One time research and longitudinal research

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One time research and longitudinal research

  1. 1. ONE TIME RESEARCH AND LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH BY, A. POOJA SHUKLA M. Tech (NANO) 1821310006
  2. 2. Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. WHAT IS RESEARCH…??
  3. 3.  Research must be systematic and follow a series of steps and a rigid standard protocol.  These rules are broadly similar but may vary slightly between the different fields of science. DEFINING RESEARCH
  4. 4.  Basis of knowledge RESEARCH IS USED AS….
  5. 5. o Purpose of gaining knowledge o It advanced understanding about social world o Help in supporting & rejecting existing hypothesis & theories BASIC OF RESEARCH
  6. 6. • Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. • Two basic classifications: • Cross-sectional studies • Longitudinal studies RESEARCH DESIGN – DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
  7. 7.  One time research is a kind of research that is carried out over a single time period.  e.g. Population Researches ONE TIME RESEARCH
  8. 8. • Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. • Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population. • On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed. CROSS – SECTIONAL RESEARCH
  9. 9.  Cross-sectional surveys can thus be contrasted with panel surveys, for which the individual respondents are followed over time.  Cross-sectional surveys can be conducted using any mode of data collection, including telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews, mailed questionnaires. CROSS – SECTIONAL RESEARCH
  10. 10.  Takes place at a single point in time  Does not involve manipulating variables  Allows researchers to look at numerous things at once (age, income, gender)  Often used to look at the prevalence of something in a given population DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
  11. 11.  It involves study of sample at more than one point in time or occasion.  e.g. Trend studies, Panel studies LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
  12. 12. • Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time. • One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame. • A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically. • On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries. LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
  13. 13. • Longitudinal data used for: • Market tracking • Brand-switching • Attitude and image checks LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
  14. 14.  Longitudinal Study - Any social or developmental research involving collection of data from the same individuals (or groups) across time.  Observing change in these individuals gives a better basis for causal inference than a cross-sectional study, because of the temporal sequencing involved. In this sense the longitudinal study is a form of „quasi-experimental design‟. LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
  15. 15. TYPES  COHORT RESEARCH / STUDY  PANEL RESEARCH / STUDY
  16. 16. COHORT RESEARCH  Cohort studies, defined as a group experiencing some event in a selected time period, and studying them at intervals through time.
  17. 17. PANEL RESEARCH  It is also called as CROSS – SECTIONAL RESEARCH  It involves study of many cases at one point in time or occasion  Taken at regular intervals
  18. 18. • Two types of panels: • Continuous panels ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement. • Discontinuous (Omnibus) panels vary questions from one time to the next PANEL RESEARCH
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES  Ideas and data available  Lot of observations available  Lot of results available  Research is made easy to study and understand
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES  Long term process  Requires lot of time  Very expensive  Not very convenient
  21. 21. THANK YOU…!!

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