British Defence in Singapore
• Building of the naval base
- Docking of British ships
- Sending ships to other parts of Asi...
British Defence in Singapore
• Installing 15-inch guns
- To repel any attacks from the sea
British Defence in Singapore
• Building of military airfields
- Tengah and Sembawang
Sembawang Air Force
Base
British Defence in Singapore
• Building of underground bunkers
- Fort Canning, Labrador, Sembawang
-entrance to the
underg...
British Defence in Singapore
Singapore – An “impregnable”
fortress
Major areas of attack : Tengah
Airfield, Kranji, Bukit Timah, City
areas
Surrender of the British
15 Feb 1942 – "Black ...
NAVAL BASE
SURRENDER
PERIMETER
MANDAI/NEE SOON
BUKIT TIMAH
PASIR PANJANG
15 FEB 1942
TENGAH
SELETAR
SEMBAWANG
2
1
3
4
SINGAPORE DURING
THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION
• Coming under New Masters
• Meeting Their Fates
• Living the Days of Darkness
• ...
COMING UNDER NEW MASTERS
• Singapore – Renamed ‘Syonan-To’
• Syonan = Light of the South
• People suffered great hardships...
MEETING THEIR FATES
• The Allied POWs
• The Local Civilians
• The Allied POWs
– British, Australian and Allied
Europeans, including women and
children, were imprisoned
– became POWs
...
• The Allied POWs
– Indians soldiers and Gurkhas
– asked to pledge loyalty to Japan
– asked to join the Indian National
Ar...
THE INA MONUMENT
• The Local Civilians
– Japanese took action to place locals under
control
– determined to wipe out those who might
threat...
Singapore Under Japanese Rule
Singapore Under Japanese Rule
Japanese soldiers using a
prisoner as a live target to
practise bayonet fighting
A Japanese soldier torturing a prisoner
THE PRICE OF PEACE
THE WATER TREATMENT
“…..our captors beat us up,
subject us to electric shocks
and pumped us up with water
as part of the i...
ELECTRIC SHOCKS
“…..when my interrogators could
not get information out of me,
they dragged my husband from
Outram Prison,...
“…..the electric shocks sent my
whole body into spasms; my
tears and mucus flowed
uncontrollably. The pain was
indescribab...
The Japanese regarded the Chinese as
their arch enemies. Why?
1. Strong Chinese resistance during Japanese
invasion of Chi...
Mass Screening
• All Chinese men 18-50 years old
• report to Mass screening centres
• Questioned by Japanese or singled ou...
MEETING THEIR FATES
Hooded Informers
Eurasians
• suffered - related to Europeans
• Japanese thought the Eurasians saw themselves
as superior to the Asians
• Ma...
Malays and Indians
• Japanese did not see them as a threat
• Tried to win the support of the Malays and
convince them that...
FEAR
• Harsh action taken to establish control
• Looters were shot and beheaded, public
display of heads
• Barbed wires to...
FEAR
• Close watch over the people
• Documents - work badges, vehicle and
radio passes
• Families had to be registered
• S...
THE KEMPEITAI
• Most feared of all Japanese
• Spies all over the island
• encouraged people to supply them with
info by gi...
Hardship and Suffering
• Life of POWs in prison camps
• Death Railway
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
Hardship and Suffering
• Life of POWs in prison camps
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
Hardship and Suffering
• Death Railway
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
DEATH RAILWAY
Hardship and Suffering
• Local civilians - serious shortage of food
and other goods
• Essential foodstuffs like rice, salt...
Black Market
• Not only basic necessities but all sorts of goods
• Because of shortages
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
Inevitably, a black market thrived.
Towards the end of the war, a tin of State
Express cigaret...
BANANA NOTES (Worthless)
RATION CARD
You could not get any provisions
from shops if you did not have
this ration card.
Each adult was given a ratio...
LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
A unique feature of the Occupation period
was the making of substitutes. A kind of
chemical oi...
Propaganda
• To influence the minds of the people to
show loyalty to Japan
1. Learn the Japanese language
2. Influence sch...
ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
• MPAJA : Malayan People’s Anti-
Japanese Army
– sudden attacks on Japanese
troops
– Hid in the Malay...
ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
• Force 136
– Secret British organisation to
organise sabotage activities
– locals were also recruite...
ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
LESSONS
• Defeat of the British
– poor preparations for war
– underestimation of enemy
– always be prepared to defend
one’...
LEE KUAN YEW
“My colleagues and I are of that generation
of young men who went through the
Second World War and the Japane...
