a type of printing there are three types of access methods. 1. Local access method 2. Remote access method 3. Front end access method Local access method Spool server transfer the data directly to host the host printer or print manager this is the fastest printing. Local method L and C are used to configure local access method. SAP BASIS 53
  53. 53. Parameters Remote access method The output process and spool process will be in two different places. Protocols S and U are used to configure remote access method. Front end access method User can print from request printer directory. Front end printing has the following disadvantages; a. Printer is dedicated to one user b. If more number of front end printers are configured , spool conjunction occurs, so restrict spool process for Front end printing by RDISP/max_fro_wp_no_sp0=2 11.2 Various types of spool request: (STATUS) 1. Printing: Printing the job 2. Completed: Job completed 3. Problem: Printed with errors 4. Error: Could not print 5. Waiting: Spool processing 6. In Processing: Spool process is converted into output request. 11.3 Various Problems in SPOOL: 1. Network issues 2. device not reached 3. Driver 4. There is a long queue at the printer 5. Cartridges 6. Change in the structure of the program. SAP BASIS 54
  54. 54. Parameters 7. Print job is deleted 8. The user is not having the authorization to print. 9. Out of paper 10. page format NOTE: No two output devices should be addressed with the same IP address. HOUSEKEEPING JOBS RSPO0040 RSPO1041 RSPO0043 11.4 SPAD: Spool Administration SPAD is used to define the printer or it is used to check the properties of the existing output device. SAP BASIS 55
  55. 55. Parameters Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration) SAP BASIS 56
  56. 56. Parameters SAP BASIS 57
  57. 57. Parameters SAP BASIS 58
  58. 58. Parameters SAP BASIS 59
  59. 59. Parameters Process to setup Printer in SPAD: 1. Go to SPAD 2. Give the output device name PR04 or HP08 (case sensitive) 3. Click on output device 4. Here we get the message as “ No output device is defined” 5. then click on display (change)(Pencil Icon) and click on create button 6. here we need to define primarily two TABs a. Device Attributes b. Access Methods Device Attributes: 1. Device Type 2. Spool server SAP BASIS 60
  60. 60. Parameters 3. Device class 4. Model 5. Location 6. Message Access Methods: 1. Host spool access methods [ L U C F] S 2. Host printer 3. Host name Specify short name = output device name Click save SAP BASIS 61
  61. 61. Parameters 11.5 SP01 – Output control SAP BASIS 62
  62. 62. Parameters This is used to check the status of the spool request once the test print is given: go to SP01 Give spool request number click on execute 4. Here we need to check the status of the spool request. Initially it will be in “In Processing”. We need to check on Refresh to check the status of Test. SAP BASIS 63
  63. 63. Parameters SP12 – TemSe Management SAP BASIS 64
  64. 64. Parameters 1. Go to SP12 2. Click on TemSe data Storage  Consistency Check  Delete All This deletes all Temporary Sequential files that are present. Printers are defined at both SAP level and OS level. SAP BASIS 65
  65. 65. Parameters When we log into the OS level give the command # printers To check the various options for the printer The various options are as follows: 1. Remote Administration 2. Add a Printer 3. Remove a Printer 4. Enable / Disable a Printer  5. Cancel Print Request 6. Check Printer Status  7. Start / Stop the Print Spooler 8. Quit SAP BASIS 66
  66. 66. Parameters SAP BASIS 67
  67. 67. Parameters NOTE: i. Maximum number of spool requests is 32,000. ii. Printer can be licked in SPAD by checking the option “Change  Lock Printer in SAP System” Located at bottom of page. iii. Page Format / Printer Format can be changes in T-code ‘SE73‘. SAP BASIS 68
  68. 68. Parameters 12. Transport Management System It specifies transport of objects from one system to another. There are two types of routes 1. Consolidation route 2. Delivery route Integration Consolidation Development Delivery Quality Consolidation Route Production Delivery Route Figure 3: Transport Routes The route between integration/development and consolidation/quality is called Consolidation route. The route between consolidation/quality and delivery/Production is called Delivery route Transport Layer: It specifies the path for moving objects. By default SAP is a transport layer for standard objects. SAP BASIS 69
  69. 69. Parameters Transport Groups: The objects which share common transport directory Development Class: It is the collection of repository objects. When ever we define a repository object we need to assign the development class We need to define development class in SE80, while defining development class we need to define and assign to transport layer. Repository Objects: Programs, reports, transactions, functional modules. Repository objects will be stored in Data Dictionary objects. Data Dictionary: Tables (Domain, data elements), structures and views Target group: A group of systems and clients where the change request has to be moved. Transport Protocol: TP Tp is an executable; TP.EXE is stored in RUN directory Which reads the change request and task Copy the Contents from database and move them to transport directory when change request is released When TP is not functioning execute SAP BASIS 70
  70. 70. Parameters # R3trans –d Which generates a log file in the current directory. TP not only uses R3trans but also uses RDDI* jobs which are scheduled step by step. The job sequence and schedule are documented in the table TRBAT and TRJOB. TP can be executed or imported at OS level. The commands used are as follows: Log into target system # sesu – # sesu –sisadm Ex: # sesu –f3padm # cd /usr/sap/trans/bin # tp addtobuffer <TPNO> <SID> Ex: # tp addtobuffer F3AK912345 F3P # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> & # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> u1 Ex: # tp import F3AK912345 F3P client400 u1 U1 is UMode UMODES are used if we get errors. U1, u2, u126 are used. It overrides the previous commands. The error occurred in the last transaction is overwritten. 12.1 Change Request management: When ever the objects are created or modified in the customizing clients of development system. The changes will be recorded to change requirements. The client is set for automatic recording of changes. SAP BASIS 71
