SENTENCESentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description. Complete sentences need both the subject and the predicate.
CONJUNCTIONA CONJUNCTION is a word that connects or joins together words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.EXAMPLES: Rob and I went to the movies. Susan appreciated the flowers; nevertheless, a Corvette would be a finer a gift. The bank robber dodged the bullet while Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia.
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONCoordinating conjunctions connect two equal parts of a sentence.EXAMPLES: I dodged the bullet, but Joey was shot seventeen times in the tibia. We ordered pizza but we couldn’t pay for it.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB When the job of an adverb is to connect ideas, we call it a conjunctive adverb. A conjunctive adverb can join two main clauses. In this situation, the conjunctive adverb behaves like a coordinating conjunction, connecting two complete ideas.EXAMPLES: The thunder and lightning were intense; consequently, the crowd dispersed. John was tired after a long day at school. Therefore, he immediately took a nap when he got home.
SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONSubordinate conjunctions connect two unequal parts, e.g., dependent and independent clauses.EXAMPLES: Susan appreciated the flowers even though a Corvette would be a finer gift. The gods thundered in the heavens as mortals below cowered in fear.
SENTENCE STRUCTURE RULES [Independent Clause] , pure conjunction [independent clause] The gods thundered in the heavens, and the mortals below cowered in fear. [Independent clause] ; conjunctive adverb , [independent clause] The gods thundered in the heavens; furthermore, the mortals below cowered in fear. [Independent clause] ; [independent clause] The gods thundered in the heavens; the mortals below cowered in fear.
SENTENCE STRUCTURE RULES [Dependent clause] , [independent clause] While the gods thundered in the heavens, the mortals below cowered in fear. [Dependent clause] subordinate conjunction [independent clause] The gods thundered in the heavens as mortals below cowered in fear.[Independent clause] conjunction [dependent clause] The gods thundered in the heavens and mortals below cowered in fear.
A phrase is a collection of words that may have nounsor verbals, but it does not have a subject doing a verb. The following are examples of phrases: leaving behind the dog smashing into a fence before the first test after the devastation between ignorance and intelligence broken into thousands of pieces because of her glittering smileIn these examples above, you will find nouns (dog, fence, test,devastation, ignorance, intelligence, thousands, pieces). You alsohave some verbal(leaving, smashing), but in no case is the nounfunctioning as a subject doing a predicate verb.
NOUN PHRASE A noun phrase or nominal phrase is a phrase which has noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head word.Examples: Almost every sentence contains at least one noun phrase. The election year politics are annoying for many people. Current economic weakness may be a result of high energy prices.
VERB PHRASE Verb phrases are easy to recognize. They consist of a verb and all the related helping words. Verb phrases function as single-word verbs, to express action or to link subject and complement.Examples: Walking on the ice, she slipped and fell. She was walking to the mall. Open the door to let the fresh air in.
ADJECTIVAL PHRASE An adjectival phrase usually starts with a preposition (e.g., of, in, on) or a participle (e.g., taken, leaving) and follows the noun it is modifying.Examples: This is the end of a very long road. My sister is fond of animals. Did you see the man leaving the shop?
ADVERBIAL PHRASE An adverbial phrase is a group of related words which play the role of an adverb. Like all phrases, an adverbial phrase does not include a subject and a verb.Examples: Tony decided to move to Slough in June last year. Darcy can build a card pyramid in less than a minute. As long as the wind speed is sufficient, the electrical energy will be continuously generated.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.Examples: The hamster sprinted across its cage. There are a number of factors. The bus went along Cam St. and hit the top of the tunnel.
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE A participial phrase is a group of words acting as an adjective and modifying a noun or pronoun. A participle is the -ed or -ing form of a verb.Examples: You could see the panther releasing its grip. We must raise funds to replace the window broken last week in the storm. Is that Arthur running for the bus?
APPOSITIVE An appositive, a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun, adds information about a noun but in a way different than do adjectives. Appositives are usually offset with commas, brackets or dashes.Examples: My best friend, Lee, caught a whelk when he was fishing for bass. Dr Pat, the creator of the turnip brew, sold 8 barrels on the first day.
INFINITIVE PHRASE An infinitive phrase is formed from an infinitive and other related words. An infinitive is the word "to" followed by a verb. This type of phrase functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.Examples: To get an appointment with him requires a great amount of patience. (As a noun) The decision to eliminate vacations was very unpopular. (As an adjective) He wrote a letter to raise funds for the foundation. (As an adverb)
GERUND PHRASE A gerund is a verb with an "ing" ending that functions as a noun. Gerund phrases look like some participial phrases. The difference is that participial phrases function as adjectives; gerund phrases function as nouns.Examples: Eating blackberries without washing them will make you ill. I am not prepared to authorize climbing the cliffs in the dark. So, you think beating eggs with a fork is acceptable, do you?
ABSOLUTE PHRASE An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any companying modifiers or objects. Absolute phrases resemble clauses, but the predicate is incomplete.Examples: The plumber disappeared into the hole, a pipe wrench in his hand. Our fingers scraping the leftover frosting off the plates. Her arms folded across her chest.
A clause is a collection of words that has a subject thatis actively doing a verb. The following are examples of clauses: since she laughs at diffident men I despise individuals of low character when the saints go marching in because she smiled at him The boy is going to the school Susan appreciated the flowers The bank robber dodged the bulletIn these examples above, we find either a noun or a pronoun thatis a subject attached to a predicate verb.
SENTENCES CAN BE BROKEN DOWN INTO CLAUSESEXAMPLE: The boy is going to the school, and he is going to eat there. This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: Independent clauses and subordinate or dependent clauses. A sentence can either contain two independent clauses or dependent and independent clauses.
DEPENDENT CLAUSE Cannot stand by themselves. Do not express a complete thought. Subordinating Conjunction or Relative Pronoun+ Subject + PredicateExamples: Unless you want to go. Because I care. And you lose your cool.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Can stand by itself or with a dependent. Expresses a complete thought. Subject + Predicate (no conjunction)Examples: I ran. Fractions are fun. Pizza tastes good.
NOUN CLAUSE A noun clause is a group of words used as a noun. A noun clause can play any of the functions a noun plays: subject, direct object, object of preposition, subjective or object complementExamples: Most microcomputers use what are called flexible diskettes for program and data storage.
ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE An adjective clause is almost a complete sentence — but not quite. It functions the same way a single-word adjective does: both modify, that is, add more information to our understanding of a noun.Examples: The idea of the artificial heart arose in part from the need to treat people who cannot receive a donor heart.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE An adverbial clause is also nearly a complete sentence; it functions like an adverb does by explaining the how, when, where, and why of the discussion.Examples: As long as the wind speed is sufficient, the electrical energy will be continuously generated.
RELATIVE CLAUSE A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun and functions as an adjective. This clause couldnt stand by itself. Its role in the complete sentence is to modify the subject of the independent clause.Examples: The ceremony, which several celebrities attended, received widespread media coverage.
TRY IT! Label the underlined group of words as (P) phrase, (DC) dependent clause, or (IC) independent clause. Planning her questions carefully, she was able to hold fast-paced and engaging interviews. The athlete who placed first grew up in Argentina. When I come home from school, my brand new kitten jumps all over me. Known for her interviewing skills, she was asked to host her own radio program. She received the gold medal because she performed flawlessly. During her sophomore year of high school, she discovered what true friendship was. Fearing a drought, all the farmers in the area used less irrigation water. What the witness said may not be true. Unable to reach a compromise, Teresa and Tad took separate vacations. All the farmers in the area, recognizing the signs of drought, used less irrigation water.