CHANGI PRISON CHAPEL
CHANGI MURALS
WAR MEMORIAL
WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE
WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE
WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE
Chap 6   The Syonan Years (2003)
Chap 6   The Syonan Years (2003)
Chap 6   The Syonan Years (2003)
Chap 6   The Syonan Years (2003)
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Chap 6 The Syonan Years (2003)

  1. 1. British Defence in Singapore • Building of the naval base - Docking of British ships - Sending ships to other parts of Asia in the event of an attack A ship at the naval base
  2. 2. British Defence in Singapore • Installing 15-inch guns - To repel any attacks from the sea
  3. 3. British Defence in Singapore • Building of military airfields - Tengah and Sembawang Sembawang Air Force Base
  4. 4. British Defence in Singapore • Building of underground bunkers - Fort Canning, Labrador, Sembawang -entrance to the underground bunker at Fort Canning
  5. 5. British Defence in Singapore Singapore – An “impregnable” fortress
  6. 6. Major areas of attack : Tengah Airfield, Kranji, Bukit Timah, City areas Surrender of the British 15 Feb 1942 – "Black Sunday"
  7. 7. NAVAL BASE SURRENDER PERIMETER MANDAI/NEE SOON BUKIT TIMAH PASIR PANJANG 15 FEB 1942 TENGAH SELETAR SEMBAWANG 2 1 3 4
  8. 8. SINGAPORE DURING THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION • Coming under New Masters • Meeting Their Fates • Living the Days of Darkness • Fighting against the Japanese • Lessons from the Japanese Occupation
  9. 9. COMING UNDER NEW MASTERS • Singapore – Renamed ‘Syonan-To’ • Syonan = Light of the South • People suffered great hardships • Lived in constant fear of the Japanese
  10. 10. MEETING THEIR FATES • The Allied POWs • The Local Civilians
  11. 11. • The Allied POWs – British, Australian and Allied Europeans, including women and children, were imprisoned – became POWs – Changi Prison, Selarang Barracks – numbered more than 50,000 MEETING THEIR FATES
  12. 12. • The Allied POWs – Indians soldiers and Gurkhas – asked to pledge loyalty to Japan – asked to join the Indian National Army (INA) – set up by CPT Mohan Singh, a surrendered officer from the British Indian Army – those who refused were tortured, imprisoned or killed MEETING THEIR FATES
  13. 13. THE INA MONUMENT
  14. 14. • The Local Civilians – Japanese took action to place locals under control – determined to wipe out those who might threaten their rule – The Chinese became the main target – Wipe out all those considered to be anti- Japanese – Operation Sook Ching MEETING THEIR FATES
  15. 15. Singapore Under Japanese Rule
  16. 16. Singapore Under Japanese Rule
  17. 17. Japanese soldiers using a prisoner as a live target to practise bayonet fighting A Japanese soldier torturing a prisoner
  18. 18. THE PRICE OF PEACE
  19. 19. THE WATER TREATMENT “…..our captors beat us up, subject us to electric shocks and pumped us up with water as part of the interrogation routine. The feeling of having one’s belly pumped full of water and then seeing the water gushing out of the body was hardly bearable.”
  20. 20. ELECTRIC SHOCKS “…..when my interrogators could not get information out of me, they dragged my husband from Outram Prison, tied him up and made him kneel beside me. Then, in his full view, they stripped me to the waist and applied electric currents to me.”
