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  • 1. The reading strategies used by male andfemale English language learners: Astudy of Colombian high school students Presenter : Chia- Li Sabina Chen Instructor : Dr. Pi-Ying Teresa Hsu Date : March 2, 2011 1
  • 2. CitationAlex, P. (2010). The reading strategies used by male and female English language learners: A study of Colombian high school students. New England Reading Association Journal 46 (1), 55-63. 2
  • 3. ContentsIntroductionReview of LiteratureMethodologyResultsDiscussionsConclusionsReflections 3
  • 4. ContentsIntroduction 4
  • 5. IntroductionColombia is one of the countries in which English is widelystudied as a foreign language. 5
  • 6. IntroductionColombian government has promoted a goal of having allhigh school graduates passed a level of English proficiencyto economically and culturally compete on a global level. 6
  • 7. IntroductionReading proficiency will be one of skills of such a goaland is necessary if students want to study and work inEnglish-speaking environment. 7
  • 8. ContentsReview of Literature 8
  • 9. Review of literatureReading strategies and English language literacy development English language learners (ELLs) who used reading strategies frequently had a higher reading proficiency than others who did not use more reading strategies (Lee & Liao, 2007 ; Sheorey, Kamimura & Freiermuth, 2008 ; Sheorey & Baboczky, 2008 ; Zhang & Wu, 2009). 9
  • 10. Review of literatureReading strategies and gender Most studies showed that females use more strategies than males (Poole, 2005a ; Sheorey, 2006 ; Sheorey & Baboczky , 2008 ; Poole, 2009). 10
  • 11. Research purpose--to discover whether or not both male and female Colombian high school students are nearing the goal of advanced English language literacy 11
  • 12. Research questions1. What academic reading strategies do Colombian high school English language learners report using?2. Do males and females report using different academic reading strategies? 12
  • 13. ContentsMethodology 13
  • 14. Methodology Male: 103 Ages: 12 to 18 Female: 96 Three private Grades: 8 to 11 Colombian high schools in BogotaEnglish class:3 to 5 hours per middle to low-incomeweek families Participants: 199 Colombian ELLs 14
  • 15. MethodologyReading academic Reading academicmaterials in materials inEnglish --3.23 English -- 3.48hours a week hours a week 15
  • 16. Methodology Instruments Survey of Reading strategies (SORS) problem- global support solvingstrategies strategies strategies(13items) (9 items) (8 items) Descriptive statistics t-tests 16
  • 17. MethodologyFive-point Likert scale 3.5 or above frequent strategy use 2.5 to 3.4 moderate strategy use 2.4 or below infrequent strategy use 17
  • 18. MethodologyExamples 18
  • 19. global strategiesLearners plan how to read and manage their comprehension.GLOB 1 I have a purpose in mind when I read.GLOB 3 I think about what I know to help me understand what I read.GLOB 4 I take an overall view of the text to see what it is about before reading it.GLOB 6 I think about whether the content of the text fits my reading purpose.GLOB 8 I review the text first by noting its characteristics like length and organization.GLOB 12 When reading, I decide what to read closely and what to ignore.GLOB 15 I use tables, figures, and pictures in text to increase my understanding.GLOB 17 I use context clues to help me better understand what I am reading.GLOB 20 I use typographical features like bold face and italics to identify key information.GLOB 21 I critically analyze and evaluate the information presented in the text.GLOB 23 I check my understanding when I come across new information.GLOB 24 I try to guess what the content of the text is about when I read.GLOB 27 I check to see if my guesses about the text are right or wrong. 19
