Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution
Suez CanalSuez Canal
World War IWorld War I
The Great DepressionThe Great Depre...
Lesson ObjectivesLesson Objectives
You will learn:You will learn:
The Industrial Revolution and its impact onThe Industri...
A New Chapter in the History of Man!!!A New Chapter in the History of Man!!!
 The Industrial Revolution may be definedThe...
Key Question
• What were the effects of the
Industrial Revolution (IR) on
Singapore?
EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
The Invention of the SteamshipThe Invention of the Steamship
- How di...
EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
Increase in Singapore’s TradeIncrease in Singapore’s Trade
 More Eur...
EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE
Improvements in CommunicationsImprovements in Communications
Before: ...
OPENING OF THE SUEZOPENING OF THE SUEZ
CANALCANAL
Man-made waterway linking theMan-made waterway linking the
Mediterranean Sea and Red SeaMediterranean Sea and Red Sea
Suez...
Suez CanalSuez Canal
Today: canal averagesToday: canal averages
about 8% of the worldabout 8% of the world
shipping traffi...
Key QuestionKey Question
►How did the opening of SuezHow did the opening of Suez
Canal result in a big increaseCanal resul...
EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
1) Increase in Trade1) Increase in Trade

Shortened distance -> traveling time r...
EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
2) Improvements in Port Facilities:2) Improvements in Port Facilities:
Problems w...
EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE
Solution?Solution?
-- New HarbourNew Harbour (deep and sheltered harbour)(deep an...
Key QuestionKey Question
►How did World War I affectHow did World War I affect
Singapore when the war wasSingapore when th...
WORLD WAR IWORLD WAR I::
some underlying causessome underlying causes
Competition for coloniesCompetition for colonies
Arm...
Acquire colonies to:Acquire colonies to:

further national securityfurther national security

enhance national prestigee...
Britain and
France already
in control of
most of Africa
and Asia
Very little left
for Germany
Competition for
colonies
Bac...
Germany
Arms and Naval Race
Germany’s ambition to expand army and
navy to rival its enemies
Kaiser Wilhelm II in an interv...
Britain
Russia
France
Arms and Naval Race
Britain, France and Russia felt the threatBritain, France and Russia felt the th...
Alliances among the Great PowersAlliances among the Great Powers
Allied Powers
• Britain
• France
• Russia
• Italy (joined...
Alliances among the Great PowersAlliances among the Great Powers
The great powers formed alliances for protection againstT...
WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I:
the immediate causethe immediate cause
The spark that caused the
bomb to explode was when the
Arc...
WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I:
the immediate causethe immediate cause
The Assassin
from Serbia -
Princip
The Victims – Archduke ...
World War I began!World War I began!
WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I:
Effects on SingaporeEffects on Singapore

Rush forRush for

Controls on imports and exportsCont...
British ordered the sepoy (Indian) regimentBritish ordered the sepoy (Indian) regiment
stationed in Singapore to depart fo...
Plaque found in St Andrew’s Cathedral
THE GREAT DEPRESSIONTHE GREAT DEPRESSION
The Great Depression took place fromThe Great Depression took place from
1930 to ...
THE GREAT DEPRESSIONTHE GREAT DEPRESSION
Christmas dinner in the home of Earl Pauley near Smithland, Iowa.
http://history1900s.about.com/library/photos/blygd50.htm
EFFECTS OF GREATEFFECTS OF GREAT
DEPRESSION ON SINGAPOREDEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE
Decrease in trade and business

America a...
EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSIONEFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION
ON SINGAPOREON SINGAPORE
Unemployment and hardship

By 1931, one-t...
EFFECTS OF GREEFFECTS OF GREATAT
DEPRESSION ON SINGAPOREDEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE
Government’s response