  21. 21. “…..the electric shocks sent my whole body into spasms; my tears and mucus flowed uncontrollably. The pain was indescribable, but it must have been thousands of times worse for my husband who had to see me being tortured.” “A Shameful Past in Human Memory : A Verbal Account by Elizabeth Choy” by Jane Thum Soon Kun in The Price of Peace ELECTRIC SHOCKS
  22. 22. The Japanese regarded the Chinese as their arch enemies. Why? 1. Strong Chinese resistance during Japanese invasion of China 2. Chinese in S’pore actively helped China in its fight against Japan’s attack 3. In the Battle of Bukit Timah, the Chinese volunteers put up a fierce resistance against the invading Japanese troops MEETING THEIR FATES
  23. 23. Mass Screening • All Chinese men 18-50 years old • report to Mass screening centres • Questioned by Japanese or singled out by hooded local informers • More fortunate ones allowed to go home – “EXAMINED” stamped on a small piece of paper – sometimes stamped onto shirts or arms • Those accused of being anti-Japanese were brought to remote areas of Singapore and killed MEETING THEIR FATES
  24. 24. MEETING THEIR FATES Hooded Informers
  25. 25. Eurasians • suffered - related to Europeans • Japanese thought the Eurasians saw themselves as superior to the Asians • Many belonged to the Singapore Volunteer Corps and fought against the Japanese • Those suspected of helping the British were shot • Others were imprisoned MEETING THEIR FATES
  26. 26. Malays and Indians • Japanese did not see them as a threat • Tried to win the support of the Malays and convince them that Japan would free them from Japanese rule • Persuaded Indians that Japan would free India from Britain • Both races not entirely spared though, esp if they did not obey Japanese orders MEETING THEIR FATES
  27. 27. FEAR • Harsh action taken to establish control • Looters were shot and beheaded, public display of heads • Barbed wires to form road blocks • Bowing as a sign of respect LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  28. 28. FEAR • Close watch over the people • Documents - work badges, vehicle and radio passes • Families had to be registered • Surprise checks LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  29. 29. THE KEMPEITAI • Most feared of all Japanese • Spies all over the island • encouraged people to supply them with info by giving rewards and privileges • Anti-Jap suspects beaten and tortured until they reveal the info the Japs wanted • Nobody knew whom to trust • Anti-Japanese suspects were tortured to make them confess or to extract information from them • Often people were punished for crimes they did not commit
  30. 30. Hardship and Suffering • Life of POWs in prison camps • Death Railway LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  31. 31. Hardship and Suffering • Life of POWs in prison camps LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  32. 32. Hardship and Suffering • Death Railway LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  33. 33. DEATH RAILWAY
  34. 34. Hardship and Suffering • Local civilians - serious shortage of food and other goods • Essential foodstuffs like rice, salt and sugar were controlled • Ration cards : Limit amount of food for each person • Coping with shortages : Simple diets; substitutes; improvise • Malnutrition and diseases • Shortage of medicine LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  35. 35. Black Market • Not only basic necessities but all sorts of goods • Because of shortages LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  36. 36. LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS Inevitably, a black market thrived. Towards the end of the war, a tin of State Express cigarettes cost $5,000, a bottle of Johnny Walker whisky cost about $12,000…….A tin of butter would fetch $950, a case of powered milk $25,000. Who operated the black markets? Lots of people, including retired government servants, people who disliked working under the Japanese, former bankers and newspapermen. Syonan – My Story By Mamoru Shinozaki
  37. 37. BANANA NOTES (Worthless)
  38. 38. RATION CARD You could not get any provisions from shops if you did not have this ration card. Each adult was given a ration of 4.8kg of rice per month and each child 2.4kg. This amount was subsequently reduced to 3.6kg per month for adults.
  39. 39. LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS A unique feature of the Occupation period was the making of substitutes. A kind of chemical oil was developed from coconut oil. Wheat, flour, butter and milk were sold at such high prices that the people were forced to find substitutes. Cakes, bread, cookies were made with ‘chemical flour’ or sago flour. Fibre was obtained from the leaves of pineapples and used for making paper, while the fibre from coconut husks was used to make ropes. Adapted from Malayan Chinese Resistance to Japan 1937-1945 Selected Source Materials edited by Shu Yun- Tsiao and Chua Ser Koon
  40. 40. Propaganda • To influence the minds of the people to show loyalty to Japan 1. Learn the Japanese language 2. Influence school children 3. Controlled radio stations and radio sets 4. Only Japanese movies and propaganda shown in cinemas 5. Chinese and English newspapers controlled strictly by Japanese LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
  41. 41. ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS • MPAJA : Malayan People’s Anti- Japanese Army – sudden attacks on Japanese troops – Hid in the Malayan jungles – Life was hard there – tried to stir up anti-Japanese feelings among the people by distributing newspapers
  42. 42. ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
  43. 43. ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS • Force 136 – Secret British organisation to organise sabotage activities – locals were also recruited – trained secretly in India and sent to Malaya to help MPAJA – Lim Bo Seng was one of the leaders – Captured in Mar 1944 and tortured to death
  44. 44. ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
  45. 45. LESSONS • Defeat of the British – poor preparations for war – underestimation of enemy – always be prepared to defend one’s country • Respect for British dipped after the war • People’s suffering – need to rid Singapore of foreign masters
  46. 46. LEE KUAN YEW “My colleagues and I are of that generation of young men who went through the Second World War and the Japanese Occupation and became determined that no one - neither the Japanese nor the British - had the right to push and kick us around. We were determined that we could govern ourselves and bring up our children in a country where we can be a self-respecting people.”
  47. 47. CHANGI PRISON CHAPEL
  48. 48. CHANGI MURALS
  49. 49. WAR MEMORIAL
  50. 50. WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE
  51. 51. WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE
  52. 52. WAR MEMORIAL SERVICE

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