  • 20. problem-solving strategiesLearners use when reading to make difficult portions of a textcomprehensible such as rereading difficult passages andguessing the meaning of vocabulary items.PROB 7 I read slowly and carefully to make sure I understand what I am reading.PROB 9 I try to get back on track when I lose concentration.PROB 11 I adjust my reading speed according to what I am reading.PROB 14 When text becomes difficult, I pay closer attention to what I am reading.PROB 16 I stop from time to time and think and think about what I am reading.PROB 19 I try to picture or visualize information to help remember what I read.PROB 25 When text becomes difficult, I re-read it to increase my understanding.PROB 28 When I read, I guess the meaning of unknown words or phrases. 20
  • 21. support strategies Learners use to understand text such as bilingual dictionaries and underlining key words and sentences.SUP 2 I take notes while reading to help me understand what I read.SUP 5 When text becomes difficult, I read aloud to help me understand what I read.SUP 10 I underline or circle information in the text to help me remember it.SUP 13 I use reference materials (e.g., a dictionary) to help me understand what I read.SUP 18 I paraphrase (restate ideas in my own words) to better understand what I read.SUP 22 I go back and forth in the text to find relationship among ideas in it.SUP26 I ask myself questions I like to have answered in the text.SUP 29 When reading, I translate from English into my native language.SUP 30 When reading, I think about information in both English and my mother tongue. 21
  • 22. ContentsResults 22
  • 23. What academic reading strategies do Colombian high school English language learners report using? ResultsTable 1. Strategies Used by Colombian ELLs in Ascending Order Strategy Mean1. PROB 7 I read slowly and carefully to make sure I understand what I am reading. 4.052. PROB 9 I try to get back on track when I lose concentration. 3.943. PROB 14 When text becomes difficult, I pay closer attention to what I am reading. 3.934. PROB 25 When text becomes difficult, I re-read it to increase my understanding. 3.905. GLOB 3 I think about what I know to help me understand what I read. 3.836. SUP 29 When reading, I translate from English into my native language. 3.757. SUP 13 I use reference materials (e.g., a dictionary) to help me understand what I read. 3.758. SUP 18 I paraphrase (restate ideas in my own words) to better understand what I read. 3.659. GLOB 4 I take an overall view of the text to see what it is about before reading it. 3.6410. GLOB 23 I check my understanding when I come across new information. 3.5811. GLOB 1 I have a purpose in mind when I read. 3.5712. SUP 30 When reading, I think about information in both English and my mother tongue. 3.5413. GLOB 8 I review the text first by noting its characteristics like length and organization. 3.4114. GLOB 15 I use tables, figures, and pictures in text to increase my understanding. 3.2915. PROB 11 I adjust my reading speed according to what I am reading. 3.2816. PROB 16 I stop from time to time and think and think about what I am reading. 3.2517. SUP26 I ask myself questions I like to have answered in the text. 3.1818. GLOB 27 I check to see if my guesses about the text are right or wrong. 3.1519. GLOB 21 I critically analyze and evaluate the information presented in the text. 3.1320. SUP 22 I go back and forth in the text to find relationship among ideas in it. 3.1221.22. GLOB 17 GLOB 6 OVERALL MEAN I use context clues to help me better understand what I am reading. I think about whether the content of the text fits my reading purpose. 3.35 3.10 3.07 GLOBAL23. PROB 19 I try to picture or visualize information to help remember what I read. 3.0624.25. GLOB 24 SUP 5 I try to guess what the content of the text is about when I read. 3.26 When text becomes difficult, I read aloud to help me understand what I read. 2.94 2.9026.27. SUP 2 PROB 28 PROBLEM-SOLVING I take notes while reading to help me understand what I read. When I read, I guess the meaning of unknown words or phrases. 3.54 2.89 2.88 SUPPORT28. GLOB 20 I use typographical features like bold face and italics to identify key information. 2.8329. GLOB 12 When reading, I decide what to read closely and what to ignore. 3.30 2.8030. SUP 10 I underline or circle information in the text to help me remember it. 2.79 OVERALL MEAN 3.35 GLOBAL 3.26 PROBLEM-SOLVING 3.54 SUPPORT 3.30 23
  • 24. ResultsDo males and females report using different academic reading strategies? Table 2. Differences in Online Strategy Use by Gender Strategy Male (n=103) Female (n=96) t p-value (M) (M)1. GLOB Purpose when reading 3.34 3.82 -3.04 .003*2. SUP Taking notes 2.62 3.18 -2.96 .003*3. GLOB Using prior knowledge 3.67 4.00 -2.00 .047*4. GLOB Previewing text before reading 3.50 3.78 -1.62 .1085. SUP Reading aloud when text becomes difficult 2.52 3.31 -3.97 .000*6. GLOB Checking how text content fits purpose 2.99 3.16 -.98 .3277. PROB Reading slowly and carefully 3.89 4.22 -2.15 .033*8. GLOB Noting text characteristics 3.21 3.61 -2.17 .031*9. PROB Try to stay focused on reading 3.87 4.01 -.86 .39010. SUP Circle or underline information 2.44 3.18 -3.96 .000*11. PROB Adjusting reading rate 3.22 3.34 -.70 .48812. GLOB Determining what to read 2.70 2.91 -1.17 .24613. SUP Using reference materials 3.58 3.93 -1.82 .07014. PROB Paying close attention to reading 3.87 4.00 -.78 .43715. GLOB Using text features (e.g. tables) 3.17 3.43 -1.39 .16516. PROB Pausing and thinking about reading 3.09 3.43 -2.02 .047*17. GLOB Using context clues 3.14 3.05 .47 .63718. SUP Paraphrasing for better understanding 3.42 3.90 -3.06 .003*19. PROB Visualizing information read 3.06 3.06 -.02 .98220. GLOB Using typographical aids (e.g. italics) 2.74 2.94 -1.05 .29821. GLOB Evaluating what is read 3.05 3.22 -1.03 .30222. SUP Going back and forth in text 3.07 3.18 -.60 .55123. GLOB Check understanding of new information 3.47 3.71 -1.46 .14724. GLOB Predicting or guessing text meaning 2.82 3.07 -1.40 .16425. PROB Re-reading for better understanding 3.85 3.95 -.61 .54426. SUP Asking oneself questions 3.10 3.26 -.98 .33327. GLOB Confirming predictions 3.05 3.26 -1.06 .28928. PROB Guessing meaning of unknown words 2.75 3.03 -1.50 .13529. SUP Translating into native language 3.62 3.89 -1.39 .16830. SUP Thinking in English and native language 3.66 3.41 1.35 .180 OVERALL MEAN 3.23 3.47 -3.05 .003* GLOBAL 3.14 3.38 -2.62 .009* SUPPORT 3.12 3.47 -3.52 .001* 24 PROBLEM-SOLVING 3.45 3.63 -1.93 .054
  • 25. ContentsDiscussions 25
  • 26. DiscussionsColombian ELLs’ use of reading strategies ELLs were moderately active strategy users when reading in English. Problem-solving strategies were used with high frequency. 26
  • 27. DiscussionsGender differences in reading strategy useFemales are more proficient readers.They had studied English and read academic materialsfor more than males. 27
  • 28. RecommendationsTeaching reading strategies to ELLs using the SORS Teachers can use SORS to assess students’ strategy use and teach specific strategies. SORS can be a pre-test to determine what strategies students lack awareness of or overuse. 28
  • 29. DiscussionsSORS can be a post-test to assess the effectiveness ofinstruction.SORS can be used to assess the types of strategieslearners use when they read specific genres. 29
  • 30. ContentsConclusions 30
  • 31. Conclusions ELLs are moderate strategy users overall. English teachers can set aside time to teach strategies in order for their students to become advanced readers. 31
  • 32. ContentsReflections 32
  • 33. ReflectionsThe research did not clearly proposethe purpose.The research did not mention aboutwhen the survey started and how longwas it. 33
  • 34. ReflectionsThe research did not mention aboutreliability of the scale (SORS). 34
  • 35. ReflectionsIt may promote the reliability if thepilot study was conducted before theformal survey. 35
  • 36. “The most important 30 minutes of your day… is spent reading to yourself, your children, or your students.”Thanks for your listening! 36