Passed a law in 19...
External Events that AffectedExternal Events that Affected
SingaporeSingapore
Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution
O...
External Events That Affected Singapore
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  • The Industrial Revolution may be defined as the application of power-driven machinery to manufacturing.
    In the eighteenth century all of western Europe began to industrialize rapidly, but in England the process was most highly accelerated.
    The Industrial Revolution started in England, because that nation had the technological means, government encouragement, and a large and varied trade network.
    In the steam engine, coal was burned to turn water into steam. The pressure from the steam provided the energy for machines to produce goods in great quantities.
  • What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution (IR) on Singapore?
    How did the people and government in Singapore respond to the IR?
  • Qn: Invention of Steamship : How did this benefit Singapore?
    Hints:- Did more people come to the region?
    Who came?
    Why did they come for? (Do business/Find spouses/Come to the East to socialise with the locals?)
    Ans:Increase in Trade
    More Europeans sailed to the East
    -> Increase in no. of ships visiting Singapore and Increase in Singapore’s trade
    Important port of call in the region
    -> ships stopped at Singapore to refuel and obtain food supplies
    -> Collection of goods from the East + distribution of manufactured goods from the West
    Qn:How did the people in Singapore respond to IR?
    Ans:Asians in Singapore used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other ports in the region.
  • More Europeans sailed to the East
    -> Increase in no. of ships visiting Singapore and Increase in Singapore’s trade
    Important port of call in the region
    -> ships stopped at Singapore to refuel and obtain food supplies
    -> Collection of goods from the East + distribution of manufactured goods from the West
    Qn:How did the people in Singapore respond to IR?
    Ans:Asians in Singapore used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other ports in the region.
  • Letters - 4 to 5 months to reach Singapore from Europe
    Steamships - 5 weeks in the 1860s
    Singapore brought into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the world
  • The use of the Suez Canal shortened the distance and time between Britain and Singapore
    > This speeded up business activities
    With the savings in distance and time, the cost of shipping goods was reduced.
  • Wharves – area like a wide wall built beside the edge of a sea or river where ships can be tied and goods unloaded.
  • Emden: German warship arrived in the East in Sept 1914:
    Did not attack Singapore but presence in the area endangered the trade between Singapore and Europe.
    > Was attacking Br trading ships in the Indian Ocean
    Emden was finally destroyed by an Australian warship in Nov 1914. (removed the danger to singapore’s trade)
  • Why did they choose to release the German prisoners?
    - The German prisoners-of-war in Singapore who had been guarded by the sepoys, were able to stir up their feelings of hatred for the British.
  • Transcript of "External Events That Affected Singapore"

