ONE TIME RESEARCH AND
A. POOJA SHUKLA
M. Tech (NANO)
Research is an ORGANIZED
and SYSTEMATIC way of
FINDING ANSWERS to
WHAT IS RESEARCH…??
Research must be systematic and follow a series of
steps and a rigid standard protocol.
These rules are broadly similar but may vary
slightly between the different fields of science.
o Purpose of gaining knowledge
o It advanced understanding about social world
o Help in supporting & rejecting existing hypothesis &
BASIC OF RESEARCH
• Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to
questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not
• Two basic classifications:
• Cross-sectional studies
• Longitudinal studies
RESEARCH DESIGN –
One time research is a kind of research that is carried
out over a single time period.
e.g. Population Researches
ONE TIME RESEARCH
• Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample
of the population at only one point in time.
• Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples
are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a
• On-line survey research is being used to collect data for
cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
CROSS – SECTIONAL RESEARCH
Cross-sectional surveys can thus be contrasted with panel
surveys, for which the individual respondents are followed over
Cross-sectional surveys can be conducted using any mode of data
collection, including telephone interviews, face-to-face
interviews, mailed questionnaires.
CROSS – SECTIONAL RESEARCH
Takes place at a single point in time
Does not involve manipulating variables
Allows researchers to look at numerous things at once (age,
Often used to look at the prevalence of something in a given
It involves study of sample at more than one point in
time or occasion.
e.g. Trend studies, Panel studies
• Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a
population over time.
• One method is to draw different units from the same
• A second method is to use a “panel” where the same
people are asked to respond periodically.
• On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to
respond to online queries.
• Longitudinal data used for:
• Market tracking
• Attitude and image checks
Longitudinal Study - Any social or developmental research
involving collection of data from the same individuals (or
groups) across time.
Observing change in these individuals gives a better basis
for causal inference than a cross-sectional study, because of
the temporal sequencing involved. In this sense the
longitudinal study is a form of „quasi-experimental design‟.
COHORT RESEARCH / STUDY
PANEL RESEARCH / STUDY
Cohort studies, defined as a group experiencing
some event in a selected time period, and studying
them at intervals through time.
It is also called as CROSS
– SECTIONAL RESEARCH
It involves study of many
cases at one point in time or
Taken at regular intervals
• Two types of panels:
• Continuous panels ask panel members the same
questions on each panel measurement.
• Discontinuous (Omnibus) panels vary questions
from one time to the next
Ideas and data available
Lot of observations available
Lot of results available
Research is made easy to study and
Long term process
Requires lot of time
Not very convenient