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External Events That Affected Singapore

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External Events That Affected Singapore External Events That Affected Singapore Presentation Transcript

  • Industrial Revolution Suez Canal World War I The Great Depression
  • Lesson Objectives
    • You will learn:
    • The Industrial Revolution and its impact on Singapore
    • The opening of the Suez Canal and its impact on Singapore
      • A New Chapter in the History of Man!!!
      • The Industrial Revolution may be defined as the application of power-driven machinery to manufacturing.
      • Britain in the 18 th Century
      • Invention of new machines: Spinning Jenny (spinning machine)
      • New sources of power: Steam Engine using coal
    Sources : http://mars.acnet.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/industrialrev.html http://www.bergen.org/technology/indust1.html
  • Key Question
    • What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution (IR) on Singapore?
  • EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
      • The Invention of the Steamship
      • How did this benefit Singapore?
      • Ponder these:
      • Did more people come to the region?
      • If yes, who came?
      • If they came, the main reason why they came was to…
      • a) Find spouses
      • b) To socialize with the locals
      • c) Do business
  • EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
    • Increase in Singapore’s Trade
    • More Europeans sailed to the Asia – why?
    • - ships stopping at Singapore increased -> trade increased
    • Important port-of-call in the region
    • - for steamships to refuel and obtain food supplies
    • - collection of goods from the East + distribution of manufactured goods from the West
  • EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
    • Improvements in Communications
    • Before: 4 – 5 months
    • 1860s: 5 weeks
    • -> Improvement in speed of communications = Singapore was brought into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the world
    • Now: a few seconds (via email)
  • OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL
    • Man-made waterway linking the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea
    • Suez route much shorter than Cape route (sea route around Cape of Good Hope)
    • Opened in 1869, the Suez Canal soon became one of the busiest waterways in the world
    OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL
  • Suez Canal
            • Today: canal averages about 8% of the world shipping traffic
            • Advantages of the Suez Canal
            • Compared with other waterways, the percentage of accidents is almost nil
            • Navigation goes by day and night
    Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, courtesy of NASA
  • Key Question
    • How did the opening of Suez Canal result in a big increase in Singapore’s trade?
    “ But the Suez Canal is so far away from Singapore, isn’t it?”
  • EFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
    • 1) Increase in Trade
      • Shortened distance -> traveling time reduced
      • -> shipping cost reduced
      • More ships passing through the Straits of Malacca to refuel and collect food supplies
      • -> Increased the importance of Singapore as a trading centre and as a port-of-call
  • EFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
    • 2) Improvements in Port Facilities:
    • Problems with the Old Harbour due to several reasons:
    • Expansion of Singapore’s trade + arrival of more steamships
    • -> Overcrowded – lacked port facilities to cope with increased trade activities
    • -> Boat Quay at the Old Harbour was shallow and small
  • EFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
    • Solution?
    • - New Harbour (deep and sheltered harbour)
    • - Renamed Keppel Harbour in 1900
    • - Could accommodate steamships and large sailing ships (could sail right up to the shore without scraping the bottom of the sea)
    • - New wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops were built
    • Modern machinery were used for loading and unloading goods.
    • Therefore increased efficiency of port and enhance Singapore’s reputation
  • Key Question
    • How did World War I affect Singapore when the war was fought mainly by European countries in the West?
  • WORLD WAR I : some underlying causes
    • Competition for colonies
    • Arms and naval race
    • Alliances among the great powers
    These underlying causes are like the gunpowder inside the bomb, ready to explode.
  • Competition for Colonies
    • Acquire colonies to:
      • further national security
      • enhance national prestige
      • obtain raw materials
      • gain access to markets for manufactured goods
    • Britain and France already in control of most of Africa and Asia
    • Very little left for Germany
    • Competition for colonies
    tension Back
  • Arms and Naval Race
    • Germany’s ambition to expand army and navy to rival its enemies
    Kaiser Wilhelm II in an interview published in the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph in November 1908 “ Germany is a young and growing empire. She takes part in trade that is rapidly expanding. Germany must have a powerful fleet to protect that trade. She must be able to fight for her interests in any part of the world. Only those powers that have great navies will be listened to with respect . ” Germany
  • Arms and Naval Race
    • Britain, France and Russia felt the threat posed by an ambitious Germany
    • Also increased army and navy to maintain balance of military power
    The race is on! Back Britain Russia France
  • Alliances among the Great Powers
    • Allied Powers
    • Britain
    • France
    • Russia
    • Italy (joined after May 1915)
    • Central Powers
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Ottoman Empire
    versus
  • Alliances among the Great Powers
    • The great powers formed alliances for protection against enemies
    • But these alliances meant that a war between two countries would soon involve their allies and become a bigger conflict
  • WORLD WAR I: the immediate cause The spark that caused the bomb to explode was when the Archduke of Austria-Hungary was MURDERED!
  • WORLD WAR I: the immediate cause The Assassin from Serbia - Princip The Victims – Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife
  • World War I began!
  • WORLD WAR I: Effects on Singapore
      • Rush for
      • Controls on imports and exports
      • Trade threatened by the Emden
      • Sepoy Mutiny of 1915
    Mission: Attack British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. Leave S’pore alone.
    • British ordered the sepoy (Indian) regiment stationed in Singapore to depart for HK where they might be needed
    • Rumour that the sepoys would be sent to Turkey to fight against the Muslims there
    • Mutiny (rebellion against the British) started on 15 February 1915 - eve of their departure
    • - roamed the town, killing any Europeans they saw
    WORLD WAR I: Effects on Singapore
  • Plaque found in St Andrew’s Cathedral
  •  
  • THE GREAT DEPRESSION
    • The Great Depression took place from 1930 to 1939, starting with the US and spreading to the rest of the world
    • Period of very bad business conditions
    • Many factories, shops, banks had to close down.
  • THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • Christmas dinner in the home of Earl Pauley near Smithland, Iowa. http://history1900s.about.com/library/photos/blygd50.htm
  • EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE
    • Decrease in trade and business
      • America and Europe were the biggest buyers of tin and rubber
      • Businesses trading in these commodities were badly affected ; some closed down while others retrenched workers or gave pay cuts
  • EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE
    • Unemployment and hardship
      • By 1931, one-third of the population was unemployed
      • Workers had to take pay cuts
  • EFFECTS OF GRE AT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE
    • Government’s response
      • Passed a law in 1930 to restrict and reduce the number of immigrants coming to Singapore
      • Arranged for large numbers of unemployed Indians and Chinese to return to homeland
  • External Events that Affected Singapore
    • Industrial Revolution
    • Opening of Suez Canal
    • World War One
    • The Great Depression
    • These events show us that countries are interdependent
    • Singapore was and still is affected by events that happen outside the country