Different Types of MicrophonesThere are plenty of different microphones that work in different ways in a studio environment.Different elements of studio recordings will require certain types of microphones to achieve thehighest quality of recordings.Dynamic MicrophonesDynamic microphones are probably the most common and versatile microphones for generalrecording uses. They are relatively simply designed with few moving parts involved. Thesemicrophones are also more appropriate to handle high volume levels. For example, they will dealbetter with certain instruments or amplifiers. They don’s contain an internal amplifier and do nothave need of batteries or external power.When a magnet is moved near a coil of wire an electrical current is generated in the wire. Thisprincipal of using an electromagnet is how a dynamic microphone works. It uses a wire coil andmagnet to create the audio signal. There is a diaphragm attatched to the coil in the microphone.When this vibrates (due to sound waves), the coil moves backwards and forwards past the magnet.This generates a current in the coil which is channelled from the microphone along the wires.Overall, dynamic microphones are most effective when working with moderately loud sounds thatdo not contain lots of high frequency levels.
Capacitor MicrophonesCapacitor microphones (also known as condenser microphones), require a battery or some othersource of external power. Using a capacitor microphone will give a stronger audio signal than that ofa dynamic microphone. These types of microphones are also more sensitive and responsive thandynamic microphones. This makes them the best choice of microphone when it comes to recordingsubtle elements in sound. However, due to there sensitivity, they are not the right choice ofmicrophones for high volume recordings as they are likely to distort.This type of microphone works by having two plates with a voltage between them. One of the platesis made of an extremely light material that will act as the diaphragm. When hit by sound waves, thediaphragm will vibrate and change the distance between the two plates, consequently changing thecapacitance.Electret Condenser MicrophonesThe electret condenser microphone uses a special type of capacitor which has a permanent voltagebuilt in. This is to some extent like a permanent magnet, in that it doesnt require any externalpower to use. However, a good electret condenser microphone usually includes a pre-amplifierwhich does still require power. Other than this difference, you can think of an electret condensermicrophone as being the same as a normal condenser.