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Router configuration



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  • 1. Router Configuration
  • 2. CISCO 2500 series router
  • 3. • A router is a special type of computer. It has the same basic components as a standard desktop PC. It has a CPU, memory, a system bus, and various input/output interfaces.
  • 4. Router Components: RAMRAM has the following characteristics and functions:• Stores routing tables• Holds ARP cache• Holds fast-switching cache• Performs packet buffering as shared RAM• Maintains packet-hold queues• Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of a router while the router is powered on• Loses content when a router is powered down or restarted
  • 5. Router Components: NVRAMNVRAM has the following characteristics and functions:• Provides storage for the startup configuration file• Retains content when a router is powered down or restarted
  • 6. Router Components: Flash memoryFlash memory has the following characteristics and functions:• Holds the IOS image• Allows software to be updated without removing and replacing chips on the processor• Retains content when a router is powered down or restarted• Can store multiple versions of IOS software• Is a type of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM)
  • 7. Router Components: ROMROM has the following characteristics and functions:• Maintains instructions for power-on self test (POST) diagnostics• Stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software• Requires replacing pluggable chips on the motherboard for software upgrades
  • 8. Router Components: InterfacesInterfaces have the following characteristics and functions:• Connect routers to a network for packet entry and exit• Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module
  • 9. Console port connections
  • 10. Router Configuration
  • 11. Cisco IOS Software• Basic routing and switching functions• Reliable and secure access to networked resources• Network scalabilityRouter> show version …<output omitted>… cisco 2620 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x102) with 59392K/6144K bytes of memoryRouter>show flash
  • 12. Router# configure terminalRouter(config)#• Type exit or Ctrl-Z to returnRouter(config)#hostname TokyoTokyo(config)#Router(config)#line console 0Router(config-line)#loginRouter(config-line)#password <password >
  • 13. show commands• show ? – any time for help with commands type ?• Router# show interfaces serial 0/1• show clock - Shows the time set in the router• show hosts - Displays a cached list of host names and addresses• show users - Displays all users who are connected to the router• show history - Displays a history of commands• show flash - information about flash memory and IOS files• show version - currently loaded software version and hardware• show protocols - status of configured Layer 3 protocols• show startup-config - saved configuration located in NVRAM• show running-config
  • 14. Configuring interfaces• Router(config)#interface serial 0/0• Router(config-if)# ip address <ip address > <netmask >• Router(config)#interface serial 0/0• Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000• Router(config-if)#no shutdown• Router#copy running-config startup-config• Router#erase startup-config
  • 15. Routing and Routing Protocols• dynamic routing,• static routing – ip route command to manually configure a static route. – administrative distance is an optional parameter that indicates the reliability of a route. – waycross(config)# ip route 130 – Route can be configure by outgoing interface or next hop ip address. – default route is given by ip route [next-hop-address | outgoing interface ]
  • 16. Routing and Routing Protocols
  • 17. Dynamic RoutingTwo types of dynamic routing:• Distance vector• Link-staterouting protocols:• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)• Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)• Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)• Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)routed protocols :• Internet Protocol (IP)• Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)• Autonomous systems - 16-bit identification number – Routing protocols, e.g. Cisco IGRP, require assignment of a unique AS
  • 18. Dynamic Routing
  • 19. Configuring Dynamic Routing• BHM(config) #router rip – Selects RIP as the routing protocol• BHM(config-router) #network – Specifies a directly connected network• BHM(config-router) # network – Specifies a directly connected network• RIP was originally specified in RFC 1058 : – It is a distance vector routing protocol. – Hop count is used as the metric for path selection. – If the hop count is greater than 15, the packet is discarded. – Routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds, by default. – Load balancing among multiple equidistance path
  • 20. Troubleshooting• ABC#show ip protocols• ABC#show ip route• ABC#show interface interface• ABC#show ip interface interface• ABC#show running-config• show ip rip database• show ip protocols {summary}• debug ip rip {events}• ip interface brief
  • 21. IGRP• IGRP uses the following metrics: – Bandwidth – The lowest bandwidth value in the path – Delay – The cumulative interface delay along the path – Reliability – The reliability on the link toward the destination as determined by the exchange of keepalives – Load – The load
  • 22. • RouterA(config) #router igrp as-number
  • 23. More on Routing…• OSPF and EIGRP• EGP and IGP• Switching• VLAN• Access Control List (ACL)
  • 24. OSPF• OSPF is a nonproprietary link-state routing protocol. – It is a link-state routing protocol. – It is an open standard routing protocol described in RFC 2328. – The SPF algorithm is used to calculate the lowest cost to a destination. – Routing updates are flooded as topology changes occur. # router ospf process-id # network net-address wildcard-mask area area-id
  • 25. EIGRP• EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary enhanced distance vector routing protocol. – It is an enhanced distance vector routing protocol. – It uses unequal cost load balancing. – It uses a combination of distance vector and link-state features (hybrid). – It uses Diffused Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path. – Routing updates are multicast using triggered by topology changes. Max hop 255RA(config-router)# router eigrp autonomous- system-numberRA(config-router)# network network-number
  • 26. BGP• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an exterior routing protocol. – It is a distance vector exterior routing protocol. – It is used between ISPs or ISPs and clients. – It is used to route Internet traffic between autonomous systems.