  71. 71. Parameters Change request: change request consists of changes made by the developer/functional consultants. Change Requests are created in SE01, each change request consists of one or more tasks. Project leader is the owner of change request. Tasks are assigned by developer or functional consultants. Tasks can be released only by the owner of the task. If the owner is not available as a basis administrator we can change the ownership of the task and release the task. Change request Release: In order to release the Change request all the tasks should be released first when change request is released 1. Cofiles are populated with K912345. <SID> 2. Datafiles are populated with R912345.<SID> 3. the name of the developer is added to name of SAP directory. Change Request Mechanism: When ever a change request is not released Transport Protocol gets initiated. Transport Protocol reads the content from the database based on change request. Transport Protocol in turn cause R3trans to copy the objects from database to OS format. Datafile RO RX RT Cofile KO KX KT Client Specific Objects Client Specific Text in any Cross Client SAP BASIS 72
  72. 72. Parameters Mass transport: # tp import ALL <SID> client<no> # pf = /usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_<SID>pfl NOTE: When TP is finished successfully it shows with a return code ‘0’ When TP is returned with 4 – Completed 8- Error Transport directory can also be found in STMS 12.2 Types of Change Request: 1. Customizing 2. Workbench 3. Transport Copies 4. Relocation of objects Customizing CR: Changes related to customer, client specific are recorded to CCR. CCR will be created in SE01. there are performed mostly by functional consultants. These requests can be released in SE01/ SE09/ SE10. And these are called as transport organizers. Ex: sales organization, tax settings, creating a company code ( comp code) Workbench CR: Changes related to cross clients customizing are recorded as WBCR. These are created in SE01 and released in SE01 / SE09 / SE10. Ex: All the programs, transactions and time settings etc. Transport of copies: It is used to transport objects such as programs, tables, etc and record them to CR. It is done through SE01. SAP BASIS 73
  73. 73. Parameters Reallocation of Objects: This is used to move the objects with or without development class; can be performed in SE01. SAP BASIS 74
  74. 74. Parameters 12.3 Transport Directory: This is the directory where modifying the objects are stored. This consists of sub directories. BIN: it stores the domain configuration information when a domain is created or modified. DOMAIN CONF: contains transport domain controller (TDC) information # tp.doamin_<SID>.pfl It is a profile which is used to store the transport tool TP parameters. Changing TP parameters: # no_impoer_ALL=1 We have “0 / 1” Ideally we use 1. This parameter prevents mass transportation. Buffer: This consists of the entries when ever a change request is exported pointing to quality or production system. When ever the landscape is established the development objects will flow in the direction of transport rules. This addressing is documented in this directory. COFILE: * * * * * These are control/command files which describes about the changes and R/3 version. DATAFILE: * * * * * This consists of data which needs to be imported into the target system. SAP BASIS 75
  75. 75. Parameters EPS – Electronic Parcel Service. This is used for applying support patches ( .ATT & .PAT files.) Log Files: * * * * * These files give the information about imports. 1. ALOG: gives the information about transport request. 2. SLOG: gives the step by step information of the imports. 3. ULOG: gives the detailed steps of the imports. SAPNAMES: This specifies the name of the developers along with the change. IMP: this is used to view the details about jobs. This is also used to copy the old database files. 12.4 Configuring STMS: STMS is used to configure domain controller, system landscapes, establish the route between systems. Configuring Domain Controller: Domain controller manages all the systems which are configured to the domain. As a post installation activity domain controller has to be configured 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user ID like sap* 2. Go to STMS 3. A pop up box will be prompted to configure domain 4. Domain name will be like domain_<SID> by default 5. Save Include systems in domain: SAP BASIS 76
  76. 76. Parameters If the domain controller is already created we need to include systems in domain. Including systems in domain comprises of two phases: Phase I: a. Log into ‘000’ client with user sap* b. Go to STMS c. Popup will be prompted to configure domain d. Select icon ‘Include systems in domain’. e. Specify the host name, instance number and domain controller name. f. Save g. A request from the system is sent to domain controller to approve inclusion. Phase II: a. Log into the TDC- transport Domain Controller in ‘000’ client b. Go to Option  System c. Select ‘Approve’  select ‘Activate & Distribute’. d. Now domain controller contribution file is uploaded in /usr/sap/trans/bin. 12.5 Defining Landscape: In order to define landscape a. Go to STMS b. Go to Transport Routes (Shift + F7) c. Select thee system landscape d. Specify name of system e. Specify name if the landscape f. Save g. Activate and distribute the configuration across the system in the landscape. SAP BASIS 77
  77. 77. Parameters 13. Support Packages Also called as support patches Support packages are used to enhance the functionality or used to bug fixes in the programs. Support packages are applied through SPAM 13.1 Types of Support packages: 1. BASIS Support Packages(SAP_BASIS) It is in the form of: SAP<kernel version><patch number> SAPKB62001 2. ABAP Support Packages(SAP_ABAP) SAPKA62001 3. Application Support Packages(SAP_APPL) SAPKH47001 4. H.R. Support Packages(SAP_HR) SAPKE47001 5. Finally Plug-in patches ( also called Add-ons) Note: BASIS & ABAP support packages follows the WebAS Version, where as APPL & HR follow the R/3 version. SAP BASIS 78
  78. 78. Parameters 13.2 Applying Support Patches: 1. Go to www.service.sap.com/patches a. Select support packages and patches b. Search support packages and patches c. Entry by application component d. My application component. 2. Copy the support packages into /usr/sap/trans/sapmnt/trans 3. Uncar the files using the command # sapcar –xvf KB62001.car That is applied if the file is greater than 10 MB If less than 10MB apply through front-end. 4. Define the sequence of support packages/ 5. Apply the support packages through application servers. 6. Define the Queue. 7. Import the Queue. 8. SPDD phase occurs if the data dictionary objects are changed by applying NOTES. Example: Changing EMPID. 9. SPAU phase occurs if the repository objects are referred in customer programs. 10. Finally prompts to confirm the queue. 11. Confirm the Queue. SAP BASIS 79
  79. 79. Parameters SAP BASIS 80
  80. 80. Parameters NOTE: i. If a note is already applied to fix the bug or enhance the program thought ‘snote’, SPAU phase will trigger whole applying support patches. ii. If the notes are applied manually by data dictionary changes, SPDD will trigger for applying support patches. SAP BASIS 81
  81. 81. Parameters 13.3 Pre-requisites: 1. There should be valid backup 2. SPAM/SAINT should be in latest version. There should not be any aborted package which was applied earlier. 3. There should be at least two background work process available. 4. There should be enough space in EPS directory. /usr/sap/trans/EPS/IN 5. Always log into the client ‘000” with user Id: DDIC. 6. There should be enough table space below its threshold value 7. Ensure TP is connected to database R3trans -d 8. Apply support patches in sequence of numbers 9. Apply support patches in sequence of components. a. BASIS b. ABAP c. APPL d. HR 10. The sequence in applying support patches should be in Development, Quality and Production. 11. If the support packages is more than 10MB Uncar the file in the application server and apply through application server. Apply this file into ‘trans’ directory [copy it]. Uncar the file by using command # sapcar –xvf <kernelversion no.car> 12. .ATT, .PAT files are occurred into EPS/ IN directory. SAP BASIS 82
  82. 82. Parameters 13.4 Support Packages Errors: 1. TP could not get connected to database. Resolution: a. Execute ‘R3trans –d’ which generates Trans Log b. STMS configuration consistency c. Check tp profile is readable [ check permission] d. Check environmental variables e. tp and R3trans outdated or corrupted. f. Execute report RTPTEST which will give you the details. 2. Max Extents reached with error ora1631 / 1632 Resolution: Add extents using SAPDBA tool or SE14. 3. Table Space overflow: with error ora1653/1654. Resolution Add data file for the table space by using SAPDBA tool. 4. SPAM/SAINT is outdated Resolution Import latest SPAM 5. RDDI* jobs are not scheduled Resolution Log into ‘000’ client with user id: DDIC and schedule the report RDDNEWPP. 6. Background job is stagnated with memory issues: Resolution Configure the memory parameters 7. Patch sequence is not followed. SAP BASIS 83
  83. 83. Parameters Difference between support package and plug in: Support packages provide additional functionality for the existing components, these are applied through SPAM. Add-on Installation Tool (Plug-In): These are additional components which provide functionality like insurance, banking, etc. other than core objects. These are applied through SAINT. 13.5 Applying Add-ons: 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user id DDIC 2. Go to SAINT  Installation Packages  Load Packages  Front End It will be displayed on the screen. Select the package and continue to apply. 3. Plug in request a Password along with Note Number. 4. Go to Market Place and download the Note. www.service.sap.com.note 5. Read the note completely to understand the implication of plug-in as the system. 6. If there is a conflict problem with add-on and current support packages. CRT (Conflict resolution Transport) which needs to be applied 7. Key the password and continue. NOTE: We can’t work simultaneously on SPAM / SAINT. Only we have one support package / Add-on can be applied. 8. Confirm the queue There are standard core packages a. PI – Plug-in b. PI_BASIS plug-in c. SI_PI (solution Tool Plug In) d. BI_CONT ( BI_content) SAP BASIS 84
  84. 84. Parameters Note: For Support Packages the process takes around 30-45 minutes For Kernel Patches it takes 5-10 minutes. SAP BASIS 85
  85. 85. Parameters 13.6 Kernel Patches 1. Go to SAP market place, download the latest kernel executables 2. Kernel executables are OS and database independent 3. Stop application servers by command # stopsap r3 4. Uncar the downloaded files using # sapcar –xvf 5. The files evaluated are sapexe  OS sapexe_db<no>.car  database. 6. Create a folder ‘runold’ and copy the existing ‘run’ directory into this newly created folder. 7. Copy the downloaded files into existing run directory 8. # startsap r3 and check the kernel version. NOTE: i. Kernel executables are stored in ‘run’ directory ii. /usr/sap/sid/sys/exe/run iii. Kernel version can be checked by command # disp+work iv. If the system could not start with new kernel executables. Then, go back to with old kernel executables v. This process takes around 10 minutes. vi. Check the kernel version before the process and also after the process, where we can see the difference in the patch numbers. # sesu – # sesu – # sesu –sidadm # sesu –sidadm # disp+work # Retrans –d Patch number: 1985 (0000) (0012) SAP BASIS 86
  86. 86. Parameters 14. Update Mechanism Update Mechanism: When ever a user wants to update or create a transaction logs into the system using dialogue process. 1. User logs in to the database. 2. User request is received by the dispatcher and kept in the queue. 3. When ever a free Work Process is available, dispatcher assigned it to the queue. 4. Work Process rolls the user request and the user related information from user contest to task handler. 5. As the request is related to update, it communicates with Enque process to issue lock to update the records (Time= 1 ms). 6. If the request is from a dialogue instance, dialogue work process communicates with Message Server in the central instance. Message Server in turn communicates with Enque process to issue the lock. The entire process should be completed with in 100ms. 7. User updates the records in Temporary tables; the temporary tables are VBHDR (VB Header), VBMOD (VB Module), VBDATA, VBERR. 8. If the transaction is committed the update process will initiate to update the Database. If the transaction is rolled back nothing is updates in Database. 14.1 Advantages: 1. Database consistency 2. User is not waiting for the status of update in database. 3. User updates i.e.; dialogue updates temporary tables asynchronously. 4. Update process reads data from Temporary tables and updates the database synchronously. SAP BASIS 87
  87. 87. Parameters 14.2 Types of Update Process: There are two types of updates: V1 & V2. V1: Update is time critical update. Ex: Order Entry, Invoice. V1 has high priority than V2. V1 work process are defined by parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb V1 is also used to handle V2 updates if there is no V1 process defined. V2 Updates are non critical Ex: Updating the monitoring information, static information, etc. We need to define at least 25% of the dialogue work process as update process, as V2 updates are not critical, defining at least one V2 update per instance is enough. V2 update will be defined by the parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb2 14.3 Update Monitoring: Updates are monitored in transaction SM13. • Go to SM13 • Select Terminated Updates and execute. • The update will have following status o ‘init’ – Update is initialized and waiting for update process. o ‘auto’ – Updates which are running during a shutdown will have a status auto after restart. o ‘run’ - Update is running o ‘err’ – Update is thrown into error. o V1 & V2 – Waiting for V1 to update. SAP BASIS 88
  88. 88. Parameters SAP BASIS 89
  89. 89. Parameters SM14: It is used to identify whether the update is active or inactive. Update process will be deactivated when there is a problem with update mechanism. It is better to use this mechanism to avoid inconsistencies in the database. Set the parameter rdisp/vb_stop.active=1 And also set rdisp/vbmail So that email notification will be sent in case of deactivation. When it is deactivated, an error message is logged in SM21. Evaluate the log and resolve the error before activating the update. SAP BASIS 90
  90. 90. Parameters 14.4 Update Problems: 1. Less number of Work processes is configured. 2. The update queue increases and more updates are in its state. Resolution: Try to find out the status of the other Background jobs, which are updating the database. The update is consuming more time to update the database, the update queue increases. If it is a generic problem try to resolve it. If it is a regular problem consider increasing update process based on the availability of resources. 3. Check if the update mechanism is deactivated (SM14). Go to SM14, check the status of the update mechanism, and if it is deactivated click the system log in SM21. NOTE: Update can be deactivated / activated manually in SM14. 4. Programmatic Errors 5. Table space overflow. SAP BASIS 91
  91. 91. Parameters 15. ENQUE Enque process is used to provide locks in SAP system to obtain the transaction consistency. Enque locks are related to only SAP application server. Enque process is configured by parameter rdisp/wpo.no.enque Enque process locks and unlocks SAP objects / SAP transactions. Enque table is stored in the main memory of the central instance. Enque locks are displayed in SM12. 15.1 Problems with Enque: 1. Transaction could not be updated due to Enque table overflow. If more number of locks are issued and not released then Enque overflow occurs. Try to consider increasing the size of Enque table 2. Enque time increases: if the work process from the dialogue instance requests a lock, Enque time should not be more than 200ms. If it is central instance it should not be more than 1 ms. 3. Deleting the Locks: user could not get the lock to update the transaction log in SU01, change user DDIC User raises a ticket then go to SM12. Identify the transaction which is Identify the user who has locked the transaction write a mail to him urgency of releasing the lock. It is better to advise the business superiors. Try to communicate with the user and get lock. Write a mail to IT manager and the User locked. explaining the users to write to their verbal approval to release the saying as per the verbal communication the lock is released. 4. Go to SM12. Select the Lock Argument and release the lock. SAP BASIS 92
  92. 92. Parameters 16. Data Transfer There are various technologies from SAP transferring data from the legacy system to R/3 system and SAP system to other system. 1. LSMW (Legacy system Migration Workbench) 2. DI (Direct Input Method) 3. Batch input method (SM35) – Recording will be done. The following are the technologies used to transfer data: 1. ALE (Application Link Enabling). 2. EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange) 3. BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) 4. RFC (Remote Function Call) ALE: ALE is used when you want to transfer data between clients in R/3 system Ex: CUA (Central User Administration), data is transferred among clients. EDI: It is used to transfer from one R/3 system to other R/3 system or non R/3 system. Ex: CPIC – Common Programming Interface for Communication. It is a SAP defined program to transfer data between systems. BAPI: It is an API to communicate with the systems and to transfer the data. It can be programmed in VB or JAVA or any other Programming Language. SAP BASIS 93
  93. 93. Parameters 17. Archiving Archiving is a process of moving data from R/3 system to any other storage area. This storage area may be 1. Hard Disk 2. Tapes 3. Optical Drives In order to identify the objects needs to be moved can be found in DB15 based on the intensity of DB12. We need to monitor the movement of objects. If needed we may also need to retrieve the objects. The objects which are retrieved cannot be allowed for updating. These are third party tools available in market: 1. I-XOX 2. BIW 3. Data Work Bench 2000 In order to achieve an object 1. Go to SARA a. Select the object to be archived b. Define the time period. c. Schedule to WRITE, DELETE, SAVE 2. Go to FILE a. Define logical path b. Assign physical path to logical path SAP BASIS 94
  94. 94. Parameters SAP BASIS 95
  95. 95. Parameters 17.1 Reason for Archiving: 1. Database size is growing 2. Database _______________ 3. During reorganization the data. 4. Inventories are growing up 17.2 Advantages: 1. Database Response Time will be moderated 2. Tape size will be normal as earlier. NOTE: ADK – Archive Development Kit, It is used for transferring data to an archive during data archiving Archiving: It is a process refers to saving offline redo logs. The storage of incoming and outgoing documents. SAP BASIS 96
  96. 96. Parameters 18. System Monitoring: GUI Time Dispatcher Wait Time Rollout Time Rollin Time Processing Time Load Time Database Time Enque Time RFC Time CPU Time GUI & CPU are not part of response time because GUI is not part of application server. GUI time is expensive if it goes beyond 200ms Steps to be taken: 1. Check networking connectivity 2. Check for user desktop resources. 3. The amount of time taken by Work Process to get data from database is called Database Time. 4. The amount of the time spent to load the program is called Load Time. 5. The amount of time spent by Work Process in CPU is called CPU time. 6. The amount of time requires to get the lock is called Enque Time. 7. The amount of time the user request is spent in queue is called wait time 8. The amount of time taken for rolling to work process is called Roll-on process time. 9. Time taken to user request to roll out of the work process is called roll out time. SAP BASIS 97
  97. 97. Parameters 10. The time taken by the work process to communicate with external device is called RFC Time. 11. The time taken from application server to database server is called Network Time. 12. Time taken by single dialogue step is called response time; it is usually in between 600 ms – 1800 ms (800/900 ms) 13. Roll in and Roll out time is expensive if it goes beyond 50 ms. It is expensive due to a. Excessive Authorization b. User is fetching large amounts of data Solution: try to look into authorization of user SU56 and try to take out redundant/repeated authorization. 14. CPU time should not be greater then 40% of (RT-DWT) RT – Response Time DWT - Dispatcher wait time Solution: In this case we need to identify ABAP programs, we need to inform the programmer to tune the program 15. If dispatcher wait time goes beyond 50ms or at a max of 10% of response time 16. Processing time should not be more than twice of CPU time 17. RFC time is basically dependant upon the response from external systems, This is usually 100 ms. 18. DB Hit Ratio = (ST04) DB Hit ratio = (reads-physical reads / total Reads) x 100 19. If database time goes beyond 40% of RT-DWT The reason for subtracting Dispatcher WT is actually the process starts only when the user requests assign the work process. a. Check Update statistics b. Run optimizer, best execution system c. Missing indexes[DB02] d. Identify expensive SQL Statements in user, customer programs. SAP BASIS 98
  98. 98. Parameters 20. Load time: it should be 100ms buffers are not effectively maintained, we may need to change buffer parameters. 21. Enque time is said to be expensive when it consumes greater than 1ms through central instance or greater than 100 ms through application server. If Enque time increases we need to consider the increasing Enque table or we need to increase the ENQUE Work Process. SAP BASIS 99
  99. 99. Parameters Memory Physical Memory: It is a memory which is installed on the system RAM Virtual Memory Sum of physical memory and OS SWAP space  3 x Physical Memory + 500 MB Shared Memory Memory which is used by all the Work Processes Extended Memory A part of shared memory which is used by all the work processes Local Memory Memory used by a single work process, it is locally available BUFFERS: Buffers are temporary storage areas in the memory of application servers. It is refreshed when the servers is restarted. R/3 buffers will reside in physical / Virtual memory. The data will be stored as Bits / Bytes. Types of Buffering Full Buffering: The table which is small frequently accessed is rarely changed Ex: Currency table, measurement table timing Single Record Buffering Primary key information is buffered Ex: EmpNo, CustNo General Record Buffering SAP BASIS 100
  100. 100. Parameters A group of one or more keys bunched together for buffering. Ex: Primary and Foreign Key No Buffering: Table is not qualified for buffering. Ex: Transactional Tables. SWAPS: These are important entity which needs to be monitored daily. Swapping i.e.; Object swapping occurs when there are not enough space or directories in the buffer element. Based on the company usages we can define swappable limit up to 5,000-10,000 per day. NOTE: 1. In order to evaluate all the times go to ST03 in Export Mode. 2. ST03 is used to generate management reports, to measure the system response in terms of Dialogue, User, Transaction and reports. ROLL AREA: The user context is stored in roll area. ROLL MEMORY: It is a common area where roll area is referenced. User Logs into the R/3 System a. Request is received by the dispatcher and kept in dispatcher queue. b. When ever a free Work Process is available dispatcher assigns the work process to the User Request. c. User Work Process copies the user related information(User Context) from the shared roll file into the work process local memory(roll Memory) d. Before the transaction ends Work Process copies the user related information into shared roll memory. This process is called roll out. e. While copying the information it only points to R/3 buffers. While the information is copied into the Roll FILE(DISK) or in Roll Buffer(Physical Memory) ZHA/roll_first SAP BASIS 101
  101. 101. Parameters This parameter is used to set the initial memory which will be used by work process to roll in. it is part of roll area. ZHA/roll_area The amount of memory specified to roll the user context into local memory of the work process ZHA/roll_extension The amount of extended memory allocated for the work process to roll the user context information into the local memory of the work process. Heap Memory: If ZHA/roll_area is not specified to roll in, work process uses heap memory. Which is specified by parameter: ABAP/heap_limit ABAP/heap_area_dia Memory Allocation of dialogue Process: * * * * * 1. Part of roll area defined by ZHA/roll_first 2. Extended memory defined by parameters ZHM/roll_extension 3. Remaining part of roll area 4. Heap Memory: Non dialogue process like BTC straight away goes fro heap memory. If the work process uses heap memory it goes into private mode and the parameter rdisp/max_wprun_time will not be effective to the dialogue process. If too many Work Processes goes into heap mode. Private mode work process conjunction occurs. NOTE: 1. Extended memory is defined by parameter em/initial size_mb 2. If too many work processes goes into private mode work process conjunction occurs. The only possible way to resolve this is to kill the work process by using ‘dpmon’ or restarts the instance. Preventively we can configure enough extended SAP BASIS 102
  102. 102. Parameters memory or we can restrict the number of work process that goes into private mode. SAP BASIS 103
  103. 103. Parameters 19. Health Checks For Performing Health Checks: We need to perform following T-Codes: SM51 / RZ03 SM50 ST02 ST06 ST03 SM12 SP12 ST22 SMLG SM37 ST04 ST01 ST05 DB02 DB13 DB12 DB01 SM21 Figure 4: Health Checks SM51: Here we need to check how many application servers are present and we can also know server names and host names. We can also check the status of the application server in SM51 and also in RZ03. We can identify the database server which is having Enque Work Process. Note: if there are Six Application servers there will be Six SM50s. If you want to open fourth application server we need to double check on fourth application server. SAP BASIS 104
  104. 104. Parameters SM50: Here we check the type of work process and status. The status will be shown either in running / waiting /stopped state. If the time of particular Work Process is more than 10,000 seconds we then report it as an Error. SAP BASIS 105
  105. 105. Parameters ST02: Here we check the ‘Max in Use’ and ‘In Memory’ of the ROLL AREA PAGE AREA EXTENDED MEMORY At any point Max Usage and In Memory should not be the same. If it is same it will be shown in RED color and we report it as an error. Also here we observe SWAPS; if it is an error the swaps will be shown in RED color. SAP BASIS 106
  106. 106. Parameters SAP BASIS 107
  107. 107. Parameters ST06: OS Monitor Here we check the CPU Utilization user % System % Idle % I/O Wait % NOTE: CPU idle % should never be zero and it should be always above 30% Here we can also find out Page In/ Page Out and load on the Hard Disk & Physical memory / SWAP memory and amount of memory used. ST06: Detail Analysis Menu.  Compare all servers. Here we observer idle average Percentage of each application server. SAP BASIS 108
  108. 108. Parameters ST03: Go to Export mode, click on yesterday and check time for DB Request. Also each process / transaction, total number of dialogue steps, total response time, post analysis up to one month. SAP BASIS 109
  109. 109. Parameters SAP BASIS 110
  110. 110. Parameters SMLG: Log on Load Balancing Click on Menu Select Load Distribution / Select F5 Directly. Here we observe response time and number of users for each application server. SAP BASIS 111
  111. 111. Parameters SAP BASIS 112
  112. 112. Parameters SP12: TemSe management In Menu Temse Data storage Click on Consistency check Click on Delete all. ST22: Dump Analysis / ABAP Dumps Here we check the total number of dumps of yesterday. Here we check if dump is more than 100, then we report it as an error. We also check the files which have failed more than 25 times. If the file is failed more than 25 times we report it as an error. SAP BASIS 113
  113. 113. Parameters SAP BASIS 114
  114. 114. Parameters SAP BASIS 115
  115. 115. Parameters SM37 Run the House keeping jobs of SAP* and ARV Jobs SAP BASIS 116
  116. 116. Parameters SM12 Click on List Table Name : ____________ Lock Argument : ____________ Client : ____________ (Business Client -800) User Name : ____________ (*) Here we need to observe the readings of client, user, time, mode, table of lock argument, If the column under time is showing date instead of time then we report it as an error. SAP BASIS 117
  117. 117. Parameters SAP BASIS 118
  118. 118. Parameters DB02: Database Performance Here we can find out the table space name, total size of the table space, free space of the table space, used percentage. Default Tables : PSAPTEMP, SYSTEM, PSAPROLE Business Tables : PSAPUNDO, PSAP<SID> (PSAPDEV), etc SAP BASIS 119
  119. 119. Parameters SAP BASIS 120
  120. 120. Parameters DB12: Back up Locks Here we check last successful backup and then overview of database backups. SAP BASIS 121
  121. 121. Parameters ST01 / ST05: System trace / Performance Analysis ST01 Automation Trace SQL Trace RFC Trace Buffer Trace Enque Trace ST05 X SQL Trace RFC Trace Buffer Trace Enque Trace This is used to trace the run time problems. These traces need to be handled with outmost care because, if we leave the system ‘TRACE ON’ trace grows up abnormally and there are chances for this system crash. When ever we have problem we will switch on the TRACE ON a particular problem for a specified period of time; after that period SWITCH OFF the trace. SQL Trace: This is used to find the expensive SQL statements for a particular program. RFC & ENQUE Trace: When ever RFC time & Enque time increased beyond threshold values, then we need to use these traces. SAP BASIS 122
  122. 122. Parameters Buffer Trace: When ever the user is having problem with buffers, programs and Swaps identify the time and switch ON buffer trace; execute the programs SWITCH OFF buffer and identify the problem. The Problem may be Ex: Need to identify the parameters which needs to be tunes. Each Work Process will have one trace file. ST04: This is used to monitor the performance of the database. 1. Database HIT Ratio 2. Logical reads 3. Physical reads 4. DBA writes 5. Log Buffer 6. SQL Ping Ratio 7. User Calls/ received Calls SAP BASIS 123
  123. 123. Parameters SAP BASIS 124
  124. 124. Parameters SAP BASIS 125
  125. 125. Parameters ST07: Application Monitor It is used to find the number of users created in the system, number of instances (R/3). It gives the details about modules used and number of users using these modules. It is used to calculate load on the module there by help us to configure log on load balancing. SAP BASIS 126
  126. 126. Parameters DB13: DBA Planning Calendar It is used to schedule backups of database and log files, adapt next extents, check optimized statistics; update statistics; clean up log files and perform a check on the database. It is used to run the above jobs or schedule periodically. SAP BASIS 127
  127. 127. Parameters SM21: System Logs Here all the system messages are recorded. TIME, TYPE OF MSG, CLIENT, USER and all information will be available here. Here we can see local and remote system logs also. Detail list is obtained by double clicking on the Message. OR SM21 is populated when ever there is an event triggered which affects the runtime of the system. Example: Work Process Termination; Update Deactivation; Operation Mode Switch; Memory; Buffer; Program related errors. Most of the logs will provide the information about the event we need to concentrate on the events which are marked in RED. Select the record which is in red double click on the record to display the detailed log. All the dumps are also logged in system log. SAP BASIS 128
  128. 128. Parameters NOTE: rdisp/trace=0/1/2 Is having the information about database, dispatcher and message server. SAP BASIS 129
  129. 129. Parameters SAP BASIS 130
  130. 130. Parameters SAP BASIS 131
  131. 131. Parameters SAP BASIS 132
  132. 132. Parameters Background Work Process SM36, SM37 The trace which consumes more time or long running reports or time consuming reports can be scheduled to run in the background mode without any user input. Background processes are used to run in the background jobs as per the schedule. Dialogue Work Process defines background process in SM36. These are stored in tables TBTCT TBTCS Background scheduler runs in the dialogue mode for every 60 seconds at a frequency defined by parameter. rdisp/btctime=60seconds Background work process are configured by parameter rdisp/wp.no.btc There should be at least two background work processes on a transport domain controller and on system, while applying support patches, client copies. NOTE: the reason for reserving two background work process is: 1. One for Background scheduling. 2. One for running the job. Defining Background Jobs: These jobs are defined in SM36 1. Go to SM36. 2. Specify the name of the job. 3. Define the priority. There are three types of priority: 1. CLASS A –High 2. CLASS B –Medium 3. CLASS C –Low SAP BASIS 133
  133. 133. Parameters CLASS –A Priority: 1. Priority is high 2. We require a dedicated background process of type A to execute these jobs. These can be defined by using operation modes. 3. Class –A can also be specified with target server or without target server. 4. Target servers groups are defined in RZ12, which will be used to distribute the background jobs based on the load. 5. If server is not specified the system chooses the least loaded server and runs the job. CLASS –B Priority 1. It has medium priority 2. It can be scheduled with or without target server. CLASS –C Priority 1. It has low priority. 2. It can be scheduled with or without Target server. Different Types of Program: Background job can be run in the background using ABAP program, external program and external commands. ABAP Program: ABAP program can be specified to run in the background mode. This could be SAP standard program or custom defined program. The run time inputs are stored in variant. VARIENT: It is a predefined value which will be populated during the execution of program. External Program: This is used to trigger the programs in target system. Ex: programs are triggered by using executables (SAPXPG), provided the user has necessary authorization. SAP BASIS 134
  134. 134. Parameters RFC connection, program name, target host are required to define Ex: Program. External Commands: The commands which are executed at OS level can be scheduled to run in the background mode. Ex: Brightstar, Tivoli, Veritas, Arc, SAPEVT: it is a SAP EVENT and executable which will be used to trigger ABAP programs based on the events. Background Job Monitoring: SM37 Background jobs can be monitored in SM37. These can be displayed based in user, time and status etc Various Statuses of Background Jobs: SCHEDULED: When job is defined its status is defined RELEASED: When time is defined for execution its status is released. READY: Reached for execution ACTIVE: It is in process and job is in execution. FNISHED: Sometimes we need to check because the finished job might not be complete. It depends upon the nature of the job. CANCELLED: Job is cancelled, could not be executed. NOTE: 1. The job remains longer time if it doesn’t have enough background process available to handle the job. 2. To resolve we have to kill the background job. But this is recurring problem considered in increase work process or configure operation modes @@@@@ 3. Active jobs cannot be killed. SAP BASIS 135
  135. 135. Parameters Reasons for Termination of Jobs: 1. Programmatical Errors: Programs changed manually or modified. Applying support patches or it is a new program. The Problem with these files is: a. File is not readable b. No permission for the file @@@@@@ c. File is corrupted. d. Data mismatch e. File not found 2. Database Error: a. Table space overflow b. Max Extents reached or any other Database related errors Ex: Ora-600: Hardware Error 3. RFC Destination: RFC destination is not properly defined or may be modified recently 4. Password in RFC is changed. 5. User ID is expired 6. Change in automation 7. Table space overflow 8. Max Extents reached 9. In sufficient memory 10. CPU utilization is high 11. PSAPROLL, PSAPTEMP, PSAPUNDO should have enough space for sorting and updating the table SAP BASIS 136