    1. 1. Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution Suez CanalSuez Canal World War IWorld War I The Great DepressionThe Great Depression
    2. 2. Lesson ObjectivesLesson Objectives You will learn:You will learn: The Industrial Revolution and its impact onThe Industrial Revolution and its impact on SingaporeSingapore The opening of the Suez Canal and itsThe opening of the Suez Canal and its impact on Singaporeimpact on Singapore
    3. 3. A New Chapter in the History of Man!!!A New Chapter in the History of Man!!!  The Industrial Revolution may be definedThe Industrial Revolution may be defined as the application of power-drivenas the application of power-driven machinery to manufacturing.machinery to manufacturing.  Britain in the 18Britain in the 18thth CenturyCentury  Invention of new machines:Invention of new machines: SpinningSpinning JennyJenny (spinning machine)(spinning machine)  New sources of power:New sources of power: Steam EngineSteam Engine using coalusing coal Sources : http://mars.acnet.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/industrialrev.html http://www.bergen.org/technology/indust1.html
    4. 4. Key Question • What were the effects of the Industrial Revolution (IR) on Singapore?
    5. 5. EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE The Invention of the SteamshipThe Invention of the Steamship - How did this benefit Singapore?How did this benefit Singapore? Ponder these: 1) Did more people come to the region? 2) If yes, who came? 3) If they came, the main reason why they came was to… a) Find spouses b) To socialize with the locals c) Do business
    6. 6. EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE Increase in Singapore’s TradeIncrease in Singapore’s Trade  More Europeans sailed to the Asia –More Europeans sailed to the Asia – why?why? -- ships stopping at Singapore increased ->ships stopping at Singapore increased -> trade increasedtrade increased  Important port-of-call in the regionImportant port-of-call in the region -- for steamships to refuel and obtain foodfor steamships to refuel and obtain food suppliessupplies - collection of goods from the East +- collection of goods from the East + distribution of manufactured goods from thedistribution of manufactured goods from the WestWest
    7. 7. EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE Improvements in CommunicationsImprovements in Communications Before: 4 – 5 monthsBefore: 4 – 5 months 1860s: 5 weeks1860s: 5 weeks -> Improvement in speed of communications =-> Improvement in speed of communications = Singapore was brought into closer contactSingapore was brought into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the worldwith Britain and the rest of the world Now: a few seconds (via email)Now: a few seconds (via email)
    8. 8. OPENING OF THE SUEZOPENING OF THE SUEZ CANALCANAL
    9. 9. Man-made waterway linking theMan-made waterway linking the Mediterranean Sea and Red SeaMediterranean Sea and Red Sea Suez route much shorter than Cape routeSuez route much shorter than Cape route (sea route around Cape of Good Hope)(sea route around Cape of Good Hope) Opened in 1869, the Suez Canal soonOpened in 1869, the Suez Canal soon becamebecame one of the busiest waterwaysone of the busiest waterways inin the worldthe world OPENING OF THE SUEZOPENING OF THE SUEZ CANALCANAL
    10. 10. Suez CanalSuez Canal Today: canal averagesToday: canal averages about 8% of the worldabout 8% of the world shipping trafficshipping traffic Advantages of the Suez CanalAdvantages of the Suez Canal - Compared with otherCompared with other waterways, the percentagewaterways, the percentage of accidents is almost nilof accidents is almost nil - Navigation goes by day andNavigation goes by day and nightnight Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, courtesy of NASA
    11. 11. Key QuestionKey Question ►How did the opening of SuezHow did the opening of Suez Canal result in a big increaseCanal result in a big increase in Singapore’s trade?in Singapore’s trade? “But the Suez Canal is so far away from Singapore, isn’t it?”
    12. 12. EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE 1) Increase in Trade1) Increase in Trade  Shortened distance -> traveling time reducedShortened distance -> traveling time reduced -> shipping cost reduced-> shipping cost reduced  More ships passing through the Straits of MalaccaMore ships passing through the Straits of Malacca to refuel and collect food suppliesto refuel and collect food supplies ->-> Increased the importance of SingaporeIncreased the importance of Singapore as a trading centre and as a port-of-callas a trading centre and as a port-of-call
    13. 13. EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE 2) Improvements in Port Facilities:2) Improvements in Port Facilities: Problems with the Old Harbour due toProblems with the Old Harbour due to several reasons:several reasons: Expansion of Singapore’s trade + arrival ofExpansion of Singapore’s trade + arrival of more steamshipsmore steamships ->-> OvercrowdedOvercrowded – lacked port facilities to cope– lacked port facilities to cope with increased trade activitieswith increased trade activities ->-> Boat Quay at the Old Harbour wasBoat Quay at the Old Harbour was shallowshallow and smalland small
    14. 14. EFFECTS ON SINGAPOREEFFECTS ON SINGAPORE Solution?Solution? -- New HarbourNew Harbour (deep and sheltered harbour)(deep and sheltered harbour) - Renamed Keppel Harbour in 1900- Renamed Keppel Harbour in 1900 - Could accommodate steamships and large sailing ships- Could accommodate steamships and large sailing ships (could sail right up to the shore without scraping the(could sail right up to the shore without scraping the bottom of the sea)bottom of the sea) -- New wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shopsNew wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops were builtwere built - Modern machineryModern machinery were used for loading and unloadingwere used for loading and unloading goods.goods. Therefore increased efficiency of port and enhanceTherefore increased efficiency of port and enhance Singapore’s reputationSingapore’s reputation
    15. 15. Key QuestionKey Question ►How did World War I affectHow did World War I affect Singapore when the war wasSingapore when the war was fought mainly by Europeanfought mainly by European countries in the West?countries in the West?
    16. 16. WORLD WAR IWORLD WAR I:: some underlying causessome underlying causes Competition for coloniesCompetition for colonies Arms and naval raceArms and naval race Alliances among the great poweAlliances among the great powe These underlying causes are like the gunpowder inside the bomb, ready to explode.
    17. 17. Acquire colonies to:Acquire colonies to:  further national securityfurther national security  enhance national prestigeenhance national prestige  obtain raw materialsobtain raw materials  gain access to markets for manufacturedgain access to markets for manufactured goodsgoods Competition for ColoniesCompetition for Colonies
    18. 18. Britain and France already in control of most of Africa and Asia Very little left for Germany Competition for colonies BackBack
    19. 19. Germany Arms and Naval Race Germany’s ambition to expand army and navy to rival its enemies Kaiser Wilhelm II in an interview published in the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph in November 1908 “Germany is a young and growing empire. She takes part in trade that is rapidly expanding. Germany must have a powerful fleet to protect that trade. She must be able to fight for her interests in any part of the world. Only those powers that have great navies will be listened to with respect.”
    20. 20. Britain Russia France Arms and Naval Race Britain, France and Russia felt the threatBritain, France and Russia felt the threat posed by an ambitious Germanyposed by an ambitious Germany Also increased army and navy to maintainAlso increased army and navy to maintain balance of military powerbalance of military power The race is on!The race is on! BackBack
    21. 21. Alliances among the Great PowersAlliances among the Great Powers Allied Powers • Britain • France • Russia • Italy (joined after May 1915) Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire versus
    22. 22. Alliances among the Great PowersAlliances among the Great Powers The great powers formed alliances for protection againstThe great powers formed alliances for protection against enemiesenemies But these alliances meant that a war between twoBut these alliances meant that a war between two countries would soon involve their allies and become acountries would soon involve their allies and become a bigger conflictbigger conflict
    23. 23. WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I: the immediate causethe immediate cause The spark that caused the bomb to explode was when the Archduke of Austria-Hungary was MURDERED!
    24. 24. WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I: the immediate causethe immediate cause The Assassin from Serbia - Princip The Victims – Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife
    25. 25. World War I began!World War I began!
    26. 26. WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I: Effects on SingaporeEffects on Singapore  Rush forRush for  Controls on imports and exportsControls on imports and exports  Trade threatened by theTrade threatened by the EmdenEmden  Sepoy Mutiny of 1915Sepoy Mutiny of 1915 Mission: Attack British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. Leave S’pore alone. Mission: Attack British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. Leave S’pore alone.
    27. 27. British ordered the sepoy (Indian) regimentBritish ordered the sepoy (Indian) regiment stationed in Singapore to depart for HK wherestationed in Singapore to depart for HK where they might be neededthey might be needed Rumour that the sepoys would be sent toRumour that the sepoys would be sent to Turkey to fight against the Muslims thereTurkey to fight against the Muslims there Mutiny (rebellion against the British) started onMutiny (rebellion against the British) started on 15 February 1915 - eve of their departure15 February 1915 - eve of their departure - roamed the town, killing any Europeans- roamed the town, killing any Europeans they sawthey saw WORLD WAR I:WORLD WAR I: Effects on SingaporeEffects on Singapore
    28. 28. Plaque found in St Andrew’s Cathedral
    29. 29. THE GREAT DEPRESSIONTHE GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression took place fromThe Great Depression took place from 1930 to 1939, starting with the US and1930 to 1939, starting with the US and spreading to the rest of the worldspreading to the rest of the world Period of very bad business conditionsPeriod of very bad business conditions Many factories, shops, banks had toMany factories, shops, banks had to close down.close down.
    30. 30. THE GREAT DEPRESSIONTHE GREAT DEPRESSION
    31. 31. Christmas dinner in the home of Earl Pauley near Smithland, Iowa. http://history1900s.about.com/library/photos/blygd50.htm
    32. 32. EFFECTS OF GREATEFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPOREDEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE Decrease in trade and business  America and Europe were the biggest buyers of tin and rubber  Businesses trading in these commodities were badly affected; some closed down while others retrenched workers or gave pay cuts
    33. 33. EFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSIONEFFECTS OF GREAT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPOREON SINGAPORE Unemployment and hardship  By 1931, one-third of the population was unemployed  Workers had to take pay cuts
    34. 34. EFFECTS OF GREEFFECTS OF GREATAT DEPRESSION ON SINGAPOREDEPRESSION ON SINGAPORE Government’s response  Passed a law in 1930 to restrict and reduce the number of immigrants coming to Singapore  Arranged for large numbers of unemployed Indians and Chinese to return to homeland
    35. 35. External Events that AffectedExternal Events that Affected SingaporeSingapore Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution Opening of Suez CanalOpening of Suez Canal World War OneWorld War One The Great DepressionThe Great Depression These events show us that countriesThese events show us that countries are interdependentare interdependent Singapore was and still is affected bySingapore was and still is affected by events that happen outside the countryevents that happen outside the country

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