Satellite Application


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A Brief Overview of the various applications

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  • India is amongst the first few countries to realise the potential of space technology and its applications. The pioneer of the Indian space programme, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai,  under whose chairmanship, the Indian National Committee  for Space  Research (INCOSPAR)  was formed in 1962, had cherished a dream that India should be second to none in the application of advanced technologies like space to solve the real problems of man and society.  In 1972, the Indian Space Programme was formally organised with the setting up of the Space Commission and  government funding through the Department of Space.
  • SITE was the largest sociological experiment ever carried out in the world.
    STEP  was  another  major demonstration of long distance satellite telecommunication application of space.
  • A major development took place during 1980's, through establishment of the operational Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system, for providing indigenous services in telecommunications, TV broadcasting, meteorology and disaster warning. INSAT series, commissioned  in 1983, has today become one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the world.
  • for industrial employees, social welfare personnel and training of Panchayat Raj (village governance) workers, etc.

    This project is being expanded to cover more villages that  will  be  dedicated  to  the development of rural society.
  • India  has  3.3  million  km2 land area with varied physical features ranging from snow-covered Himalayas  in  the north  to  tropical forests  in  south  and from regions in the east receiving  highest  rainfall  in  the world to deserts of Rajasthan in the west.   India is also blessed with vast natural wealth but yet to be exploited fully.  A coastal belt of 7,500 km has a store of rich aquatic resources. What better way can be there to monitor and manage the natural resources for a large country like India than using the powerful tool of space-based observation systems?    India  not only demonstrated the potential of space-based remote sensing in the 70's using data received from the US satellite, LANDSAT, but also built  its  own  experimental  satellites, BHASKARA-1  and  BHASKARA-2,  which  were launched in June 1979 and November 1981, respectively. India became one of the few countries to develop its own operational Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1A) in March 1988.  Today, India has the largest constellation of five remote sensing satellites, IRS-1B, IRS-1C, IRS-1D, IRS-P3, and IRS-P4 in operation. Among them are  IRS-1C and  IRS-1D,  which  are  the  best  civilian  remote  sensing  satellites  in  the  world.  IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT-1) launched in May 1999 is used for Ocean Resources monitoring and for understanding the atmosphere over the oceans. Two  more  satellites,  IRS-P5  for cartographic applications and IRS-P6 for resources survey, are planned for launch in the coming years.
    Data from IRS is used for estimation of acreage and yield of important crops like wheat, rice, sorghum, oil seeds and sugarcane, and other applications such as forest survey,  forecasting  drought  conditions, flood mapping and demarcation of flood-risk zones, land use and land cover mapping for agro-climatic planning, waste land mapping and their classification for possible reclamation, preparation of hydro-geo-morphological maps for locating sites for borewells, monitoring and development of irrigation command areas, snow-cover and snow-melt  run-off estimation  of Himalayan rivers for optimal use of  water,  etc. Data from IRS is also used in urban planning, alignment of roads and pipelines,  detection  of  underground  fires in collieries, marine resources survey, mineral  prospecting, etc. A unique application of data from IRS is in the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) which is  aimed  at  generating  locale-specific prescriptions for development at micro-level. The impact of IMSD is  already  seen  in areas  where prescriptions generated have been actually implemented.
  • a) Atmospheric Motion Vector(m/s), b) Upper Tropospheric Humidity(%), c) Outgoing Longwave Radiation, d) Quantitative Precipitation Index (mm)
  • The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (usually known by its abbreviation, GSLV) is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets.previously depended on Soviet Union rockets.
  • The first two flights of the GSLV were developmental. The first, partially successful, flight was on 18 April 2001 which launched GSAT-1. The second, which was fully successful, was on 8 May 2003 launching the experimental communication satellite GSAT-2. The first operational flight (GSLV-F01) was the launch of the EDUSAT communications satellite on 20 September 2004.
    The fourth flight (GSLV-F02) on 10 July 2006 was unsuccessful in launching the 2168 kg (4,780 lb) communications satellite INSAT-4C as both rocket and satellite were destroyed over the Bay of Bengal after the rocket's trajectory veered outside of permitted limits.[3] A defective propellant regulator of the fourth strap-on motor caused asymmetric thrust on the vehicle, steering it off course and consequently the self destruct feature was deployed as a safety measure. The fifth flight of GSLV (GSLV-F04), carrying a replacement for INSAT-4C was successfully completed on 2 September 2007, carrying the INSAT-4CR satellite ( a payload of roughly 2160 kg carrying 12 KU band transponders capable of reaching across India) into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit.[4]
    The five flights of GSLV so far have used Russian cryogenic engine for the last stage. The next flight will use an indigenous cryogenic engine developed by ISRO.
  • Remote sensing is the small or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing device(s) that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object (such as by way of aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, buoy, or ship). In practice, remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of devices for gathering information on a given object or area. Thus, Earth observation or weather satellite collection platforms, ocean and atmospheric observing weather buoy platforms.
  • Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors.
  • Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible areas. Remote sensing applications include monitoring deforestation in areas such as the Amazon Basin, the effects of climate change on glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic regions, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths. Military collection during the cold war made use of stand-off collection of data about dangerous border areas. Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground, ensuring in the process that areas or objects are not disturbed.
  • With the development of a physical oceanography program at CSI, the need to put site-specific measurements into a larger spatial context became imperative. Satellite-based remote sensing data were beginning to fill that need by the late 1970s (Huh et al., 1978). In 1988 Dr. Oscar Huh started the Earth Scan Laboratory (ESL) within CSI with a grant from Louisiana’s Educational Quality Enhancement Fund. The ESL is a direct broadcast ground station and remote sensing laboratory that receives and processes real-time environmental satellite data using three antenna on LSU rooftops. This station was first on the Gulf coast to receive NOAA AVHRR images. ESL capabilities have expanded to include real-time reception and processing of data from five additional satellite sensors; including GOES GVAR, Orbview-2 SeaWiFS, Terra-1 and Aqua-1 MODIS, Oceansat-1 OCM and SAR (synthetic aperture radar). The ESL houses a large archive of environmental satellite data dating back to 1988.
  • The medium-resolution radiometer is another workhorse, and offers excellent spatial coverage each time the satellite passes overhead. Examples are the NOAA Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, resolution about 1-4 km, swath about 2000 km) and the new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS, resolution 0.25-1.0 km, swath about 2,300 km) onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. Unfortunately from a sea ice perspective, these sensors are severely limited by cloud cover and, in the case of visible-near-infrared sensors, polar darkness. However, such is the regularity of coverage that gaps can usually be found in the cloud cover; and cloud cover is itself an important climate variable.
    Composite ocean colour image of the Southern Ocean from data from the SeaWiFs sensor onboard the SeaStar satellite (Sep ’97 – Aug ‘00. The colours relate to chlorophyll a concentrations in the upper ice-free ocean (red - highest concentration). Sea ice and ice sheets are masked out in white.
    Courtesy of NASA.
    Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image of the Cape Adare region (image centered on 70.92°S, 171.62°E), December 12 1999 (about 21:00 UTC). The ETM simultaneously collects high-resolution data in 8 bands (0.45-12.5 microns) across a 180 x 183 km scene. Note that individual floe assemblages are resolved. Courtesy of US Geological Survey and Eosat International.
  • Satellite Application

    1. 1. By :- Paul Sourya Chatterjee (1034) 1
    2. 2. Pioneer of the Indian Space Programme Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Founder and Chairman Indian National Committee for Space Research, 1962. 2
    3. 3. SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 3  In 1975-76, the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) telecast a series of educational TV programmes on health, family planning, agriculture, education to cover 2,500 Indian villages via the US satellite, ATS-6.  The Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project (STEP), conducted using Franco-German SYMPHONIE satellite during 1977-79.  India also launched its own APPLE (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment), an experimental communication satellite, in June, 1981 using the opportunity offered by the European Space Agency (ESA) to launch this satellite on board the third developmental flight of ARIANE.
    4. 4.  Largest domestic communication system in the world.  Joint venture undertaken by the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India Meteorological Department and All India Radio and Doordarshan.  Serves the television and communication needs of India.  Carries with it 199 transponders and has Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) and CCD cameras for metrological imaging. 4
    5. 5. PERFORMANCE OF INSAT 5  Television reaches to about 85 percent of the population through over 1000 TV transmitters linked via INSAT.  Educational programmes for over 100 hours are telecast every week.  INSAT system has become a powerful tool for training and developmental education and is used by various agencies to provide continuing education, conduct in-situ training.  A pilot project that started in November, 1996 in a tribal district of Madhya Pradesh in Central India is now in progress to educate the tribal community on various aspects of health, hygiene, family planning, women's rights, etc.
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. Sl. No. Satellite Launch Date Mission Status 1 INSAT – 1A 10 April 1982 Deactivated on 6 September 1982 2 INSAT – 1B 30 August 1983 Completed mission life 3 INSAT – 1C 22 July 1988 Abandoned in November 1989 4 INSAT – 1D 12 June 1990 Completed mission life 5 INSAT – 2A 10 July 1992 India's First Indigenous communication Satellite. Completed mission life 6 INSAT – 2B 23 July 1993 Completed mission life 7 INSAT – 2C 7 December 1997 Completed mission life 8 INSAT – 2D 4 June 1997 Became inoperable on 4 October 1997 9 INSAT – 2DT In-orbit procurement Completed mission life 13
    8. 8. