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60950106 basis-latest-till-interview-questions-130104015104-phpapp02 60950106 basis-latest-till-interview-questions-130104015104-phpapp02 Document Transcript

  • Parameters Table of Contents Table of Contents .............................................................................................................................................2 List of Screenshots.............................................................................................................5 List of Figures....................................................................................................................6 1. Introduction....................................................................................................................7 1.1 Operating System...................................................................................................7 1.2 Database Types......................................................................................................8 1.3 Basic Jobs: Two Types..........................................................................................8 1.4 High-Availability...................................................................................................9 1.5 Connectivity.........................................................................................................10 2. Advantages of SAP......................................................................................................11 3. Architecture of SAP.....................................................................................................13 3.1 Presentation Layer...............................................................................................13 3.2 Application Layer................................................................................................13 3.3 Database Layer:...................................................................................................13 3.4 Terminology.........................................................................................................14 4. Servers and Work process..........................................................................................15 4.1 SID: .................................................................................................................15 4.2 SM51: Shows only Active servers.......................................................................15 4.3 SM50: Work Process Overview...........................................................................18 4.4 T-Code Prefixes:..................................................................................................20 4.5 Menu Bar Buttons:...............................................................................................21 5. Profiles..........................................................................................................................22 6. System Bounce:............................................................................................................24 7. Market Place................................................................................................................27 7.1 Developer Key:....................................................................................................27 7.2 Developer Object:................................................................................................28 8. Installation....................................................................................................................29 8.1 Hardware Sizing:.................................................................................................29 8.2 Users:...................................................................................................................29 8.3 High Availability:................................................................................................30 8.4 Post installation activities:...................................................................................31 9. Installation Process......................................................................................................32 9.1 Central instance:...................................................................................................32 9.2 Database Instance:...............................................................................................33 9.3 Dialogue Instance:...............................................................................................34 9.4 Installation of GUI:..............................................................................................34 9.5 Checking Central Instances:................................................................................35 10. Client Maintenance....................................................................................................37 10.1 SCC4..................................................................................................................37 10.3 SCCL:................................................................................................................44 10.5 Remote Client Copy:..........................................................................................50 10.6 RFC....................................................................................................................51 SAP BASIS 2
  • Parameters 11. Spool Administration.................................................................................................53 11.1 Types of Access Methods:.................................................................................53 11.4 SPAD: Spool Administration.............................................................................55 11.5 SP01 – Output control........................................................................................62 SP12 – TemSe Management......................................................................................64 12. Transport Management System...............................................................................69 12.1 Change Request management:...........................................................................71 12.3 Transport Directory:...........................................................................................75 12.4 Configuring STMS:...........................................................................................76 12.5 Defining Landscape:..........................................................................................77 13. Support Packages.......................................................................................................78 13.1 Types of Support packages:...............................................................................78 13.2 Applying Support Patches:................................................................................79 13.3 Pre-requisites:....................................................................................................82 13.4 Support Packages Errors:...................................................................................83 13.5 Applying Add-ons:.............................................................................................84 13.6 Kernel Patches...................................................................................................86 14. Update Mechanism....................................................................................................87 14.1 Advantages:............................................................................................................87 14.2 Types of Update Process:.......................................................................................88 14.3 Update Monitoring:................................................................................................88 14.4 Update Problems:...................................................................................................91 15. ENQUE.......................................................................................................................92 15.1 Problems with Enque:............................................................................................92 16. Data Transfer.............................................................................................................93 17. Archiving....................................................................................................................94 17.1 Reason for Archiving:............................................................................................96 17.2 Advantages:............................................................................................................96 18. System Monitoring:...................................................................................................97 Memory...........................................................................................................................100 19. Health Checks..........................................................................................................104 Background Work Process...........................................................................................133 Solving Max-Extents issues...........................................................................................149 SAPDBA.........................................................................................................................159 Client Transport............................................................................................................161 Client Export............................................................................................................161 Client Import............................................................................................................161 Operation Modes...........................................................................................................163 Database..........................................................................................................................164 DBA ARCHTECTURE...........................................................................................164 Directories................................................................................................................169 Database Startup......................................................................................................170 Database Shutdown..................................................................................................171 Storage Management...............................................................................................172 Creation of Table Space...........................................................................................172 Reorganization.........................................................................................................173 SAP BASIS 3
  • Parameters Process of reorganization:........................................................................................174 Backup restore and recovery:...................................................................................174 Types of backups:....................................................................................................175 Users and Maintenance.................................................................................................183 Creation of Users.....................................................................................................184 Creating User...........................................................................................................184 Security....................................................................................................................186 Activity....................................................................................................................186 Role Creation:..........................................................................................................188 Defining a Derived Role:.........................................................................................188 User Comparison.....................................................................................................189 Missing Authorizations SU53..................................................................................189 Security Parameters.................................................................................................190 Central User Administration....................................................................................191 Types of users:.........................................................................................................193 Logon Load Balancing..................................................................................................194 Advantages...............................................................................................................194 Defining Logon groups............................................................................................194 Mechanism of Logon on Load Balancing................................................................194 SNOTE............................................................................................................................196 Applying SNOTE.....................................................................................................196 SCOT.......................................................................................................................199 OS Directory...................................................................................................................200 Important T Codes........................................................................................................201 Programs........................................................................................................................204 Parameters......................................................................................................................205 Tables..............................................................................................................................207 Top Ten Problems..........................................................................................................209 Interview Questions.......................................................................................................210 SAP BASIS 4
  • Parameters List of Screenshots Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List).....................................................................16 Screenshot 2: ...................................................................................................................17 Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview).......................................................................20 Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1.................................................................37 Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2.................................................................38 Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1..........................................................................39 Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2......................................................................................40 Screenshot 8: Client Roles...............................................................................................41 Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy)......................................................................44 Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2.................................................................45 Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log).......................................................................47 Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis......................................................................48 Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration)..............................................................56 SAP BASIS 5
  • Parameters List of Figures Figure 1: SAP Architecture............................................................................................13 Figure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts..........................................................................27 Figure 3: Transport Routes............................................................................................69 Figure 4: Health Checks................................................................................................104 Figure 5: SAP Database Architecture..........................................................................164 Figure 6: SAP Authorizations.......................................................................................183 Figure 7: SAP OS Directory.........................................................................................200 SAP BASIS 6
  • Parameters SAP System Application Products for Data Processing 1. Introduction It is developed in Germany. It is an ERP. Enterprise Resource Planning: Planning the resources in an Organization is called ERP. A Company having different modules like: 1. Sales 2. Financials 3. Purchasing 4. Production 5. Human Resources Integration of all these modules is done by ERP 1.1 Operating System 1. Windows 2. UNIX a. HP-UX b. Linux c. Solaris d. IBM AIX Note: We use HP-UX 11i SAP BASIS 7
  • Parameters 1.2 Database Types 1. Oracle 2. SQL Server 3. DB2 4. SYBASE 5. Informix 6. MaxDB ( SAP DB) Note: We use Oracle 9i. 9.2 (9.2.0.4) 1.3 Basic Jobs: Two Types On-site: • Here we can see all hardware. • Here we are working with client, so we can see all the servers. Off-shore: • Servers are located in USA, UK or some other remote locations • We will be in India and work on it. Data centre: It is a Server Room where your entire data is stored in an Organization 8 Bits = 1 Byte 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Bytes 1024 KB = 1 Mega Bytes 1024 MB = 1 Giga Bytes 1024 GB = 1 Tera Bytes 1024 TB = 1 Pico Bytes SAP BASIS 8
  • Parameters 1.4 High-Availability 1. Mirroring: If one of the Hard disk fails another Hard disk will take care. It is a technique in which data is written to two duplicate disks simultaneously. In this way if any one of the disks fails, the system will switch to another disk with out analysis of data or service. 2. RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks Storing same data in different places on multiple hard disks. If any of the Hard disks fails, the data will store automatically in a disk called HOT SPARE. 3. SAN: Storage Area Network. If we have five applications, for each application we require one server so we need five servers. Maintaining five servers is tough. So SAN is coming into scenario, where we will store all data in common place. 4. Clustering: In case if overload. When the load is more on CI automatically it will transfer with transaction to DB directly. In other words connecting two or more computers together will behave like single computer is called clustering. It is used fir parallel processing If any one of the servers fails, another server will take care of the user. SAP BASIS 9
  • Parameters 5. Stand-by Servers: In case of disorder/disaster recovery. Different R/3, different locations, each transaction is replicated in all servers. In case of any disorders or calamities like Tsunami or Earthquakes, there will be a chance for not working of server. If one server is not working another server will take responsibility and provide service to the users. 1.5 Connectivity 1. HUB: In a network all the systems are connected to each other via HUB 2. SWITCH: All companies use switches for communication between systems. Provides network connectivity between various systems and networks. 3. ROUTER: Connectivity between one network to another network. It provides secure network connectivity between network and outside world. Note 1: To communicate from India to another country we need VPN, Dial-Up or ISP VPN : Virtual Private Network. ISP : Internet Service Provider. Note 2: We use VPN normally. In case of VPN failure we switch to Dial-Up. SAP BASIS 10
  • Parameters 2. Advantages of SAP 1. Rich set of modules 2. Data integrity 3. Easy administration 4. only one database 5. SAP supports all Databases and operating systems 6. Global Support 7 x 24 x 365 7. SAP supports Multi Languages I.e.; almost all the languages available using UNICODE 8. One GUI for all R/3 systems 9. SAP supports JAVA 10. easy add-ons ( to add functionality to existing systems) 11. High security 12. User friendly 13. Common Programming Language which supports OOPs and ABAP. UNICODE: It is R/3 software; provide access to almost all languages in the world. It uses two bytes NON UNICODE: It is a version of R/3 which supports only few languages in the world using technology MDMP – Multi Display Multi Program. It is used for providing support for other languages. SAP BASIS 11
  • Parameters SAP: SAP R/3 => SAP Release Three Versions:  4.5 B  4.6 C  4.7 R/3 Enterprise Edition Latest Releases are:  ECC 5.0  ECC 6.0 SAP BASIS 12
  • Parameters 3. Architecture of SAP Presentation Layer Application Layer Database Layer Figure 1: SAP Architecture 3.1 Presentation Layer Identifying the server which is least loaded from the GUI (Graphical User Interface) with the help of message servers. During GUI logon following files are evaluated. 1. SAPLOGON.INI 2. SAPMSG.INI 3. SAPROUTE.INI 4. SAPDOCCD.INI 3.2 Application Layer 1. Database Client to communicate with Database Server 2. Kernel executables 3. Dispatcher 4. Configure Work Process 5. Buffer areas can be maintained, buffers in memory 6. It has message server in Central Instance 7. Run Time Executables 8. CPU and Process 3.3 Database Layer: 1. Predefined Tables SAP BASIS 13
  • Parameters 2. Own memory and buffer 3. Own security 4. Own process to handle request from Application Layer 3.4 Terminology Work Process: An application server contains work process, which are components that can run applications. Each work process is linked to memory area. Instance: This is nothing but group of process and their memory. Basically it is an application server. Central Instance This is the application server where message server and ENQUE server are installed along with other work processes. During installation central instance needs to be installed first. Database Instance: This is the instance where exactly Database is installed. Dialogue Instance: This is an additional application server which is installed to provide more number of work processes to gather more number of users. Dispatch This is nothing but, which allocates the work process. Application server is nothing but the Dispatcher. Is also called as an Instance. SAP BASIS 14
  • Parameters 4. Servers and Work process 4.1 SID: It’s a three digit number. It is alphanumeric but never starts with a number. Examples: Right Way N6A BLD BLQ BLP N62 NA6 sid Wrong Way 2N6 2ND 2LQ 2NP 262 2A2 => bld <SID> => b1c 4.2 BLD B1C SM51: Shows only Active servers Note: • Server Name Syntax: <Host name>_<SID>_<Instance Number> Bdhp4431_N6P_00 • Instance Number: Ranges from 00-99 (Two Digit) • There will be only one Database Server and only one central instance. • Remaining all are Dialogue Instances • Central Instances can be identified where ENQUE is installed. • Database server Name is same as central instance name. SAP BASIS 15
  • Parameters Screenshot 1: SM51 (Active Servers List) SAP BASIS 16
  • Parameters servers. Screenshot 2: SAP BASIS 17
  • Parameters 4.3 SM50: Work Process Overview Types of Work Process: D V E B M G S Dialogue Update Enque Background / Batch Message Server Gateway Spool Dialogue: [D] This process is used to communicate with system interactively. This process is used to select data from the database, update the database, print from the database. This is the only process where users will be communicated with their request. Update: [V] This process is used to update the database; user never uses this process directly. But user in turn send request through dialogue process to update the database. Dialogue processes are used to update temporary tables. Update process reads from the temporary tables and upload the database. Enque:[E] In order to have transaction consistency the records have to be locked while updating the database. There will be only one ENQUE work process by the R/3 system. Background/ Batch:[B] SAP BASIS 18
  • Parameters This process is used to run the long running jobs in the background mode. This process is used to run without any user interaction and also scheduled at predefined intervals. Message Server:[M] It controls dispatches, provides a log from ENQUE to work process. Message Server also decides least loaded server during user logon. Gateway:[G] Gateway is used to communicate between the systems (R/3 Systems). Spool: [S] Spool process is used to print the document to the user. User cannot print the document directly but prints to the temporary sequential tables spool process reads the sequential files and sends the output request to the output device or any print server. Servers Dialogue Update Enque Batch Message Server Gateway Spool System wide >=2 >=1 1 >=1 1 >=1 >=0 SAP BASIS Per Instance >=2 >=0 0/1 >=1 0/1 1 >=0 19
  • Parameters Screenshot 3: SM50 (Process Overview) 4.4 T-Code Prefixes: n -- Next screen o – Open new session / screen nex -- Exit Whole session. E.g.: 1}/nsm50 2}/osm50 3}/nex SAP BASIS 20
  • Parameters 4.5 Menu Bar Buttons: Back F3 Search Ctrl + F First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page Ascending Order Descending Order Refresh Execute F8 Save Select All Edit – Select All / Deselect All Spreadsheet: Saving values in Excel %PC – Spreadsheet - Location SAP BASIS 21
  • Parameters 5. Profiles There are three types of profiles: 1. Start up Profile 2. Default Profile 3. Instance Profile Startup Profile: start_DVEBMGS00_<hostname> Start Database Start Message Server All the three consistently called as Central Instance Start Dispatcher Default Profile: Changes effect globally across all the systems Logon/systemclient Logon/system_language Database host Instance Profile: <SID>_DVEBMGS00_<hostname> Applicable only to application servers rdisp/wp_no_btc rdisp/wp_no_dia rdisp/wp_no_upd SAP BASIS 22
  • Parameters rdisp/wp_no_spool Memory parameter Buffer Parameter Note: If there are three application servers there will be three startup profiles, three instance profiles and only one default profile Example: App. servers Profiles 1 3 2 5 3 7 ns + ni + 1d {s-startup, i-instance, d-default} 2n+1 SAP BASIS 23
  • Parameters 6. System Bounce: # ps –ef|grep dw # ps –ef|grep ora- In order to shutdown the system we need to stop the application servers first and then the database server The commands used are # stopsap r3 - Application server shutdown # stopsap - Database server Shutdown In order to start the system the database server has to be started first and then application servers. The commands used are: # startsap - database server startup # startsap r3 - application server startup In order to check the status of the application server and database server at OS level we check by using the following commands #ps –ef|grep dw - Application server shutdown #ps –ef|grep ora - Database server Shutdown SAP BASIS 24
  • Parameters If there are six application servers first we log into each six servers by using hostnames at OS level. Then first stop application servers and then check them again and stop the database server. For restarting we use Vice Versa Note: In order to differentiate between database server and application servers in the system we mark them in two different colors. When we logon at SAP level, go to SM51 in order to check the number of server. We can also check through RZ03, where it shows whether the server is active or inactive. If it is not active log on to the hostname of server which is not active and then execute the command # startsap r3 Then come back to the RZ03 screen and click the refresh button to check if the server is active /inactive Interview Question: If the system could not start what might be the reason Answer: 1. Check all the services 2. check all the environment variables 3. Check alert Log 4. check Achieve Struck 5. Changes in profile parameters 6. Table space overflow 7. Check network connectivity 8. Kernel executables may be corrupted SAP BASIS 25
  • Parameters Reasons for Shut Down and Start-up: 1. Maintenance 2. Backup 3. Patches 4. Upgrades[ Hardware, Software, Kernel] 5. Parameter Changes 6. Mass transports. SAP BASIS 26
  • Parameters 7. Market Place SAP service Market Place Service Developer Key / Object Problem Management Notes Database Administration of service connections Registration of naming environments Requesting License Key Requesting Migration Key Downloading support packages User Administration Example : www.service.sap.com/sscr Link sscr Message Notes Service connections Namespaces License key Migration Key patches User_admin Figure 2: SAP Market Place Shortcuts 7.1 Developer Key: Log into the system specified and then go to system menu and then click on status button Note down the installation number Example: 123456789534 (10-20 Digits) Go to www.service.sap.com/sscr Give OSS ID and Password Market Place Id is called as OSS ID Example: S0001234567 S0007654321 Click on registered developers Specify the user ID or Object BA9823 Company User Id of Person who generated the TICKET SAP BASIS 27
  • Parameters Here we will get a list of installation numbers, click on the appropriate installation number At the bottom click a register and finally gives Developer Key 7.2 Developer Object: Log into the required system and system status (Copy installation number) Log into www.service.sap.com by OSS ID Click on register object Then on screen specify the BASIS Release Program ID Type Object Name Click on Installation Number and click on register A registration Key is generated SAP BASIS 28
  • Parameters 8. Installation 8.1 Hardware Sizing: To analyze the business requirement and allocating the memory. Steps involved on getting size of the hardware based on the business requirement given by the client 1. Contact SAP 2. get OSS ID 3. go to www.service.sap.com/sizing 4. go to Quick Size tool 5. Enter the project name / customer number 6. Create Project 7. Number of Users: (Low/ medium/ High) 8. Amount of legacy data 9. Number of Modules 10. Select Operating System 11. Select Database version 12. Select Peak Load Time 13. High Availability 14. data Security(Mirror / RAID / Cluster) 15. Save the details 16. calculate the result 8.2 Users: Low Activity: Occasional Users 400-480 Transactions per week 40 Hours per week Medium Activity: Transactional Users 400-4800 transactions per Week High Activity: Power Users 4800 and above transactions per week SAP BASIS 29
  • Parameters 8.3 High Availability: Availability of systems 24 x 7 x 365 without any interruption so that customer can do his operation without any stoppages. Pre-requisites for Installation 1. verify SAP software 2. Internet connections to search for Run Time Errors(SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com) 3. Download Install guide (SAP Market Place: www.service.sap.com – Install guide) 4. Document all the steps 5. Install Java Runtime Environment 6. Set virtual memory to Three times of physical memory + 500 MB 7. set environmental variables for JAVA JAVA_HOME=c:jdk1.4JREbin 8. Specify an entry in: C:windowssystem32driversetchost To 192.168.0.1 <hostname> SAPTRANSHOST 9. Enable file sharing for Networks to maximum. Go to LAN Icon  Right Click  Properties  Select Files and Printers. 10. Install Oracle/SQL Server RDBMS software. 11. Check for Oracle Environmental variables. 12. Dump all necessary media into Hard disk a. SAP Inst b. SAP Kernel c. Export DVDs (1 to 7) NOTE: There should not be any spaces or special characters while creating directories SAP BASIS 30
  • Parameters 8.4 Post installation activities: 1. Go to SICK / SM28  Installation check 2. Go to SE06  CTS Initialization 3. Go to SE03  System Settings 4. Go to RZ10  Import profiles of active servers 5. Go to STMS  6. Go to SLIC  License Management 7. Go to SR13  Library configuration 8. client creation 9. Local client copy 10. Remote client copy 11. SU25  Initiate Profile generator. 12. Setting up work process, memory and buffer parameters. 13. Support packages and kernel package 14. Register system in SAP. 15. establish remote connectivity to SAP 16. SGEN 17. Define backup of the system 18. Create users in SU01 and assign roles 19. Establish remote connectivity to BI, PI, CRM, SRM and other systems. 20. Define operation modes, logon load balancing 21. Configuring users GUIs 22. Configuring CCMS (RZ20, RZ21) 23. Allow the system for configuration and development. 24. Schedule for standard background jobs SAP BASIS 31
  • Parameters 9. Installation Process Installation is done in three phases: 1. Central Instance (CI) 2. Database Instance (DbI) 3. Dialogue Instance (DI) 9.1 Central instance: Which is located centrally applicable to all the dialogue instances and database instances 1. Go to Dump double check on SAPINST NT/I386/SAPINST.EXE Select central Instance 2. Specify SID and instance number 3. Specify host name 4. Specify Oracle_Home Path. 5. Assign 60% of memory for CI (Remaining 40% for DbI) Example: 1 GB RAM – 600 MB 512 MB RAM – 330 MB 6. Specify path for user directory C: ; D: 7. Specify passwords for <SID>ADM, SAPSERVICE<SID>. <SID>ADM : 8. R/3 system administration which is used to start R/3 systems and this administrative privileges 9. SAPSERVICE<SID>: This is a service user which is used to run all the SAP services like SAPSOL. 10. Specify Kernel Patches 11. Specify the dispatcher / gateway / Message Server: Port Number. By default: (32_ _ / 33 _ _ / 36_ _). _ _  Instance Number. SAP BASIS 32
  • Parameters 12. Continue installation. 9.2 Database Instance: 1. Select DbI 2. Specify SID, hostname and instance number 3. Specify the installation on New Database or use the existing Database. 4. Specify the database, schema ID Xxx SAP xxx Schema ID: It is the owner of Database. ----------------5. Select 40% of physical memory 6. Specify the log files location: a. Mirror log a, ORIGNAL log B  1 Device b. Original log b, Mirror log B  1 Disk 7. Specify the kernel directory. Kernel Directory is used to extract database executables into RUN directory. 8. Specify the path for SAP directory: a. sapreorg b. sapcheck c. saptrace d. sapbackup e. saparch 9. Specify the path to Data Dictionary (sapdata1, sapdata2, sapdata3, … .. sapdatan) 10. Specify export DVD Dump: SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD1EXPORT1 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD2EXPORT2 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD3EXPORT3 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD4EXPORT4 SAP BASIS 33
  • Parameters SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD5EXPORT5 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD6EXPORT6 SAP4.7ENTdata_DVD7EXPORT7 11. Specify the passwords for <SID>adm, sapservice<SID>. 12. Number of parallel processes to expedite the installation process. 13. Select MNLS( MN Log Support) Yes / No  No 14. Specify password for System, SYS, DBS, NMP and ANPLN. 15. Continue. 9.3 Dialogue Instance: 1. select dialogue instance 2. Specify the CI host name 3. specify the DB Host name 4. Specify Instance name and number. D01, D02 D  Dialogue. 01, 02  Instance Number 5. Specify the kernel path 6. Specify passwords and continue 9.4 Installation of GUI: 1. If users are minimal (10-15), go to user desktop and install 2. If we have more number of users, copy the GUI installation CD into a File server, share the folder to every one Inform the users to install GUI from the below location: fileserverSAPGUI 3. Write a logon script and host it in active directory service or give the logon script to network system administrator to trigger the user logon. 4. Using a third party tool like Microsoft Monitoring Server, where all user desktop are monitored centrally. SAP BASIS 34
  • Parameters NOTE: To uninstall old version go to SAPSWEEP.exe  then install SAPINST.exe 9.5 Checking Central Instances: 1. Check the service: a. saposcol b. sap<SID>_00 c. ORATNSLISTNER d. Oracleservice<SID> SAPOSCOL: it is SAP OS collector, there is only one SAPOSCOL in the system. SAP<SID>_00 : It is an instance service which is used to start the SAP instance ORATNSLISTNER: this is a listener service when the oracle database is started. If the listener could not be started Go to command Prompt and Type > lsnrctl - Listener Control Lsnrctl> status ------------------> help start stop status ORACLESERVICE<SID>: This is an oracle service user <SID>, which is used to start oracle USERS: <SID>adm sapservice<SID> SAP BASIS 35
  • Parameters SAP<SID> OP$<SID>adm OP$SAPsercice<SID> OP$: Operating system users <<SID>adm and SAPservice<SID> are also created in database prefixing with OP$. This mechanism provides logon to the database by operating system users without prompting a password. LOGS: • SYSLOG in MMC Microsoft Management Console in WINDOWS • Application_syslogs in event viewer (WINDOWS) • SAPINST_LOG • Alert_<SID>.log in SAPTRACE directory. Interview Question: * Cd orac;e<SID>saptracebackground * Developer traces in work directory Dev_wp, dev_disp, dev_ms SAP BASIS 36
  • Parameters 10. Client Maintenance Client can be created with T-Code ‘SCC4’. 10.1 SCC4 Screenshot 4: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 1 SAP BASIS 37
  • Parameters Screenshot 5: SCC4 (Client Maintenance) 2 SAP BASIS 38
  • Parameters Screenshot 6: SCC4, Client Creation 1 SAP BASIS 39
  • Parameters Screenshot 7: Client Creation 2 In SCC4 we can see this list of all the clients present in the system There will be always 000, 001 and 066 present in the system and the remaining will be the business clients. We can see settings of business clients by double clicking on client (line). In order to create a new client, click on the TAB  New Entries. Here we need to specify: 1. Specify the description 2. Specify the location 3. Specify the currency 4. Specify the logical system. As a client is three digited we can’t identify and distinguish between the clients in the landscape. Logical system names are defined in SALE / BD64 T-codes. SAP BASIS 40
  • Parameters The naming convention for the logical system: Letter should be in Capitals <SID>CLNT<clientnumber> Example: A7BCLNT430 A7B430 Normal Usage Go to SALE / BD64; click on new entries; a pop up box prompts saying that it is a CROSS CLIENT, i.e.; the entry created in this table is visible to all clients. Define the logical system name and save the entries. Come back to the client creation screen SCC4: Enter the logical system name 5. Specify the client roles: Screenshot 8: Client Roles Different types of client roles are: a. Customizing Client: this is the only client where changes are initiated in entire landscape. This is also called as Golden / Master Client. SAP BASIS 41
  • Parameters Note: The customizing client is only allowed for changing cross client objects and repository. It is represented by CUST/CUSTOMIZING. The setting for this client will be i. Automatic recording of changes ii. Changes to repository and cross client objects alone iii. Protection Level should be zero, i.e.; No restriction b. Sandbox Client: It is called as SAND client where changes are allowed but not carried forward. Note: All the additional clients except customizing client are not allowed for any changes in repository and cross client objects. c. Testing Client: this client is used for UNIT TESTING. No changes are allowed in this client, only it is allowed to test the objects. d. Quality Testing Clients: the changes which are made in customizing clients developed in system and are transported into this client by using STMS. The integration between modules, Stress Testing, Load Testing etc is performed in this client. Note: in SAND client and testing client we are copying client specified objects. e. Training Client: All the approved changes in quality testing clients are copied into this client. This client is used for end users of the company which they are going to perform on production box. f. Production Client: Most of the environment there will be only one Client in the production box. This is the client where real time business applications are performed. Most of the activities are tied with financial implications. The changes which are approved in quality are transported to the system. 2. Changes and transports for client specific objects: a. Changes without automatic recording b. Automatic recording of changes c. No changes allowed SAP BASIS 42
  • Parameters d. Changes without auto recording, No transports allowed 3. Cross-client object changes: a. Changes to repository and cross client customizing allowed b. No changes to cross client c. No changes to repository d. No changes to both cross client and repository 4. Protection: a. Protection level 0 (Zero) – No restriction b. Protection level 1 – No overwriting c. Protection level 2 – No overwriting. No external availability 5. CATT and eCATT a. CATT – Computer Aided Testing Tool b. eCATT – Extended Computer Aided Testing Tool NOTE: For Production – eCATT & CATT not allowed 6. SAVE the entries NOTE: If the client role is production then the settings should be as follows: i. No changes allowed ii. No changes to repository and cross client iii. Protection level -1 – No overwriting iv. eCATT & CATT Not Allowed T000 – Table stores all the list of created clients. SAP BASIS 43
  • Parameters 10.2 Client copies: There are three types of client copies: 1. Local Client Copy – SCCL 2. Remote Client Copy – SCC9 3. Client Transport – SCC7 (Import), SCC8 (Export) 10.3 SCCL: Example: A5B400 – Source A5B900 – Target Copying the client from one client to another client with in the same system. Screenshot 9: SCCL (Local Client Copy) SAP BASIS 44
  • Parameters Screenshot 10: SCCL (Local Client Copy) 2 Procedure: 1. Log into the target client. Example: 900 With - A5B User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Go to T-code: 3. Specify the SCCL - source client Ex: 400 - Profile Types of Profiles: a. Ex: SAP_ALL SAP_ALL – All clients specified data b. SAP_APPL – Customizing and application data c. SAP_CUST – Customizing SAP BASIS 45
  • Parameters d. SAP_USER – User Master Record and Authentication Profiles. e. SAP_UCUS – Customizing and User master Records. 2. Schedule in Background 3. Schedule Job 4. Click on Immediate and SAVE 5. Click on continue 6. Popup box prompts saying client copy can be monitored in SCC3 NOTE: i. Local client copy takes around 4 Hours. ii. There will be around 13000 tables. SAP BASIS 46
  • Parameters 10.4 SCC3: Screenshot 11: SCC3 (Client Copy Log) SAP BASIS 47
  • Parameters Screenshot 12: Client Copy Log Analysis Target client Source client Copy Type Profile Status Processing, Successfully Completed, Failed. User sap* … .. . Number of Tables __ of __ SAP BASIS 48
  • Parameters Prerequisites of client copy: 1. Check the target client number [ should be existing or create it] 2. There should be at least two background files available free. 3. No users should be logged into the Target and Source Clients [ Locked] 4. There should be enough Table Space. 5. /usr/sap/trans should have enough space while performing client export and client import [ only for Transports] 6. Monitor the client copy progress in SCC3, SM37 and SM50. 7. Check the RFC connection (Remote Function Call) 8. Check the size of the client using RS Table Size / RS Check (SE38) 9. Version Should be same [ For Remote Client Copy] Errors while performing Client Copy: 1. Not enough space in the Disk / Table Space 2. Objects are locked 3. Memory restrictions. SAP BASIS 49
  • Parameters 10.5 Remote Client Copy: Remote client copy is done from a client in one system to another system. Example : N6P 600 A5P 700 Procedure: 1. Log into the target client with User ID : sap* Password : pass 2. Check the RFC connection between two systems in SM59 If the connection exists it shows in green Color If there is no connection we establish RFC connection at SM59 [Create…] 3. If the client exists we delete the client data by using SCC5. [ For low error rate] 4. Then go to SCC9, here we specify the profile, source client, source SID. 5. Schedule as Background, schedule job, Immediate, SAVE and Continue. 6. Popup box prompts saying “Monitoring can be done in SCC3” NOTE: i. Creation of RFC is checked by Authorization Team ii. If the RFC is created by us, we need to delete the RFC once client copy is done. iii. Unlock the users at both source and target systems after client copy. iv. Remote client copy all together takes around 6-8 Hours [ delete(3) + copy(4)] SAP BASIS 50
  • Parameters 10.6 RFC Remote Function Call Different Type of RFC: 1. Synchronous – SRFC – SM59 2. Asynchronous – ARFC – SM59 3. Transactional – TRFC – SM58 4. Queued – QRFC – We Use it ***** – SMQ1, SMQ2 NOTE: To establish connection between two systems we need to configure i. TMS Configuration ii. Configuring CUA iii. Communication between R/3. Create RFC: 1. Go to SM59 2. Click on R/3 Connection 3. Click on CREATE 4. a. Name the RFC: <SID>CLNTNO N6P400 b. Type of Connection: R/3, R/2, TCP/IP, etc c. Description about RFC Client Copy to System xxx / Data Transfer / Etc d. In technical setting TAB, we specify GATEWAY HOST / IP ADDRESS SAP BASIS 51
  • Parameters e. In Logon Security TAB we specify Client No: <Source> User ID Password Language f. Save the Connection 2. Test the connection 3. Test authorization NOTE: Prerequisites: i. Version should be same ii. RFC connection should be existing iii. Source and target system should be available. SAP BASIS 52
  • Parameters 11. Spool Administration SPAD, SP12, SP01 Different types of servers which provide SPOOL process 1. Real Spool Server 2. Logical Spool Server Real Spool Server: These are those which are configured with spool process. Spool process can be defined based on the available resources, using parameter RDISP/WP_no.spo Real spool server is a server which physically exists. Logical Spool Server: These servers are defined to handle the load balancing and fail over of spool servers. 11.1 Types of Access Methods: Access methods define a type of printing there are three types of access methods. 1. Local access method 2. Remote access method 3. Front end access method Local access method Spool server transfer the data directly to host the host printer or print manager this is the fastest printing. Local method L and C are used to configure local access method. SAP BASIS 53
  • Parameters Remote access method The output process and spool process will be in two different places. Protocols S and U are used to configure remote access method. Front end access method User can print from request printer directory. Front end printing has the following disadvantages; a. Printer is dedicated to one user b. If more number of front end printers are configured , spool conjunction occurs, so restrict spool process for Front end printing by RDISP/max_fro_wp_no_sp0=2 11.2 Various types of spool request: (STATUS) 1. Printing: Printing the job 2. Completed: Job completed 3. Problem: Printed with errors 4. Error: Could not print 5. Waiting: Spool processing 6. In Processing: Spool process is converted into output request. 11.3 Various Problems in SPOOL: 1. Network issues 2. device not reached 3. Driver 4. There is a long queue at the printer 5. Cartridges 6. Change in the structure of the program. SAP BASIS 54
  • Parameters 7. Print job is deleted 8. The user is not having the authorization to print. 9. Out of paper 10. page format NOTE: No two output devices should be addressed with the same IP address. HOUSEKEEPING JOBS RSPO0040 RSPO1041 RSPO0043 11.4 SPAD: Spool Administration SPAD is used to define the printer or it is used to check the properties of the existing output device. SAP BASIS 55
  • Parameters Screenshot 13: SPAD (Spool Administration) SAP BASIS 56
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 57
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 58
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 59
  • Parameters Process to setup Printer in SPAD: 1. Go to SPAD 2. Give the output device name PR04 or HP08 (case sensitive) 3. Click on output device 4. Here we get the message as “ No output device is defined” 5. then click on display (change)(Pencil Icon) and click on create button 6. here we need to define primarily two TABs a. Device Attributes b. Access Methods Device Attributes: 1. Device Type 2. Spool server SAP BASIS 60
  • Parameters 3. Device class 4. Model 5. Location 6. Message Access Methods: 1. Host spool access methods [ L U C F] S 2. Host printer 3. Host name Specify short name = output device name Click save SAP BASIS 61
  • Parameters 11.5 SP01 – Output control SAP BASIS 62
  • Parameters This is used to check the status of the spool request once the test print is given: go to SP01 Give spool request number click on execute 4. Here we need to check the status of the spool request. Initially it will be in “In Processing”. We need to check on Refresh to check the status of Test. SAP BASIS 63
  • Parameters SP12 – TemSe Management SAP BASIS 64
  • Parameters 1. Go to SP12 2. Click on TemSe data Storage  Consistency Check  Delete All This deletes all Temporary Sequential files that are present. Printers are defined at both SAP level and OS level. SAP BASIS 65
  • Parameters When we log into the OS level give the command # printers To check the various options for the printer The various options are as follows: 1. Remote Administration 2. Add a Printer 3. Remove a Printer 4. Enable / Disable a Printer  5. Cancel Print Request 6. Check Printer Status  7. Start / Stop the Print Spooler 8. Quit SAP BASIS 66
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 67
  • Parameters NOTE: i. Maximum number of spool requests is 32,000. ii. Printer can be licked in SPAD by checking the option “Change  Lock Printer in SAP System” Located at bottom of page. iii. Page Format / Printer Format can be changes in T-code ‘SE73‘. SAP BASIS 68
  • Parameters 12. Transport Management System It specifies transport of objects from one system to another. There are two types of routes 1. Consolidation route 2. Delivery route Integration Consolidation Development Delivery Quality Consolidation Route Production Delivery Route Figure 3: Transport Routes The route between integration/development and consolidation/quality is called Consolidation route. The route between consolidation/quality and delivery/Production is called Delivery route Transport Layer: It specifies the path for moving objects. By default SAP is a transport layer for standard objects. SAP BASIS 69
  • Parameters Transport Groups: The objects which share common transport directory Development Class: It is the collection of repository objects. When ever we define a repository object we need to assign the development class We need to define development class in SE80, while defining development class we need to define and assign to transport layer. Repository Objects: Programs, reports, transactions, functional modules. Repository objects will be stored in Data Dictionary objects. Data Dictionary: Tables (Domain, data elements), structures and views Target group: A group of systems and clients where the change request has to be moved. Transport Protocol: TP Tp is an executable; TP.EXE is stored in RUN directory Which reads the change request and task Copy the Contents from database and move them to transport directory when change request is released When TP is not functioning execute SAP BASIS 70
  • Parameters # R3trans –d Which generates a log file in the current directory. TP not only uses R3trans but also uses RDDI* jobs which are scheduled step by step. The job sequence and schedule are documented in the table TRBAT and TRJOB. TP can be executed or imported at OS level. The commands used are as follows: Log into target system # sesu – # sesu –sisadm Ex: # sesu –f3padm # cd /usr/sap/trans/bin # tp addtobuffer <TPNO> <SID> Ex: # tp addtobuffer F3AK912345 F3P # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> & # tp import <TPNO> <SID> client<no> u1 Ex: # tp import F3AK912345 F3P client400 u1 U1 is UMode UMODES are used if we get errors. U1, u2, u126 are used. It overrides the previous commands. The error occurred in the last transaction is overwritten. 12.1 Change Request management: When ever the objects are created or modified in the customizing clients of development system. The changes will be recorded to change requirements. The client is set for automatic recording of changes. SAP BASIS 71
  • Parameters Change request: change request consists of changes made by the developer/functional consultants. Change Requests are created in SE01, each change request consists of one or more tasks. Project leader is the owner of change request. Tasks are assigned by developer or functional consultants. Tasks can be released only by the owner of the task. If the owner is not available as a basis administrator we can change the ownership of the task and release the task. Change request Release: In order to release the Change request all the tasks should be released first when change request is released 1. Cofiles are populated with K912345. <SID> 2. Datafiles are populated with R912345.<SID> 3. the name of the developer is added to name of SAP directory. Change Request Mechanism: When ever a change request is not released Transport Protocol gets initiated. Transport Protocol reads the content from the database based on change request. Transport Protocol in turn cause R3trans to copy the objects from database to OS format. Datafile RO RX RT Cofile KO KX KT Client Specific Objects Client Specific Text in any Cross Client SAP BASIS 72
  • Parameters Mass transport: # tp import ALL <SID> client<no> # pf = /usr/sap/trans/bin/tp_domain_<SID>pfl NOTE: When TP is finished successfully it shows with a return code ‘0’ When TP is returned with 4 – Completed 8- Error Transport directory can also be found in STMS 12.2 Types of Change Request: 1. Customizing 2. Workbench 3. Transport Copies 4. Relocation of objects Customizing CR: Changes related to customer, client specific are recorded to CCR. CCR will be created in SE01. there are performed mostly by functional consultants. These requests can be released in SE01/ SE09/ SE10. And these are called as transport organizers. Ex: sales organization, tax settings, creating a company code ( comp code) Workbench CR: Changes related to cross clients customizing are recorded as WBCR. These are created in SE01 and released in SE01 / SE09 / SE10. Ex: All the programs, transactions and time settings etc. Transport of copies: It is used to transport objects such as programs, tables, etc and record them to CR. It is done through SE01. SAP BASIS 73
  • Parameters Reallocation of Objects: This is used to move the objects with or without development class; can be performed in SE01. SAP BASIS 74
  • Parameters 12.3 Transport Directory: This is the directory where modifying the objects are stored. This consists of sub directories. BIN: it stores the domain configuration information when a domain is created or modified. DOMAIN CONF: contains transport domain controller (TDC) information # tp.doamin_<SID>.pfl It is a profile which is used to store the transport tool TP parameters. Changing TP parameters: # no_impoer_ALL=1 We have “0 / 1” Ideally we use 1. This parameter prevents mass transportation. Buffer: This consists of the entries when ever a change request is exported pointing to quality or production system. When ever the landscape is established the development objects will flow in the direction of transport rules. This addressing is documented in this directory. COFILE: * * * * * These are control/command files which describes about the changes and R/3 version. DATAFILE: * * * * * This consists of data which needs to be imported into the target system. SAP BASIS 75
  • Parameters EPS – Electronic Parcel Service. This is used for applying support patches ( .ATT & .PAT files.) Log Files: * * * * * These files give the information about imports. 1. ALOG: gives the information about transport request. 2. SLOG: gives the step by step information of the imports. 3. ULOG: gives the detailed steps of the imports. SAPNAMES: This specifies the name of the developers along with the change. IMP: this is used to view the details about jobs. This is also used to copy the old database files. 12.4 Configuring STMS: STMS is used to configure domain controller, system landscapes, establish the route between systems. Configuring Domain Controller: Domain controller manages all the systems which are configured to the domain. As a post installation activity domain controller has to be configured 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user ID like sap* 2. Go to STMS 3. A pop up box will be prompted to configure domain 4. Domain name will be like domain_<SID> by default 5. Save Include systems in domain: SAP BASIS 76
  • Parameters If the domain controller is already created we need to include systems in domain. Including systems in domain comprises of two phases: Phase I: a. Log into ‘000’ client with user sap* b. Go to STMS c. Popup will be prompted to configure domain d. Select icon ‘Include systems in domain’. e. Specify the host name, instance number and domain controller name. f. Save g. A request from the system is sent to domain controller to approve inclusion. Phase II: a. Log into the TDC- transport Domain Controller in ‘000’ client b. Go to Option  System c. Select ‘Approve’  select ‘Activate & Distribute’. d. Now domain controller contribution file is uploaded in /usr/sap/trans/bin. 12.5 Defining Landscape: In order to define landscape a. Go to STMS b. Go to Transport Routes (Shift + F7) c. Select thee system landscape d. Specify name of system e. Specify name if the landscape f. Save g. Activate and distribute the configuration across the system in the landscape. SAP BASIS 77
  • Parameters 13. Support Packages Also called as support patches Support packages are used to enhance the functionality or used to bug fixes in the programs. Support packages are applied through SPAM 13.1 Types of Support packages: 1. BASIS Support Packages(SAP_BASIS) It is in the form of: SAP<kernel version><patch number> SAPKB62001 2. ABAP Support Packages(SAP_ABAP) SAPKA62001 3. Application Support Packages(SAP_APPL) SAPKH47001 4. H.R. Support Packages(SAP_HR) SAPKE47001 5. Finally Plug-in patches ( also called Add-ons) Note: BASIS & ABAP support packages follows the WebAS Version, where as APPL & HR follow the R/3 version. SAP BASIS 78
  • Parameters 13.2 Applying Support Patches: 1. Go to www.service.sap.com/patches a. Select support packages and patches b. Search support packages and patches c. Entry by application component d. My application component. 2. Copy the support packages into /usr/sap/trans/sapmnt/trans 3. Uncar the files using the command # sapcar –xvf KB62001.car That is applied if the file is greater than 10 MB If less than 10MB apply through front-end. 4. Define the sequence of support packages/ 5. Apply the support packages through application servers. 6. Define the Queue. 7. Import the Queue. 8. SPDD phase occurs if the data dictionary objects are changed by applying NOTES. Example: Changing EMPID. 9. SPAU phase occurs if the repository objects are referred in customer programs. 10. Finally prompts to confirm the queue. 11. Confirm the Queue. SAP BASIS 79
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 80
  • Parameters NOTE: i. If a note is already applied to fix the bug or enhance the program thought ‘snote’, SPAU phase will trigger whole applying support patches. ii. If the notes are applied manually by data dictionary changes, SPDD will trigger for applying support patches. SAP BASIS 81
  • Parameters 13.3 Pre-requisites: 1. There should be valid backup 2. SPAM/SAINT should be in latest version. There should not be any aborted package which was applied earlier. 3. There should be at least two background work process available. 4. There should be enough space in EPS directory. /usr/sap/trans/EPS/IN 5. Always log into the client ‘000” with user Id: DDIC. 6. There should be enough table space below its threshold value 7. Ensure TP is connected to database R3trans -d 8. Apply support patches in sequence of numbers 9. Apply support patches in sequence of components. a. BASIS b. ABAP c. APPL d. HR 10. The sequence in applying support patches should be in Development, Quality and Production. 11. If the support packages is more than 10MB Uncar the file in the application server and apply through application server. Apply this file into ‘trans’ directory [copy it]. Uncar the file by using command # sapcar –xvf <kernelversion no.car> 12. .ATT, .PAT files are occurred into EPS/ IN directory. SAP BASIS 82
  • Parameters 13.4 Support Packages Errors: 1. TP could not get connected to database. Resolution: a. Execute ‘R3trans –d’ which generates Trans Log b. STMS configuration consistency c. Check tp profile is readable [ check permission] d. Check environmental variables e. tp and R3trans outdated or corrupted. f. Execute report RTPTEST which will give you the details. 2. Max Extents reached with error ora1631 / 1632 Resolution: Add extents using SAPDBA tool or SE14. 3. Table Space overflow: with error ora1653/1654. Resolution Add data file for the table space by using SAPDBA tool. 4. SPAM/SAINT is outdated Resolution Import latest SPAM 5. RDDI* jobs are not scheduled Resolution Log into ‘000’ client with user id: DDIC and schedule the report RDDNEWPP. 6. Background job is stagnated with memory issues: Resolution Configure the memory parameters 7. Patch sequence is not followed. SAP BASIS 83
  • Parameters Difference between support package and plug in: Support packages provide additional functionality for the existing components, these are applied through SPAM. Add-on Installation Tool (Plug-In): These are additional components which provide functionality like insurance, banking, etc. other than core objects. These are applied through SAINT. 13.5 Applying Add-ons: 1. Log into ‘000’ client with user id DDIC 2. Go to SAINT  Installation Packages  Load Packages  Front End It will be displayed on the screen. Select the package and continue to apply. 3. Plug in request a Password along with Note Number. 4. Go to Market Place and download the Note. www.service.sap.com.note 5. Read the note completely to understand the implication of plug-in as the system. 6. If there is a conflict problem with add-on and current support packages. CRT (Conflict resolution Transport) which needs to be applied 7. Key the password and continue. NOTE: We can’t work simultaneously on SPAM / SAINT. Only we have one support package / Add-on can be applied. 8. Confirm the queue There are standard core packages a. PI – Plug-in b. PI_BASIS plug-in c. SI_PI (solution Tool Plug In) d. BI_CONT ( BI_content) SAP BASIS 84
  • Parameters Note: For Support Packages the process takes around 30-45 minutes For Kernel Patches it takes 5-10 minutes. SAP BASIS 85
  • Parameters 13.6 Kernel Patches 1. Go to SAP market place, download the latest kernel executables 2. Kernel executables are OS and database independent 3. Stop application servers by command # stopsap r3 4. Uncar the downloaded files using # sapcar –xvf 5. The files evaluated are sapexe  OS sapexe_db<no>.car  database. 6. Create a folder ‘runold’ and copy the existing ‘run’ directory into this newly created folder. 7. Copy the downloaded files into existing run directory 8. # startsap r3 and check the kernel version. NOTE: i. Kernel executables are stored in ‘run’ directory ii. /usr/sap/sid/sys/exe/run iii. Kernel version can be checked by command # disp+work iv. If the system could not start with new kernel executables. Then, go back to with old kernel executables v. This process takes around 10 minutes. vi. Check the kernel version before the process and also after the process, where we can see the difference in the patch numbers. # sesu – # sesu – # sesu –sidadm # sesu –sidadm # disp+work # Retrans –d Patch number: 1985 (0000) (0012) SAP BASIS 86
  • Parameters 14. Update Mechanism Update Mechanism: When ever a user wants to update or create a transaction logs into the system using dialogue process. 1. User logs in to the database. 2. User request is received by the dispatcher and kept in the queue. 3. When ever a free Work Process is available, dispatcher assigned it to the queue. 4. Work Process rolls the user request and the user related information from user contest to task handler. 5. As the request is related to update, it communicates with Enque process to issue lock to update the records (Time= 1 ms). 6. If the request is from a dialogue instance, dialogue work process communicates with Message Server in the central instance. Message Server in turn communicates with Enque process to issue the lock. The entire process should be completed with in 100ms. 7. User updates the records in Temporary tables; the temporary tables are VBHDR (VB Header), VBMOD (VB Module), VBDATA, VBERR. 8. If the transaction is committed the update process will initiate to update the Database. If the transaction is rolled back nothing is updates in Database. 14.1 Advantages: 1. Database consistency 2. User is not waiting for the status of update in database. 3. User updates i.e.; dialogue updates temporary tables asynchronously. 4. Update process reads data from Temporary tables and updates the database synchronously. SAP BASIS 87
  • Parameters 14.2 Types of Update Process: There are two types of updates: V1 & V2. V1: Update is time critical update. Ex: Order Entry, Invoice. V1 has high priority than V2. V1 work process are defined by parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb V1 is also used to handle V2 updates if there is no V1 process defined. V2 Updates are non critical Ex: Updating the monitoring information, static information, etc. We need to define at least 25% of the dialogue work process as update process, as V2 updates are not critical, defining at least one V2 update per instance is enough. V2 update will be defined by the parameter rdisp/wp.no.vb2 14.3 Update Monitoring: Updates are monitored in transaction SM13. • Go to SM13 • Select Terminated Updates and execute. • The update will have following status o ‘init’ – Update is initialized and waiting for update process. o ‘auto’ – Updates which are running during a shutdown will have a status auto after restart. o ‘run’ - Update is running o ‘err’ – Update is thrown into error. o V1 & V2 – Waiting for V1 to update. SAP BASIS 88
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 89
  • Parameters SM14: It is used to identify whether the update is active or inactive. Update process will be deactivated when there is a problem with update mechanism. It is better to use this mechanism to avoid inconsistencies in the database. Set the parameter rdisp/vb_stop.active=1 And also set rdisp/vbmail So that email notification will be sent in case of deactivation. When it is deactivated, an error message is logged in SM21. Evaluate the log and resolve the error before activating the update. SAP BASIS 90
  • Parameters 14.4 Update Problems: 1. Less number of Work processes is configured. 2. The update queue increases and more updates are in its state. Resolution: Try to find out the status of the other Background jobs, which are updating the database. The update is consuming more time to update the database, the update queue increases. If it is a generic problem try to resolve it. If it is a regular problem consider increasing update process based on the availability of resources. 3. Check if the update mechanism is deactivated (SM14). Go to SM14, check the status of the update mechanism, and if it is deactivated click the system log in SM21. NOTE: Update can be deactivated / activated manually in SM14. 4. Programmatic Errors 5. Table space overflow. SAP BASIS 91
  • Parameters 15. ENQUE Enque process is used to provide locks in SAP system to obtain the transaction consistency. Enque locks are related to only SAP application server. Enque process is configured by parameter rdisp/wpo.no.enque Enque process locks and unlocks SAP objects / SAP transactions. Enque table is stored in the main memory of the central instance. Enque locks are displayed in SM12. 15.1 Problems with Enque: 1. Transaction could not be updated due to Enque table overflow. If more number of locks are issued and not released then Enque overflow occurs. Try to consider increasing the size of Enque table 2. Enque time increases: if the work process from the dialogue instance requests a lock, Enque time should not be more than 200ms. If it is central instance it should not be more than 1 ms. 3. Deleting the Locks: user could not get the lock to update the transaction log in SU01, change user DDIC User raises a ticket then go to SM12. Identify the transaction which is Identify the user who has locked the transaction write a mail to him urgency of releasing the lock. It is better to advise the business superiors. Try to communicate with the user and get lock. Write a mail to IT manager and the User locked. explaining the users to write to their verbal approval to release the saying as per the verbal communication the lock is released. 4. Go to SM12. Select the Lock Argument and release the lock. SAP BASIS 92
  • Parameters 16. Data Transfer There are various technologies from SAP transferring data from the legacy system to R/3 system and SAP system to other system. 1. LSMW (Legacy system Migration Workbench) 2. DI (Direct Input Method) 3. Batch input method (SM35) – Recording will be done. The following are the technologies used to transfer data: 1. ALE (Application Link Enabling). 2. EDI ( Electronic Data Interchange) 3. BAPI (Business Application Programming Interface) 4. RFC (Remote Function Call) ALE: ALE is used when you want to transfer data between clients in R/3 system Ex: CUA (Central User Administration), data is transferred among clients. EDI: It is used to transfer from one R/3 system to other R/3 system or non R/3 system. Ex: CPIC – Common Programming Interface for Communication. It is a SAP defined program to transfer data between systems. BAPI: It is an API to communicate with the systems and to transfer the data. It can be programmed in VB or JAVA or any other Programming Language. SAP BASIS 93
  • Parameters 17. Archiving Archiving is a process of moving data from R/3 system to any other storage area. This storage area may be 1. Hard Disk 2. Tapes 3. Optical Drives In order to identify the objects needs to be moved can be found in DB15 based on the intensity of DB12. We need to monitor the movement of objects. If needed we may also need to retrieve the objects. The objects which are retrieved cannot be allowed for updating. These are third party tools available in market: 1. I-XOX 2. BIW 3. Data Work Bench 2000 In order to achieve an object 1. Go to SARA a. Select the object to be archived b. Define the time period. c. Schedule to WRITE, DELETE, SAVE 2. Go to FILE a. Define logical path b. Assign physical path to logical path SAP BASIS 94
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 95
  • Parameters 17.1 Reason for Archiving: 1. Database size is growing 2. Database _______________ 3. During reorganization the data. 4. Inventories are growing up 17.2 Advantages: 1. Database Response Time will be moderated 2. Tape size will be normal as earlier. NOTE: ADK – Archive Development Kit, It is used for transferring data to an archive during data archiving Archiving: It is a process refers to saving offline redo logs. The storage of incoming and outgoing documents. SAP BASIS 96
  • Parameters 18. System Monitoring: GUI Time Dispatcher Wait Time Rollout Time Rollin Time Processing Time Load Time Database Time Enque Time RFC Time CPU Time GUI & CPU are not part of response time because GUI is not part of application server. GUI time is expensive if it goes beyond 200ms Steps to be taken: 1. Check networking connectivity 2. Check for user desktop resources. 3. The amount of time taken by Work Process to get data from database is called Database Time. 4. The amount of the time spent to load the program is called Load Time. 5. The amount of time spent by Work Process in CPU is called CPU time. 6. The amount of time requires to get the lock is called Enque Time. 7. The amount of time the user request is spent in queue is called wait time 8. The amount of time taken for rolling to work process is called Roll-on process time. 9. Time taken to user request to roll out of the work process is called roll out time. SAP BASIS 97
  • Parameters 10. The time taken by the work process to communicate with external device is called RFC Time. 11. The time taken from application server to database server is called Network Time. 12. Time taken by single dialogue step is called response time; it is usually in between 600 ms – 1800 ms (800/900 ms) 13. Roll in and Roll out time is expensive if it goes beyond 50 ms. It is expensive due to a. Excessive Authorization b. User is fetching large amounts of data Solution: try to look into authorization of user SU56 and try to take out redundant/repeated authorization. 14. CPU time should not be greater then 40% of (RT-DWT) RT – Response Time DWT - Dispatcher wait time Solution: In this case we need to identify ABAP programs, we need to inform the programmer to tune the program 15. If dispatcher wait time goes beyond 50ms or at a max of 10% of response time 16. Processing time should not be more than twice of CPU time 17. RFC time is basically dependant upon the response from external systems, This is usually 100 ms. 18. DB Hit Ratio = (ST04) DB Hit ratio = (reads-physical reads / total Reads) x 100 19. If database time goes beyond 40% of RT-DWT The reason for subtracting Dispatcher WT is actually the process starts only when the user requests assign the work process. a. Check Update statistics b. Run optimizer, best execution system c. Missing indexes[DB02] d. Identify expensive SQL Statements in user, customer programs. SAP BASIS 98
  • Parameters 20. Load time: it should be 100ms buffers are not effectively maintained, we may need to change buffer parameters. 21. Enque time is said to be expensive when it consumes greater than 1ms through central instance or greater than 100 ms through application server. If Enque time increases we need to consider the increasing Enque table or we need to increase the ENQUE Work Process. SAP BASIS 99
  • Parameters Memory Physical Memory: It is a memory which is installed on the system RAM Virtual Memory Sum of physical memory and OS SWAP space  3 x Physical Memory + 500 MB Shared Memory Memory which is used by all the Work Processes Extended Memory A part of shared memory which is used by all the work processes Local Memory Memory used by a single work process, it is locally available BUFFERS: Buffers are temporary storage areas in the memory of application servers. It is refreshed when the servers is restarted. R/3 buffers will reside in physical / Virtual memory. The data will be stored as Bits / Bytes. Types of Buffering Full Buffering: The table which is small frequently accessed is rarely changed Ex: Currency table, measurement table timing Single Record Buffering Primary key information is buffered Ex: EmpNo, CustNo General Record Buffering SAP BASIS 100
  • Parameters A group of one or more keys bunched together for buffering. Ex: Primary and Foreign Key No Buffering: Table is not qualified for buffering. Ex: Transactional Tables. SWAPS: These are important entity which needs to be monitored daily. Swapping i.e.; Object swapping occurs when there are not enough space or directories in the buffer element. Based on the company usages we can define swappable limit up to 5,000-10,000 per day. NOTE: 1. In order to evaluate all the times go to ST03 in Export Mode. 2. ST03 is used to generate management reports, to measure the system response in terms of Dialogue, User, Transaction and reports. ROLL AREA: The user context is stored in roll area. ROLL MEMORY: It is a common area where roll area is referenced. User Logs into the R/3 System a. Request is received by the dispatcher and kept in dispatcher queue. b. When ever a free Work Process is available dispatcher assigns the work process to the User Request. c. User Work Process copies the user related information(User Context) from the shared roll file into the work process local memory(roll Memory) d. Before the transaction ends Work Process copies the user related information into shared roll memory. This process is called roll out. e. While copying the information it only points to R/3 buffers. While the information is copied into the Roll FILE(DISK) or in Roll Buffer(Physical Memory) ZHA/roll_first SAP BASIS 101
  • Parameters This parameter is used to set the initial memory which will be used by work process to roll in. it is part of roll area. ZHA/roll_area The amount of memory specified to roll the user context into local memory of the work process ZHA/roll_extension The amount of extended memory allocated for the work process to roll the user context information into the local memory of the work process. Heap Memory: If ZHA/roll_area is not specified to roll in, work process uses heap memory. Which is specified by parameter: ABAP/heap_limit ABAP/heap_area_dia Memory Allocation of dialogue Process: * * * * * 1. Part of roll area defined by ZHA/roll_first 2. Extended memory defined by parameters ZHM/roll_extension 3. Remaining part of roll area 4. Heap Memory: Non dialogue process like BTC straight away goes fro heap memory. If the work process uses heap memory it goes into private mode and the parameter rdisp/max_wprun_time will not be effective to the dialogue process. If too many Work Processes goes into heap mode. Private mode work process conjunction occurs. NOTE: 1. Extended memory is defined by parameter em/initial size_mb 2. If too many work processes goes into private mode work process conjunction occurs. The only possible way to resolve this is to kill the work process by using ‘dpmon’ or restarts the instance. Preventively we can configure enough extended SAP BASIS 102
  • Parameters memory or we can restrict the number of work process that goes into private mode. SAP BASIS 103
  • Parameters 19. Health Checks For Performing Health Checks: We need to perform following T-Codes: SM51 / RZ03 SM50 ST02 ST06 ST03 SM12 SP12 ST22 SMLG SM37 ST04 ST01 ST05 DB02 DB13 DB12 DB01 SM21 Figure 4: Health Checks SM51: Here we need to check how many application servers are present and we can also know server names and host names. We can also check the status of the application server in SM51 and also in RZ03. We can identify the database server which is having Enque Work Process. Note: if there are Six Application servers there will be Six SM50s. If you want to open fourth application server we need to double check on fourth application server. SAP BASIS 104
  • Parameters SM50: Here we check the type of work process and status. The status will be shown either in running / waiting /stopped state. If the time of particular Work Process is more than 10,000 seconds we then report it as an Error. SAP BASIS 105
  • Parameters ST02: Here we check the ‘Max in Use’ and ‘In Memory’ of the ROLL AREA PAGE AREA EXTENDED MEMORY At any point Max Usage and In Memory should not be the same. If it is same it will be shown in RED color and we report it as an error. Also here we observe SWAPS; if it is an error the swaps will be shown in RED color. SAP BASIS 106
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 107
  • Parameters ST06: OS Monitor Here we check the CPU Utilization user % System % Idle % I/O Wait % NOTE: CPU idle % should never be zero and it should be always above 30% Here we can also find out Page In/ Page Out and load on the Hard Disk & Physical memory / SWAP memory and amount of memory used. ST06: Detail Analysis Menu.  Compare all servers. Here we observer idle average Percentage of each application server. SAP BASIS 108
  • Parameters ST03: Go to Export mode, click on yesterday and check time for DB Request. Also each process / transaction, total number of dialogue steps, total response time, post analysis up to one month. SAP BASIS 109
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 110
  • Parameters SMLG: Log on Load Balancing Click on Menu Select Load Distribution / Select F5 Directly. Here we observe response time and number of users for each application server. SAP BASIS 111
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 112
  • Parameters SP12: TemSe management In Menu Temse Data storage Click on Consistency check Click on Delete all. ST22: Dump Analysis / ABAP Dumps Here we check the total number of dumps of yesterday. Here we check if dump is more than 100, then we report it as an error. We also check the files which have failed more than 25 times. If the file is failed more than 25 times we report it as an error. SAP BASIS 113
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 114
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 115
  • Parameters SM37 Run the House keeping jobs of SAP* and ARV Jobs SAP BASIS 116
  • Parameters SM12 Click on List Table Name : ____________ Lock Argument : ____________ Client : ____________ (Business Client -800) User Name : ____________ (*) Here we need to observe the readings of client, user, time, mode, table of lock argument, If the column under time is showing date instead of time then we report it as an error. SAP BASIS 117
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 118
  • Parameters DB02: Database Performance Here we can find out the table space name, total size of the table space, free space of the table space, used percentage. Default Tables : PSAPTEMP, SYSTEM, PSAPROLE Business Tables : PSAPUNDO, PSAP<SID> (PSAPDEV), etc SAP BASIS 119
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 120
  • Parameters DB12: Back up Locks Here we check last successful backup and then overview of database backups. SAP BASIS 121
  • Parameters ST01 / ST05: System trace / Performance Analysis ST01 Automation Trace SQL Trace RFC Trace Buffer Trace Enque Trace ST05 X SQL Trace RFC Trace Buffer Trace Enque Trace This is used to trace the run time problems. These traces need to be handled with outmost care because, if we leave the system ‘TRACE ON’ trace grows up abnormally and there are chances for this system crash. When ever we have problem we will switch on the TRACE ON a particular problem for a specified period of time; after that period SWITCH OFF the trace. SQL Trace: This is used to find the expensive SQL statements for a particular program. RFC & ENQUE Trace: When ever RFC time & Enque time increased beyond threshold values, then we need to use these traces. SAP BASIS 122
  • Parameters Buffer Trace: When ever the user is having problem with buffers, programs and Swaps identify the time and switch ON buffer trace; execute the programs SWITCH OFF buffer and identify the problem. The Problem may be Ex: Need to identify the parameters which needs to be tunes. Each Work Process will have one trace file. ST04: This is used to monitor the performance of the database. 1. Database HIT Ratio 2. Logical reads 3. Physical reads 4. DBA writes 5. Log Buffer 6. SQL Ping Ratio 7. User Calls/ received Calls SAP BASIS 123
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 124
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 125
  • Parameters ST07: Application Monitor It is used to find the number of users created in the system, number of instances (R/3). It gives the details about modules used and number of users using these modules. It is used to calculate load on the module there by help us to configure log on load balancing. SAP BASIS 126
  • Parameters DB13: DBA Planning Calendar It is used to schedule backups of database and log files, adapt next extents, check optimized statistics; update statistics; clean up log files and perform a check on the database. It is used to run the above jobs or schedule periodically. SAP BASIS 127
  • Parameters SM21: System Logs Here all the system messages are recorded. TIME, TYPE OF MSG, CLIENT, USER and all information will be available here. Here we can see local and remote system logs also. Detail list is obtained by double clicking on the Message. OR SM21 is populated when ever there is an event triggered which affects the runtime of the system. Example: Work Process Termination; Update Deactivation; Operation Mode Switch; Memory; Buffer; Program related errors. Most of the logs will provide the information about the event we need to concentrate on the events which are marked in RED. Select the record which is in red double click on the record to display the detailed log. All the dumps are also logged in system log. SAP BASIS 128
  • Parameters NOTE: rdisp/trace=0/1/2 Is having the information about database, dispatcher and message server. SAP BASIS 129
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 130
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 131
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 132
  • Parameters Background Work Process SM36, SM37 The trace which consumes more time or long running reports or time consuming reports can be scheduled to run in the background mode without any user input. Background processes are used to run in the background jobs as per the schedule. Dialogue Work Process defines background process in SM36. These are stored in tables TBTCT TBTCS Background scheduler runs in the dialogue mode for every 60 seconds at a frequency defined by parameter. rdisp/btctime=60seconds Background work process are configured by parameter rdisp/wp.no.btc There should be at least two background work processes on a transport domain controller and on system, while applying support patches, client copies. NOTE: the reason for reserving two background work process is: 1. One for Background scheduling. 2. One for running the job. Defining Background Jobs: These jobs are defined in SM36 1. Go to SM36. 2. Specify the name of the job. 3. Define the priority. There are three types of priority: 1. CLASS A –High 2. CLASS B –Medium 3. CLASS C –Low SAP BASIS 133
  • Parameters CLASS –A Priority: 1. Priority is high 2. We require a dedicated background process of type A to execute these jobs. These can be defined by using operation modes. 3. Class –A can also be specified with target server or without target server. 4. Target servers groups are defined in RZ12, which will be used to distribute the background jobs based on the load. 5. If server is not specified the system chooses the least loaded server and runs the job. CLASS –B Priority 1. It has medium priority 2. It can be scheduled with or without target server. CLASS –C Priority 1. It has low priority. 2. It can be scheduled with or without Target server. Different Types of Program: Background job can be run in the background using ABAP program, external program and external commands. ABAP Program: ABAP program can be specified to run in the background mode. This could be SAP standard program or custom defined program. The run time inputs are stored in variant. VARIENT: It is a predefined value which will be populated during the execution of program. External Program: This is used to trigger the programs in target system. Ex: programs are triggered by using executables (SAPXPG), provided the user has necessary authorization. SAP BASIS 134
  • Parameters RFC connection, program name, target host are required to define Ex: Program. External Commands: The commands which are executed at OS level can be scheduled to run in the background mode. Ex: Brightstar, Tivoli, Veritas, Arc, SAPEVT: it is a SAP EVENT and executable which will be used to trigger ABAP programs based on the events. Background Job Monitoring: SM37 Background jobs can be monitored in SM37. These can be displayed based in user, time and status etc Various Statuses of Background Jobs: SCHEDULED: When job is defined its status is defined RELEASED: When time is defined for execution its status is released. READY: Reached for execution ACTIVE: It is in process and job is in execution. FNISHED: Sometimes we need to check because the finished job might not be complete. It depends upon the nature of the job. CANCELLED: Job is cancelled, could not be executed. NOTE: 1. The job remains longer time if it doesn’t have enough background process available to handle the job. 2. To resolve we have to kill the background job. But this is recurring problem considered in increase work process or configure operation modes @@@@@ 3. Active jobs cannot be killed. SAP BASIS 135
  • Parameters Reasons for Termination of Jobs: 1. Programmatical Errors: Programs changed manually or modified. Applying support patches or it is a new program. The Problem with these files is: a. File is not readable b. No permission for the file @@@@@@ c. File is corrupted. d. Data mismatch e. File not found 2. Database Error: a. Table space overflow b. Max Extents reached or any other Database related errors Ex: Ora-600: Hardware Error 3. RFC Destination: RFC destination is not properly defined or may be modified recently 4. Password in RFC is changed. 5. User ID is expired 6. Change in automation 7. Table space overflow 8. Max Extents reached 9. In sufficient memory 10. CPU utilization is high 11. PSAPROLL, PSAPTEMP, PSAPUNDO should have enough space for sorting and updating the table SAP BASIS 136
  • Parameters SAP Standard Jobs (House Keeping) These are used to delete log files, checking the consistency of system, etc. (Program Names –Housekeeping) 1. RSBTCDEL: Used to delete entries of the background job tables and log files 2. RSSNAPDLL: Used to delete the ABAP dumps. 3. RSPO0041, RSPO1041: used to reorganize spool tables. 4. RSPO0043: Consistency of spool. 5. RSREORG: Jobs are re organized 6. RSM13002: Update temporary tables. (VB*) House Keeping Jobs: 1. sap_reorg_jobs 2. sap_reorg_spool 3. sap_reorg_batchinput_clientno 4. sap_reorg_ABAPdumps 5. sap_reorg_jobstatistic 6. sap_collector_for_jobstatistic 7. sap_collector_for_permonitor In order to schedule SAP standard jobs go to SM37, schedule SAP standard jobs. Pausing Background Jobs: While applying support patches, performing upgrades, we need to stop the background execution. Run report BTCTRNS1 which will change the status of the jobs so that the schedule will not recognize for execution. Run report BTCTRNS2 to get the old status of the jobs. Defining the Variant: (SA38, SE38) Go to SA38  Enter Program Name.  F8, Enter, Specify the Entries SAP BASIS 137
  • Parameters  Go to Menu  Go to SAVE AS Variant Popup screen appears  Specify variant details  SAVE. Variants are stored in Table TVAR SAP BASIS 138
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 139
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 140
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 141
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 142
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 143
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 144
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 145
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 146
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 147
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 148
  • Parameters Solving Max-Extents issues sesu - ora<sid> sapdba -u / 1. d - Reorganization 2. b - Alter/show table or index storage parameters 3. b - Table or index: 4. enter <tablename> 5. s - Alter/show parameters 6. d - MAXEXTENTS: enter a larger number (usually 505) 7. s - commit SAP BASIS 149
  • Parameters Working ... (altering table) Table 'SAPR3.T425' altered. Press <return> to continue... to confirm: bs Note: If you have a hard time looking at the screenshots, just adjust your zoom for this document (menu ViewZoom). Ste Description p 010 Run BRTOOLS as <sid>adm user. Note: BRTOOLS needs to be run as <sid>adm user. Execute <sid>brtools command to launch BRTOOLS as <sid>adm. If it does not work, check whether there is an alias defined in file /home/<sid>adm/.dbenv_<server_name>.csh (if it does not exist, edit the file, insert row with ali definition, save the change, log off and log on and try to run it again): alias <sid>brtools ’/usr/seos/bin/sesudo <sid>brtools’ In case <sid>brtools does not work as <sid>adm user, sesu to ora<sid> user, call brtools and send follow up message to system owner. # sesu – <sid>adm # <sid>brtools SAP BASIS 150
  • Parameters 020 Check the value of MAXEXTENTS Choose either of the methods below depending on whether you are checking a table or an index. For tables: Go back to the main menu of BRTOOLS by “b”. Choose “3 - Segment management”, then “5 - Alt tables” by typing 3 and 5 respectively. Choose “6 ~ Table names (table)” to specify the table, then type the table name. SAP BASIS 151
  • Parameters Type “c” to continue to reach the “Alter tables” main menu. In this menu, choose “4 - Show tables”. This will show all parameters that the selected table has Take note of the “15 - Maximum number of extents (maxexts)”. e.g. in the screenshot below, USR02 table now has the value of 300 for MAXEXTENTS parameter SAP BASIS 152
  • Parameters For indexes: Go back to the main menu of BRTOOLS by “b”. Choose “3 - Segment management”, then “6 + Al indexes” by typing 3 and 6 respectively. Choose “6 ~ Table names (table)” to specify the table name. e.g. the screenshot below shows the table to be USR02 SAP BASIS 153
  • Parameters Choose “7 ~ Index names (index)” to specify the index name. e.g. the screenshot below shows the index to be USR02_____0 Type “c” to continue to the “Alter index” main menu. In this menu, choose “3 - Show indexes”. Th will show the list of indexes that the table has. e.g. the screenshot below shows USR02 table to have 3 indexes - USR02_____0, USR02_____001, a USR02_____002 SAP BASIS 154
  • Parameters Choose the correct index. E.g. in the example above, type “1” to choose the USR02_____0 index. This will show the parameters that the index has. Take note of the “15 - Maximum number of extents (maxexts)” e.g. the screenshot below shows index USR02_____0 to have 250 as the MAXEXTENTS value 030 Navigate to “Adapt NEXT extents” In the BRTOOLS menu, choose “8 - Additional functions”, then “3 - Adapt NEXT extents” by typing and 5 respectively. SAP BASIS 155
  • Parameters 040 Specify parameters to BRCONNECT In the “BRCONNECT main options for adaption of NEXT extents” menu, just type “c” to continue t the next screen. Choose “6 - BRCONNECT command line (command)” to modify the BRCONNECT parameters. Thi will prompt you for the value of “command”. Type according to the following syntax: -f next –l <MAXEXTENTS> –t <table / index> (option after next is “dash el”) Where: <MAXEXTENTS>  the new MAXEXTENTS value for the table / index. Set this parameter 20% mo than the current value. e.g. if the current MAXEXTENTS size is 250, set the new value to 1.2 X 250 = 300 <table / index>  the table or index that you need to change the MAXEXTENTS parameter e.g. screenshot below sets MAXEXTENTS to 300 on USR02 table SAP BASIS 156
  • Parameters 050 Commit the changes Type “c” to continue to run BRCONNECT. If you have specified a table, the tool will find the object fast while if you have specified an index, the tool will scan through all tables and indexes to find that particular index, so you have to be patient. Once it finds the correct object, type “c” to comm the change. e.g. in the following screenshot, the MAXEXTENT value of 300 has been applied to table USR02, indexes USR02____0, USR02____001, and USR02____002 SAP BASIS 157
  • Parameters 060 Verify new MAXEXTENTS value Verify if the new MAXEXTENTS value has taken effect to the table/index(es) by following step# 02 SAP BASIS 158
  • Parameters SAPDBA SAPDBA is used for 1. Startup and shutdown of a system 2. Table space administration 3. Reorganization And other options like ARCHIVE MODE Backup Database Show / Clean Up User Security Restore / Recovery Table Space Administration: Here we can know table spaces available for the system and their total size, used space, free space. If the table space reaches the threshold value then we need to add datafile for that particular table space. The table space name and their fill levels can be checked in R/3 by using transaction DB02. We need to go to # sesu – # sesu – sidadm # siddba –u / Here we select the option ‘c’  Table Space Administration Note: 1. Never add datafile while backup is in progress 2. There should be enough SAPDATA available SAP BASIS 159
  • Parameters 3. Max extents can be added even when backup is in progress. SAP BASIS 160
  • Parameters Client Transport When there is no connectivity between two systems, client transport is the best method to perform copy. It is performed in three steps: 1. Client Exports – SCC8 2. Client Imports – SCC7 3. Post Client Activities Client Export 1. During client export datafiles (RX, RO, RT) and cofiles (KO,KX,KT) are generated. 2. These will reside at /usr/sap/trans/data /usr/sap/trans/cofiles Client Import 1. Copy the RO, RX, RT and KO, KX, KT into the ‘trans’ dir of the target system. 2. Add the transports to the buffer of the target system. 3. Import the transport request into the target system Perform Post Client activities in SCC7 Note: The difference between remote client copy and client transport is: SAP BASIS 161
  • Parameters - IN Remote client Copy we cannot have the Hard Copy - Where as in client transport it is possible - Mainly every one use Remote Client Copy to client transport because Remote client is done fastly. SAP BASIS 162
  • Parameters Operation Modes RZ04 Operation modes allow the R/3 system to be adapted to different requirements. The configuration is the mix of number of the dialogue and batch process at different time if the day. Mode Day Night Dialogue WP 5 2 Batch WP 2 5 Note: There should be at least two dialogue and batch work process at all times. There are four steps to setup operation modes: 1. Define the operation mode 2. Assign the instance definition to the operation mode 3. Define the distribution of work process to the operation mode. 4. assign the operation mode (SM63) SAP BASIS 163
  • Parameters Database DBA ARCHTECTURE SQL Cache DB Cache DB Writer Log Writer SAP DATA1 SAP DATA2 !!!!!!! SAP DATA n ARCH Orilog A Mirrorlog B SGA DB Buffer Log Buffer Process Monitor System Monitor Orilog B Mirrorlog A SAPTRACE SAPARCH SAPBACKUP SAPCHECK SAPREORG ORAARCH Virtual Memory Check Point DISK Figure 5: SAP Database Architecture Oracle Server: It is process where oracle software is installed. Only executables are installed on oracle server without any database. It is referred as oracle home and represented as ‘oracle_HOME’. Oracle Database: This is the location where data is stored and is represented by db<SID>. Multiple databases can be installed in single provided that they are deferred by DB schema owners. Schema: For each database there will be owner who owns all the tables and indexes. Tables are accessed by prefixing schema owners. Example: select * from sap<SID> usr02; Sap<SID> is a schema owner of db<SID> SAP BASIS 164
  • Parameters Oracle Client: It is installed on all the dialogue instances to connect to a server. Oracle_HOME variable needs to be set in user environment. MCOD [Multiple components on one Database]: From oracle 9.2 MCOD is supported. It provides mechanism where only one oracle server is installed and multiple components are hosted on it with different schema owners. Note: While installing MOCD components consider resources like CPU, MEMORY and Storage along with SYSTEM, PSAPUNDO AND PSAPTEMP. Shared SQL cache: The SQL statement is passed and execution plan is proposed, verifying table and table definitions is part of the area. The frequently accessed SQL statements are stored along with their execution plan in SSA [shared SQL area]. System Global Area (SGA): It is part of virtual memory which is allocated during DB start up and used by all the background process. It is defined by the parameter ‘sys_global_area’. It consists of 2 buffer areas one is DB buffer area and the other is log buffer area. Database Buffer: It is used to store the frequently accessed content. It should be large enough so that the performance of the system is optimized. When an SQL statement is processed it will look into DB buffer for the previously accesses content. If the content is not available it will fetch from the database into DB buffer. SAP BASIS 165
  • Parameters LRU [Least recently used]: The content in the DB buffer will be swapped out based on LRU. DB buffer are defined with parameters db_block_buffer. It is also used to store the modified content and face out existing content. This content is referred as dirty buffer. Log buffer: It is a work area to modify the content. It documents the location of the data block which is modified along with time shared. Log buffer is a cyclic buffer which is measured in kilo bytes. As soon as it fills it will write into “online redo log files” (ORIGLOG LOGA). After writing into online redo log files log buffer will be recycled. Note: ****what ever the reason if log buffer is filled and could not write to online redo log files system conjunction occurs. [No updates are possible]. Reasons: 1) ORA ARCH is full 2) Problem with execution of log writer. SCN [System Change Numbers]: When ever a transaction commits a unique number is generated to identify the transaction. Note: If the content is returned into online redo log files the data is saved and secured. i.e transaction can be recovered in case of an instant failure. Log Writer: It is initiated to write the content from log buffer to online redo log files to the following circumstances: Before the database writer writes the contents from log buffer to database. When a transaction is committed One third size of log buffer is full For every 50 seconds. SAP BASIS 166
  • Parameters DB Writer: When a check point Occurs database writer trigger and writes it to dirty buffer into database. It is also triggered when it could not find the space to accommodate the new content. Check point: Check point is triggered based on the intervals specifies in its <SID>.ora. When a check point occurs it checks the following: Consistency of transaction Trigger the database writer. The transaction can be secured and consistent of a check point because the contents are returned to the database and no roll forward or backward is required. System Monitor [SMON]: It is used to perform forward mechanism that is the committed data will be required from the redo logs and update the data base before opening the database. Process Monitor [PMON]: It is used to monitor the process It releases the locks held by the user It also releases the resources. ARCH: The process of copying online redo log files into a ORA ARCH DIR is performed by the arch process. It is triggered during log switch. Log Switch: One of the online redo logfiles is full it is closed for writing and other online redo logfiles is opened for writing. The process of switching is called Log switch. During the Log Switch archive process is triggered and copies the contents in to ora archive. When log switch occurs LSN [Log Sequence Number] is generated for the new log file. SAP BASIS 167
  • Parameters Note: 1) Log sequence numbers are time stamped of the log and is used to restore the database to a point of consistency. 2) The database always should run in the archive mode to restore or to recover the database to point in time. Rollback Segments or Undo Segments: These segments resides as usually along with tables, indexes etc. These are used to store the pre image of the data which is to be modified. It provides transaction consistency to read the data while being updated. SMON reads from the undo segments to roll back the un committed transaction. UNDO segments should be large enough to hold the batch to be modified. PSAPROLL is currently PSAPUNDO. Data file: This is the physical location where data is stored. Based on the version of archive, SAPDATA1 (sap data files)……..SAPDATAn are created during installation. Online redo log files (oralog A): It is used to hold the modified content, location and lock. This is applied by lock writer from lock buffer. Mirror log files: [copy of online redo log files] Note: alternative log files that is oralog A mirrorlog B Mirrorlog A origlog B should be located in two different physical hard discs due to the following reasons: To store the log files during dispatch, To reduce input/output contention of the disc. SAP BASIS 168
  • Parameters Directories SAP ARCH: This is used to store the log files generated during BR ARCHIVE process. ORA ARCH: Archive process copies online redo log files in to ora arch during log switch. Ora Arch dir should have enough space to hold the online redo log files. Br archive should be scheduled periodically to move the offline redo log files, so that archive stuck should not occurs. SAP Trace: It is used to write the logs and traces generated by the user and server process. Alert_<SID>.log in the background directory is used to write all the events of the database like startup, shutdown, log sequence number, log switch and oracle errors. SAP Backup: It is used to store the log files generated during the database backup using BR backup process. If the backup is scheduled to disc SAP Backup directory is used. SAP REORG: It is used to be a work area for SAP DBA and BR* utilities. Example: During reorganization of the table spaces the TS exported during reorganization directories and imported back. SAP Check: It is populated when ever following commands are issued: BR Connect  check SAP DBA  check Check database option in DB13 SAP BASIS 169
  • Parameters Listner.Ora [lsnr.ora]: It is used to listen the configure system based on host name, protocol and port number. This is the service lsnrctl which is started on the database server. The service starteds with name oracle oraHome [release] TNSlistner. Lsnrcltl: lsnrctl reads lsnr.ora Lsnrctl>help Start Stop service status (up/down) version realod Database Startup Database startup is performed in 3 modes No mount Mount Database mounted No mount: Instance is started reading initialization file. No files are opened. It is used to create the database and lost control files. Mount: Memory parameters are buildup, check for consistence of the database and the database is opened in the Mount mode. If necessary instant recovery is performed by SMON. It is used rename by the database files, move the data files and change the archive log mode. No data files and log files are opened. DB Open: Database is open and ready for operational use. Data files and log files are opened. SAP BASIS 170
  • Parameters Database Shutdown Database shutdown in different modes Abort  shutdown abort Immediate  shut down immediate Transactional Normal Abort: When DB is shut down abort mode shut down is required. The system shut down abnormally without ant notification to the user and all the open transactions are terminated, system is inconsistent and SMON process perform instance recovery. Immediate: The system rollbacks all the open transaction to bring the system to the consistent state before the shutdown. No new users are allowed to connect, no new transactions are allowed by the existing users. The system is consistent and no instance recovery is required. Transactional: No new connections are allowed, and no new transactions are allowed but the opened transactions are allowed to continue till the user commits and rolled back. [save and exit]. Normal: No new users are allowed but the existing users are allowed to continue their work. It will be consistent. SAP BASIS 171
  • Parameters Storage Management The data is stored in terms of data blocks in the data base. Each block is measured by its size. bock_size. db_ Before the value of the parameter is 8192 bytes or 8kb, 4k 16k blocks are also available. db_size, db_block parameter should never be modified once the database is configured. The table categories are defined in the table TGORA and IGORA. Segment: Segment may refer to a table, index or a group of tables. Table space: it is a logical area where tables and indexes are defined. Each table space has its own data file has only one table space. But each table space may have more than one data file. The size of the data file depends upon the size of the database. Here we can configure 2 GB, 4 GB and 8GB. Creation of Table Space SAP DBA tool does not have the option to create a table space. But in the current version there was a need to create table space during upgrade or during reorganization. In 4.6c version there are 27 table spaces from 4.7 onwards there are only 6 table spaces System PSAPTEMP PSAPROLL/PSAPUNDO PSAP<SID> PSAP <SID> rel PSAP <SID> usr SYSTEM: Table Space stores the system information. PSAPROLL/PSAPUNDO: It stores the information for roll back the incomplete transaction. SAP BASIS 172
  • Parameters PSAP<SID>: It consists of R/3 database. PSAP<SID>rel: It stores release specific data. PSAP <SID>usr: user specific data. When the table space is full an error occurs with ora1653/ora1654 is recorded in the log. This is also referred as table space overflow. It occurs due to the data files assigned to the table space are full. Go to SAPDBA tool and find the critical table spaces or use DB02 to identify the space critical objects. SAP DBA alerts you for the tables which are gone more than 90%. Extending the table space is possible by using the following: 1. Add the data file 2. Recycle the data file 3. Set to auto extendable. Reorganization It is performed due to following reasons. Converting from DMTS to LMTS. [Dictionary management table space and locally management table space]. Moving larger tables to different table spaces Defrag the fragmented space to resize the unused space. The process of reorganization: Perform the database backup Ensure SAPREORG DIR has enough spaces to hold the size of the database and table space. Use SAPDBA option export and import in SAPDBA BR Tools. Export the database, delete the database and import the database. SAP BASIS 173
  • Parameters Reorganization is performed as a final measure of tuning. Tuning buffers Tuning SQL statements Check for missing indexes If needed drop and recreate the indexes Create secondary indexes Memory [SGA] DB statistics. Process of reorganization: Go to SAPDBA as BR tools Select the option SAP reorganization Select option export table, table space and database. Import the table Alternatively BR option, segment Management, where we can reorganize tables, rebuild indexes, export and import tables. Backup restore and recovery: The following are the requirements to backup Data File Online redo logs Control file Offline redo logs SAP BASIS 174
  • Parameters Types of backups: Online backup Offline backup Full backup Whole backup Incremental backup Partial backup Online Backup: This is used to perform backup when the system is online. The database should be in archive mode. Users continue to work during backup but may experience slower response times. It may also refer as hot pack. It is recommended for larger databases. Online database is valid with redo logs only. Consistent online backup means the backup of data files, control files and online redo log files generated during backup. Offline Backups: This is referred as cold backup. It is not used 24*7 operations. The system is not accessible during the backup. If the system shut downs and the database is backed up ensuring hat backup is consistent. It is recommended for smaller organizations for periodic backup. In case of larger organizations it is recommended to perform the offline backups at least once in a backup life cycle. Disadvantages: • User cannot work on the system • Buffers are lost Full buffer: It is complete backup with online redo log files. It can be only offline. SAP BASIS 175
  • Parameters Whole Backup: It is also a full backup but marked as zero level backup to allow the subsequent incremental backup. Incremental Backup: It is always a zero level backup if any of he levels are missing and complete database backup is failed. Partial Backup: It is used to take the backup of a table and table space. How to perform backup? SAPDBA BR TOOLS DB13 Native Backup of Data Base Third Party Tools [ARC SERVE, BRIGHT STAR, TIVOLI]. Who controls the backup? Sol: init<SID>sap controls backups and all other BR and SAP DBA activities. Define the backup: Go to init<SID>sap and define the following parameters backup_mode=all, all_data, full, incr (increment). Restore_mode=all, all_data, ful, incr. Backup type=offline, online, offline_mirror, offline_split, offline_standby Backup device type= tape, disc. Compress=no, hardware. Compress_dir=reorg SAP BASIS 176
  • Parameters Archive Backup: When the database is updated it is written in to online redo log files from log buffer to log writer. Online redo log files are moved to ora arch dir from time to time by archive process during log switch. As the ora arch dir is also reside on the same system it is mandatory to move in to another hard disc/tape or any other alternative safe location. Archive process is used to write in to ora arch dir only[when the system is set to archive mode = yes]. We need a process to write from ora arch to another alternative location so that archive dir is not full. Here archive is the process which writes from ora arch to tape, disc or any other alternative location. Mechanism: It is recommended by SAP to use CDS[copy delete and save]. Archive backup is performed using the following DB13, SAPDBA, BRTOOLS, Third party tools. archive_function=save, copy_delete_save. Archive_copy_dir=sapbackup Tape_copy_command=cpio, cpio_gav Tape_size=1200m Expir_period=300 Util_par_file=init ecs.utl go to db13 specify the action and schedule go to br tools --select option 4-- select option 1--2—(disc)5----6. Backup life cycle: Backup life cycle is 7*4= 28 days. There shd be at least one offline backup in the backup life cycle. The tape should be verified and restore to alternative location at least once on the backup life cycle. There should be at least 30% of the tape in reserve and tape should fill only 90% of the size of the table. SAP BASIS 177
  • Parameters Plan for daily backup (online and offline) Tape naming convention should be defined to identify tapes. Tape should be labeled with stickers or permanent marker pens. <SID>bo1--- backup <SID>ao1--- archive. The backup strategy should be weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly. The tape should be stored in a backup box and away from the data box and away from the data center. The size of the database has impact on the database backup. DB Verify: use this command to verify the database. Use the verify command along with the backup to check the consistency of the data. Restore and recovery of the database Database can be restored by using tapes as pointing towards the disc. In order to restore the database the following are required control file data file one set of redo log files. Restore mechanism: Use SAPDBA, BRTOOLS and third party tools. Various types of restore: complete restore point in time recovery SAP BASIS 178
  • Parameters Complete restore: In order to recover the database all the sequential log files are required. If any of the log files are missing point in time recovery is not performed. Point in time recovery: This is the recommended method by SAP to restore the database and recover the database. Go to BRTools specify the option ‘s’[restore and recovery] Select option 1) complete DB recovery 2) DB point in time recovery. While restarting ensure hat valid backup lock files are available. SAP BASIS 179
  • Parameters House Keeping Jobs BRCONNECT –f next When we use dictionary manage table spaces in order to adapt next extents use the command: sapdba –next brconnect –f next it will adapt the next extent based on the table category, this job has to schedule on daily basis. Go to DB13  check ‘Adapt next extent’ Note: LMTS table spaces does not require this option or of adapting next extents, because it reorganizes from time to time. #sapdba –check #brocnnect –f check DB13 Click ‘Check Database’ Checks the database and writes the log file from SAPCHECK directory. The log specifies the following: 1. Complete pathnames of datafile 2. Space critical objects 3. Table spaces and their fill level. Clean-up Logs: Use #brconnect –clean to clean up the logs. #check –update optimize the statistics. SAP BASIS 180
  • Parameters #brconnect –f status #sapdba –p sapanalyze #sapdba –dbstat or Go to DB13 check the option ‘Check & Update Analyze Statistics’. Go to SAPDBA tools for option ‘ Update Statistics’ In BRTOOLS option ‘7’ (9DB Stats) Monitoring Database Go to DB02 to check the following 1. critical table space 2. Fill level of the table spaces 3. Missing Indexes 4. Used to define the growth Table space, tables etc DB01: Exclusion lock waits in Database. It is used to identify the locks at database level. ST04: It is used to identify the buffer hit ratio of database. The buffer quality should be always above 94%. If the buffer ration reduves it ould be the following: 1. Buffer size is small 2. treatment modification in database. 3. Buffer Hit Ratio is calculated by formula ((Reads – Physical Reads)/Total reads) x 100. Go to Detailed Analysis Menu: SAP BASIS 181
  • Parameters Click on Oracle Session to find the mapping between the shadow process and R/3 work process. Oracle Errors: 1. Ora 1631 & ora 1632: Max Extents Reached. When this error occurs increase the extents in SAPDBA – Option ‘d’  reorganization. Extents can be increased on the table category. NOTE: for LMTS the problem @@@@ this not raised schedule ‘BRCONNECT –f next’ periodically to adapt the next extents. 2. Ora 1653 & ora 1654: Table Space Overflow or Extents could not be allocated for table. Add a datafile or resize the datafile, while adding the datafile follow the guidelines set by DBA. Do not mix the datafile or indexes and table together. Go to SAPDBA select option ‘c’. 3. Ora -255 & ora -272  Archive Struck when ‘oraarch’ is full archive process could not write online redo log files to offline redo log files. In turn log write log buffer to online redo log files. Then the update mechanism completely halts and system hangs. Resolution: Schedule brarchive 4. Ora -1578  Data block corruption In oracle some of the datablocks may be corrupted and unnoticed, these will be notified – Only restore a. Use RMAN, the proprietary toll of oracle which will verify the database backup after performing backup. b. Use BRTOOLS option to verify the database backup c. Restore the system at least once in the backup life cycle. 5. Ora 1555  Internal Error An ora 600 follows the description of the error. This should be notified to SAP and Oracle immediately. It could be an Oracle error, internal hardware error. SAP BASIS 182
  • Parameters Users and Maintenance Authentication This is process of providing the user id and passwords for creation of users. User can only logon the system but not authorized to perform any activities. Authorization This is the process of assigning permissions to the authenticated users. SAP authorization concept is defined by the following mechanism 1. Principal of trip late control 2. Principal of dual control. 1. User Administration SU01, SU10 2. Authorization Administration SUGR, SUIM, SU01, SU10 3. Profile / Role Administration PFCG, SU20, SU21, SU22, SU24, SU25 Figure 6: SAP Authorizations SAP BASIS 183
  • Parameters In Triplet control 1, 2, 3 are done by different administrators In Dual control 1 & 2 will be done by one admin & 3 by other. Creation of Users Users can be created or defined in three ways. 1. Single user creation (SU01) 2. Mass user creation with same authorizations (SU10) 3. Mass with different authorizations (SEAT) Creating User 1. Go to SU01 2. Specify user name and click create. The menu which needs to maintained are: a. Address data b. Logon c. Parameters d. Authorization e. Profiles f. Rolls g. User groups h. Personalization i. Default TAB Parameters: These are default values which will be populated during user run time. User groups: These are defined in SUGR. These are used for grouping the users for easy maintenance and easy administration. The user groups are also used for authorization check. Personalization: Personalization is used to restrict a user search criteria, so that the user gets a report at a faster response time. SAP BASIS 184
  • Parameters Note: Parameters are user specific & stored in DB. Users can define his own parameter in SU03. (Own Data) SAP BASIS 185
  • Parameters Security There are two types • Internal security • External security Internal Security 1. Direct Authorization 2. Indirect authorization (authorization based on company level) External Security 1. SAP router 2. Antivirus 3. Company router 4. Firewall and proxy. Activity It is represented by ACTVT. Activity denotes the task to be performed on that object. List of activities which are used or documented in table TACT. You can create new activities in TACT. Some of the activities are Create, Change, Display, Lock, Unlock, Save etc. Authorization: This defines field and its value. Authorization field: This is an element which requires protection. These are created in SU20. Authorization objects: A group not more then 10 authorization fields is called authorization objects. These are created in SU21/ SU22. SAP BASIS 186
  • Parameters Class: A group of relative authorization objects are grouped into authorization class. Object class can be define in SU21, SU22. SU21 and SU22 are more similar. Profile: A group of 150 authorizations is called authorization profile. Before 4.6C version, profiles are manually created in SU02, but from 4.6E onwards profiles are generated. Example: SAP_ALL Composite profile: A group of one or more profiles is called composite profile. Role: Role is nothing but a set of authorization files along with files, menus, users and user assignments. Roles are created after generating the profiles. Profiles are generated in PFCG. Composite Role: A group of one or more roles for administrative purpose is called composite role. Parent role, Generic role, Master role: This is a role where all the authorization levels are maintained fully. These are used to define child role. Derived roles: These roles are defined from parent role and referred by organization levels. Advantages of derived roles: Inherit from parent role. Changes in parent role will affect all child roles after adjustment. Most of the menus are standard. We can assign additional authorization and specify organization level. Inheritance will be lost if relation is deleted. SAP BASIS 187
  • Parameters Role Creation: 1. Go to PFCG 2. Specify the name of the role and click on create role 3. Description: Describe about the role, we can also write comments about the role when it is modified. 4. Authorizations: we can assign transactions, menus and go to authorization data for maintaining the values. 5. User: Specify the users who used to be assigned with role. 6. Personalization: Personalization of the role to restrict the display of the report last 15 days or display only the 20 roles. Note: When we go to change authorization data, Assign authorization fields and data and generic profile. Defining a Derived Role: 1. Go to PFCG 2. Specify the name of the role to be created. 3. Description of the role: Describe the role as much as possible. Specify the parent role which we want to inherit. When you specify inheritance relationship. Authorization tab will be missing because the authorizations are derived from parent role. 4. Change authorization date: • Screen appears • Specify the organization levels(sap-rh) • Save and activate the role • Generate profile. Note: If any change occurred in the derived role, go to change in the parent role and adjust the derived role. SAP BASIS 188
  • Parameters What happens if role changes? The number of users going to effect. What happens if your role changes? Parent role changes, Authorization object changes. Authorization changes. User Comparison The roles which are modified used to be compared with the user master record so that changes may effect in user role. Run the T-code PFUD and schedule the job to perform user comparison. PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCY Schedule the background job for report or program. Schedule frequency depends on the frequency of role modification. The above steps compare the user master records with the created or modified roles and will be effective only after comparison. Missing Authorizations SU53 Whenever user assumes that privilege Authorization are not allowing him to perform certain activities, he complaints of missing Authorizations. These are frequent problems needed to handle carefully. Ask the user to send the screen shot of (SU53) and of on SU53 screen analyze the followings. a) The problem is with only one user or it’s a common problem to other users also. b) Check the expiry date of the role and assign it to the user. c) Check through SUIM if the user is having this Authorization or not. Common problems: 1. Go to SUIM SAP BASIS 189
  • Parameters 2. Check the object which is missing 3. Try to find out the role which is having the object, role and field activity. 4. Analyze whether we can assign the role to the user 5. If we cannot assign the role, can we change the role. 6. Can I create a role, YES - get approval then create role and assign it to user and finally perform it to the user. The main reasons may be: 1. User comparison 2. User does not have Authorization 3. User buffer overflow 4. Change in the role. SUIM: User information reports The information related to the users, transactions, role, profiles password and any other complex criteria can be fetched from SUIM. Most of the reports which start with RSUR001 to RSUS010 are obtained in SUIM. We need to generate reports weekly and monthly and submit it to management. Security Parameters 1. LOGIN / System_Client = Default client no. The client no. is default in log on screen. By default it is 000. We can overwrite with our own values ranging from 000 to 999. 2. LOGIN / MIN_PWD_LNG: This is used to determine min. length of password. 3. LOGIN / MAX_PWD_LNG: Is not existing 4. LOGIN / PWD_EXPIRATION_TIME: Used to define expiration of password. SAP BASIS 190
  • Parameters Central User Administration This is used to create users in the master client and distribute to child systems. CUA minimizers. Minimizes the administration task in all the clients. After defining CUA, there will be only one client that is master client which is used to create master client. Prerequisites for defining CUA: 1. RFC destination between parent and child client needs to be defined. 2. Logical system names have to be defined for each of the client. Defining CUA: 1. Go to SCUA 2. Define the model view 3. Logon to the client which needs to be configured as parent client. 4. Go to SCUA, define the name of CUA and save. 5. Go to child system define the RFC connection with user type. 6. Now go to SCUA include all the child systems, save, activate and generate partner profiles. Note: After activation of CUA, user creation tab In all the system except parent client are deactivated. New tab systems are added in the parent client to include in the client while creating the users. SCUM: This transaction is used to specify the maintenance of logon attributes of a client Global: It is used to define parameter globally and populate globally. Local: These are used to define parameters locally. Purpose: These values are proposed by master clients and these can be changed locally. RET value: These values are maintained locally. Every where: Centrally & Locally. SAP BASIS 191
  • Parameters SCUL: Is used to find the CUA locks which show the details of sending and receiving systems. Note: In order to delete CUA run report RSDELCUA Password Restriction: Passwords can be restricted by using USR40 1. Go to SM30. Specify user name USR40 2. Click on maintain 3. Specify the list of passwords and save it. 4. We change passwords – 1.password expiry 2.Before executing any job. Note: We can’t revert back to previous password until we have changed password for 5 times. We can change password only once in a day. Auditing (SM18, SM19): Who has accessed, what transaction, what program can be easily traced out by switching the audit? Go to SM18 Define the filters SM20 – is used to analyze the logs SECR – this t-code will provide the list of activities to be performed during auditing. Retrieving SAP* user: When the entire system is locked and no user cannot be logged into the system, then delete SAP* user. After we delete SAP* user, SAP* user is created with password PASS Go to SQL+ > delete sap<SID>.USR02 where Bname = “SAP*” and Mandt = “800” Note: Locking & Unlocking users can be done by using SU10. SAP BASIS 192
  • Parameters Types of users: 1. Dialogue user 2. Communication 3. Service 4. System 5. Reference Dialogue user: Dialogue user are used to logon to the system interactive. Logon is possible with SAPGUI. Dialogue users are charged users. Service user: Logon is possible with this user but it is not accountable. This user type will be used where accountability and responsibility is not required. It is used by group of users. Ex: sap* System user: This is non dialogue user which is used to communicate with in a system. It is used for running background jobs with in the system. This can also used for communication between the clients. Communication user: It is used to communicate between the two systems. TMSADM communication user is created during configuring STMS. This user is also called CPIC (Common Programming Interface for communication). Reference user: This user is used to provide additional system rights to internet users. SAP BASIS 193
  • Parameters Logon Load Balancing Logon groups: These are used to handle the loads from the users and dynamically distribute it to users. Advantages 1. Dynamic distribution of users to the instances of the logon groups. 2. Effective utilization of buffers. 3. failover instances are handled easily. Defining Logon groups 1. Go to SMLG; define ‘Logon Groups’ and assign the instance. 2. When logon load balance is defined, message server will assign free work process. 3. Go to user desktop, select GUI – Groups. Specify the system ID, message server, display number of groups configured, select the group to Log on. Define our entry in SAP.INI to print to the message server. Mechanism of Logon on Load Balancing 1. User Connects to logon group, not to any instance or server. 2. Evaluate SAPMSG.INI and service entry to communicate to message server. 3. Message server calculates the time and defines the favorite server in that logon group. 4. User request is assigned to that instance. Note: 1. User request is handled by the dispatcher only. The work process belonged to that instance only works for the user request. SAP BASIS 194
  • Parameters 2. Different dialogue work process of different instances will never be assigned to users’ request. 3. In order to configure the user desktop for logon load balancing, copy SAPlogon.INI, sapmsg.ini and services entry. SAP BASIS 195
  • Parameters SNOTE There are two types of notes: 1. Informative note 2. Corrective note Informative note is used to provide instructions such as: a. How to work around the problem like table space overflow, max extents reached and other oracle errors. b. Activating the SAP programs c. Activating data dictionary elements and changing as per note. d. Keeping customizing entries such as tax codes, uploading graphical elements, module based interface. If there are any bugs or program errors SAP releases corrective note which will change the programs. SAP note is applied through T-code SNOTE. a. Only notes, which correct the programs, are applied through SNOTE. b. While changing the program through SNOTE i. Object access key is not required. ii. You can revert back SAP notes. I.e. changes applied through SNOTE can be reverted. Applying SNOTE 1. Go to SNOTE 2. Download the NOTE 3. Go to SAP note browser and check the implemented status. 4. Execute i.e. Implementing Note. SAP BASIS 196
  • Parameters Status of implementation: 1. Can be implemented 2. Cannot be implemented 3. Completely Implemented. Status of the Note: 1. New – Note is downloaded into system. 2. Processing – It is under processing 3. Completed – Applying not is completed successfully. Note: We can view the note by connecting to the market place www.service.sap.com/note; give the note number and search. Question: What happens while applying note: Answer: A change request will be created with TP number. Maintaining Profiles (Paramaters) – RZ10, RZ11. Types: 1. Administration Data 2. Basic Maintenance [Can modify existing parameters]. 3. Extended Maintenance [ can create new parameters or set values] Profile Path: /usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/profile In order to make changes effective save the actual. So that new version of profile is created at OS level. Old profile will be renamed <Profile Name> bck SAP BASIS 197
  • Parameters The system require reboot of parameters. We can also change parameters in RZ11, which does not require reboot, but are valid only till system restart. Details of the user, data will be uploaded in the profile from time to time. Initially there will be no profile in the system database, we need to import manually. SAP BASIS 198
  • Parameters SCOT Scot is used to communicate with external devices like exchange servers, paging server, SMS server. To communicate it needs and RFC destination 1. Exchange connections. 2. SMTP ( Simple Mail Transport Protocol) Scot is used to monitor the inbound, outbound mails and fax. We need to check if SCOT is configured or not. SAP BASIS 199
  • Parameters OS Directory Figure 7: SAP OS Directory SAP BASIS 200
  • Parameters Important T Codes BD64 BD82 BDLS DB01 DB02 DB03 DB12 DB13 DB15 DB24 FILE RZ03 RZ04 RZ10 RZ11 RZ12 RZ20 SAINT SALE SARA SCC1 SCC3 SCC4 SCC5 SCC6 SCC7 SCC8 SCC9 SCCL SCOT SCU1 SCUA SCUG SCUM SE01 SE03 SE06 SE09 SE11 SE16 SE92 SEMP SICK SLIC SM02 Distribution Model Partner Agreements Conversion of Logical System Names Exclusive waits in Oracle database Database performance; tables and index DB Parameter Changes Backup logs DBA planning calendar Tables and Archiving Objects Database Logs Logical File Path Server status, alerts, maintain operations mode Maintain operations mode and instance Maintain system profiles X Display profile parameter attributes Maintenance of Server groups Alert Monitor 4.0 Add on Installation Tool ALE Customizing Archiving Management Client copy transport Client copy log Client copy administration Delete clients Client import Client import – post processing Client export Remote client copy Local client copy SAP Connect CUA Logs Central User Administration User Transfer Maintenance of Log on Activities Transport organizer Workbench organizer: tools Transport Organizer Tool Workbench organizer Data Dictionary maintenance Display table content System Log Message Object Comparison Installation check License Management System messages SAP BASIS 201
  • Parameters SM04 SM12 SM13 SM14 SM18 SM19 SM20 SM21 SM30 SM31 SM35 SM36 SM37 SM37c SM39 SM49 SM50 SM51 SM58 SM59 SM61 SM62 SM63 SM64 SM65 SM69 SM93 SMGW SMLG SMLT SMX SNOTE SP01 SP12 SPAD SPAM SPAM SPAU SPDD SPR0 SPR0_Admin SR13 ST01 ST02 ST03 ST04 ST05 ST06 ST07 Overview of users Database locks X Update terminates Update Monitoring Delete Audit Logs Define The filters Analyze the audit logs System log Password Restrictions Maintain tables Batch input monitoring Schedule background jobs Overview of background jobs Select Background Job Job analysis External Operating System Commands Work process overview Instance overview Error log for asynchronous RFC RFC connection, maintain Background Control Object Monitor Event Maintenance Operations mode, maintain Trigger Event Background Processing Create External OS Commands Transaction Maintenance Gateway Monitoring Maintain logon groups Language Maintenance Own Job Note Assistant Spool control TemSe administration Spool administration (printer setup) Package Management SAP Patch Manager Intersection SAP transport/customer modifications Intersection SAP transport/customer modifications, DDIC Implementation Guide Project Creation Help / SAP Library SAP system trace X Buffer statistics Workload analysis Database performance analysis Performance Analysis Operating system monitor Application Monitor SAP BASIS 202
  • Parameters ST11 ST22 STMS SU01 SU3 SU10 SU20 SU21 SU22 SU24 SU25 SU53 SUCOMP SUGR SUIM USMM PFCG PFUD Display developer trace X ABAP dump analysis Transport Management System User maintenance X Own Data Mass change to user records X Authorization Field Authorization Object Object Classes Check Indicators SAP Proposals Missing Authorizations Company address User Group User Information Reports System Measurement Role Maintenance User Data Reconciliation SAP BASIS 203
  • Parameters Programs dpmon saposcol RSREFILL RDDIMPDP RDDIMPDP RDDNEWPP Dispatcher Monitor SAP OS Collector Language Management Dispatcher Dispatcher for Transport Program with in SAP system Schedule for Transport Dispatcher RDDIMPDP in the RSTABLESIZE RSSPACECHECK RSCCEXPT program of background Program for determining table size To determine memory size database area Tuning parameter for client copy can be implemented RSUSR070 in this program An overview of provided roles in the informatics of RSUSR003 RSUSR002 RSUSR007 PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCE RSDELCUA the system Default user passwords User by complex criteria User by incorrect logins To do user comparison To dissolve the created user administering completely TPCLEAROLDALL TPCHECKALL R3trans -d RSBTCDEL RSSNAPDEL RSPO0041 / RSPO1041 RSPO0043 RSREORG RSM13002 BTCTRANS1 in the central system Clear old TPs Check all TPs Check if TP is connected to Database To delete entries in Background Jobs & log files To delete ABAP dumps To reorganize the spool tables Consistency of Spool Jobs are Reorganized Update Temp Tables To pause the Background jobs while applying support BTCTRANS2 patches To resume the Background jobs while applying support patches SAP BASIS 204
  • Parameters Parameters rdisp/wp_no_dia rdisp/wp_no_btc rdisp/wp_no_vb rdisp/wp_no_vb0 rdisp/wp_no_vb2 rdisp/wp_no_ENQ EM/initial_size_MB rdisp/ROLL_SHM rdisp/ROLL_MAXES abap/buffersize rdisp/PG_SHM no_import_all Dialogue Background update V1 update V2 update Enque Extended memory defined in heap mode 0  Mass Imports are allowed VER_AT_IMP rdisp/max_wprun_time login/min_password_lng login/password_expiration_time login_disable_multi_GUI_login auth/no_check_in_some_cases 1  Mass Imports are not allowed Trace of the modification history When work process goes into private mode Minimum password length Password expiration Prohibits the Multi logon Yes / No, To activate role maintenance with profile login/no_automatic_user_sap* generator 0  Whenever sap* is deleted, it will generate with password ‘pass’ ZHA/roll_first ZHA/roll_area 1  To disable the sap* user To set initial memory Amount of memory specified to the role, the user ZHA/roll_extension context into local memory of the work process Amount of extended memory allocated to roll the user ABAP/heap_limit ABAP/heap_area_DIA context into local memory of Work Process Heap Memory Dialogue Instance SAP BASIS 205
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 206
  • Parameters Tables TOOO TSTC TSTCT SAPROUTETAB EOTO EO70L PAT00 PAT01 PAT02 PAT03 PAT05 PAT07 PAT09 TBDLS TBDLST RFCCDES USR01 USR02 USR03 USR04 USR05 USR06 USR07 USR08 USR09 USR10 USR 11 USR12 USR22 USR40 USOBX USOBT TADIR TACT TACTZ TVAR DEVACCE88 Client Object dependent Transaction Transaction Code Text Router permission table Change requests are stored Latest Patch steps Patch status Conflicts between patches and add-ons Patch directory SAP patch manager setting Support package pre requisites Patch History Store the logical system names Store the logical system names texts RFC Destinations User master data Log on data User address data User master authorization User master parameter ID Addition data per user Object / values Table User User Log on tables Authorization Directory of repository objects List of activities List of for an authorization object Variant T codes store the key SAP BASIS 207
  • Parameters SAP BASIS 208
  • Parameters Top Ten Problems Problem Cause Error Message No Resolution Archive Stuck Situation SAP arch (offline redolog full) Ora-255.Ora272,written to Oracle alert log file alert_<SID>.log Log_archive_start=true in init<SID>.ora,keep some dummy files in the arc dir.,& remove it run BR ARCHIVE immediately Ora 1653,Ora 1654 Use SAP DBA ,Alt table Space & add data files Ora 1631(Tables),Ora 1632(Indexes) Run SAPDBA-next,Donot set the max extents to unlimited on rollback segment. Table Spaces over Flow Max.extents limit reached Incorrect Tape size Missing end backup Error msg., displayed in Sys Log & ABAP short Dump Error msg., displayed in Sys Log & ABAP short Dump Tape_size in file init<SID>.sap To chk T/Sp in begin backup mode & cmd Shutdn immediate issued in SAPDBA Snapshot too old Data Block corruption Ora 1149,Ora 1113 Ora 1555 Hardware error Internal DB Error Influence of the Cost based optimizer Recalculate dummy compression ratios at least once per backup cycle& after upgrade. Ora 1578 Ora 600 Old statistic info., cause serious performance problems When RMAN is used for online backup no missing occurred. Download the file protocol.ora from sapservX as user OraSID copy the file into Oracle-Home /network/admin.Give read permission for file protocol.ora to users SIDADM,ORASID.Restart the Net8 Listener onDB server Stop&start all the A/S. Br-backup-verifyl-w or use SAPDBA and choose K-DB check/verification using DB verify.Use disk-copy-cmd=rman to do the backup. Search SAP notes,not found create msg & attach related trace files alert_SID.log & R/3 syslog. To fix the problem display the DB operation monitor * choose performance. SAP BASIS 209
  • Parameters Interview Questions How can I lock a transaction? Use transaction SM01. Look for the transaction you want and then check the “Locked” box. Why should I lock a transaction? Because some transactions are “dangerous” and a user without the proper training may accidentally corrupt or destroy the system. How can I see what users are currently logged on an R/3 system? Use either transaction SM04 or AL08. What is the fastest way to log off in SAPGUI? Type /NEX at the command field. Notice that this transaction exists without asking for confirmation. Save your work before using it. How do I find information about transaction codes? Run transaction SE93 to create, edit or display transactions. How do I check for errors in R/3? Run transaction SM21 for read the System Log. How do I logon to a SAPServX FTP server? User = ftp; password = ftp. Do I always have to use the new visual design in SAPGUI (EnjoySAP)? No. In fact, you can switch to the SAPGUI “light”. Simply use the “SAP Configuration” program in Control Panel. SAP BASIS 210
  • Parameters How do I log on to SAPNet? Use transaction OSS1 to log on to SAPNet R/3 FrontEnd. To log on to SAPNet R/3 Web visit: http://service.sap.com. Can I copy all users from client to another? Yes. Use copy profile SAP_USER. Can I script the starting and stopping of R/3? Definitely. You can use the SAPSTART, SAPSRVKILL and SAPNTWAITFORHALT executables. Where can I get a list of all transaction codes in SAP? The following tables hold all SAP transactions: Table TSTC stores all transaction codes and their respective ABAP program. Table TSTCT stores the text (or description) for each transaction. Table THSTC has also documentation for all transaction. It is a copy of TSTCT. Table TSTCP stores the possible parameters for each transaction. Where can I get a list of all tables in SAP? Table DD02L stores all tables in SAP. How can I hide a client from the users? There is no way to actually hide a client but there is a workaround: delete the entry in table T000 via SCC4. This way, nobody will able to log on to it. To “unhide” it, simply re-create the entry via SCC4. How can I lock a client? You can use one of these two: 1) delete the entry in table T000 via SCC4; 2) run tp locksys at the OS level. How can I determine the size of a client? You can run a local client copy in “test” mode. SAP BASIS 211
  • Parameters How do I backup a database? You can create a maintenance plan or use the “backup database” SQL statement in Query Analyzer or OSQL. Within SAP, you can use DB13. What is the transaction to access the language utility? Transaction SMLT takes you to the Language Transport Utility. How can I see all the available icons in SAP? Execute transaction BIBS and select Elements -> Icon Overview. You can use the code that appears on the last column in order to put icons in system messages (SM02). In what tables can I find P.O. documents? Purchase Orders are stored in table EKPO and field EBELN. You can also find them in these two tables: EKK0 (Purchasing Document Header) EKET (Scheduling Agreement Schedule Lines) ABAP Query does not seem to work, what should I do? It could be that you need to execute report RSAQUM40 to set the release flag. See SAP note 92124 for more information. What happens if I start a dialog instance but the database and SAP services are down on the central instance? The SAP<SID>_xx and SAPOSCOL services will start. However, the work processes will end soon after being started. What happens if I start a dialog instance but only the database services are up on the central instance? The SAP services will start and so will the work processes. However, because the message server is down on the central instance users will get the message “No logon SAP BASIS 212
  • Parameters possible (no hardware ID received by message server) when trying to log on. No user logins will work. The “Process List” in the SAP MMC will stay in yellow. If using Single Sign-On, do the passwords in SAP and Windows have to match? No. Only the user IDs must match for single-on to work. Can I import transports between different R/3 releases? Read the technical and logical problems SAP reports when doing transports between different R/3 releases. SAP Notes 126776 and 330267. I lost the password for SAP*. What can I do? You can delete the record for SAP* in table USR02 as follows: delete USR02 where BNAME=”SAP*” and MANDT=’XXX’ Replace ‘XXX’ for a valid client number. Can SAP be installed on FAT or FAT32 partitions? No. SAP needs to be installed on NTFS partitions only. How can I quickly check if the passwords for the accounts SAP*, DDIC, SAPCPIC and EarlyWatch are not the default ones? Run SE38 and execute report RSUSR003. Can I copy just data from client to another? No. There is no copy profile that allows you to copy just data. For this you need to configure and use ALE or buy a third-party program that has this type of functionality. Can Query Analyzer tell me if there is insufficient disk space to restore a database? Yes. It will display message (Msg) 3257 indicating that there is not enough disk space to perform the restore. SAP BASIS 213