  136. 136. Parameters SAP Standard Jobs (House Keeping) These are used to delete log files, checking the consistency of system, etc. (Program Names –Housekeeping) 1. RSBTCDEL: Used to delete entries of the background job tables and log files 2. RSSNAPDLL: Used to delete the ABAP dumps. 3. RSPO0041, RSPO1041: used to reorganize spool tables. 4. RSPO0043: Consistency of spool. 5. RSREORG: Jobs are re organized 6. RSM13002: Update temporary tables. (VB*) House Keeping Jobs: 1. sap_reorg_jobs 2. sap_reorg_spool 3. sap_reorg_batchinput_clientno 4. sap_reorg_ABAPdumps 5. sap_reorg_jobstatistic 6. sap_collector_for_jobstatistic 7. sap_collector_for_permonitor In order to schedule SAP standard jobs go to SM37, schedule SAP standard jobs. Pausing Background Jobs: While applying support patches, performing upgrades, we need to stop the background execution. Run report BTCTRNS1 which will change the status of the jobs so that the schedule will not recognize for execution. Run report BTCTRNS2 to get the old status of the jobs. Defining the Variant: (SA38, SE38) Go to SA38  Enter Program Name.  F8, Enter, Specify the Entries SAP BASIS 137
  137. 137. Parameters  Go to Menu  Go to SAVE AS Variant Popup screen appears  Specify variant details  SAVE. Variants are stored in Table TVAR SAP BASIS 138
  138. 138. Parameters SAP BASIS 139
  139. 139. Parameters SAP BASIS 140
  140. 140. Parameters SAP BASIS 141
  141. 141. Parameters SAP BASIS 142
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  148. 148. Parameters Solving Max-Extents issues sesu - ora<sid> sapdba -u / 1. d - Reorganization 2. b - Alter/show table or index storage parameters 3. b - Table or index: 4. enter <tablename> 5. s - Alter/show parameters 6. d - MAXEXTENTS: enter a larger number (usually 505) 7. s - commit SAP BASIS 149
  149. 149. Parameters Working ... (altering table) Table 'SAPR3.T425' altered. Press <return> to continue... to confirm: bs Note: If you have a hard time looking at the screenshots, just adjust your zoom for this document (menu ViewZoom). Ste Description p 010 Run BRTOOLS as <sid>adm user. Note: BRTOOLS needs to be run as <sid>adm user. Execute <sid>brtools command to launch BRTOOLS as <sid>adm. If it does not work, check whether there is an alias defined in file /home/<sid>adm/.dbenv_<server_name>.csh (if it does not exist, edit the file, insert row with ali definition, save the change, log off and log on and try to run it again): alias <sid>brtools ’/usr/seos/bin/sesudo <sid>brtools’ In case <sid>brtools does not work as <sid>adm user, sesu to ora<sid> user, call brtools and send follow up message to system owner. # sesu – <sid>adm # <sid>brtools SAP BASIS 150
  150. 150. Parameters 020 Check the value of MAXEXTENTS Choose either of the methods below depending on whether you are checking a table or an index. For tables: Go back to the main menu of BRTOOLS by “b”. Choose “3 - Segment management”, then “5 - Alt tables” by typing 3 and 5 respectively. Choose “6 ~ Table names (table)” to specify the table, then type the table name. SAP BASIS 151
  151. 151. Parameters Type “c” to continue to reach the “Alter tables” main menu. In this menu, choose “4 - Show tables”. This will show all parameters that the selected table has Take note of the “15 - Maximum number of extents (maxexts)”. e.g. in the screenshot below, USR02 table now has the value of 300 for MAXEXTENTS parameter SAP BASIS 152
  152. 152. Parameters For indexes: Go back to the main menu of BRTOOLS by “b”. Choose “3 - Segment management”, then “6 + Al indexes” by typing 3 and 6 respectively. Choose “6 ~ Table names (table)” to specify the table name. e.g. the screenshot below shows the table to be USR02 SAP BASIS 153
  153. 153. Parameters Choose “7 ~ Index names (index)” to specify the index name. e.g. the screenshot below shows the index to be USR02_____0 Type “c” to continue to the “Alter index” main menu. In this menu, choose “3 - Show indexes”. Th will show the list of indexes that the table has. e.g. the screenshot below shows USR02 table to have 3 indexes - USR02_____0, USR02_____001, a USR02_____002 SAP BASIS 154
  154. 154. Parameters Choose the correct index. E.g. in the example above, type “1” to choose the USR02_____0 index. This will show the parameters that the index has. Take note of the “15 - Maximum number of extents (maxexts)” e.g. the screenshot below shows index USR02_____0 to have 250 as the MAXEXTENTS value 030 Navigate to “Adapt NEXT extents” In the BRTOOLS menu, choose “8 - Additional functions”, then “3 - Adapt NEXT extents” by typing and 5 respectively. SAP BASIS 155
  155. 155. Parameters 040 Specify parameters to BRCONNECT In the “BRCONNECT main options for adaption of NEXT extents” menu, just type “c” to continue t the next screen. Choose “6 - BRCONNECT command line (command)” to modify the BRCONNECT parameters. Thi will prompt you for the value of “command”. Type according to the following syntax: -f next –l <MAXEXTENTS> –t <table / index> (option after next is “dash el”) Where: <MAXEXTENTS>  the new MAXEXTENTS value for the table / index. Set this parameter 20% mo than the current value. e.g. if the current MAXEXTENTS size is 250, set the new value to 1.2 X 250 = 300 <table / index>  the table or index that you need to change the MAXEXTENTS parameter e.g. screenshot below sets MAXEXTENTS to 300 on USR02 table SAP BASIS 156
  156. 156. Parameters 050 Commit the changes Type “c” to continue to run BRCONNECT. If you have specified a table, the tool will find the object fast while if you have specified an index, the tool will scan through all tables and indexes to find that particular index, so you have to be patient. Once it finds the correct object, type “c” to comm the change. e.g. in the following screenshot, the MAXEXTENT value of 300 has been applied to table USR02, indexes USR02____0, USR02____001, and USR02____002 SAP BASIS 157
  157. 157. Parameters 060 Verify new MAXEXTENTS value Verify if the new MAXEXTENTS value has taken effect to the table/index(es) by following step# 02 SAP BASIS 158

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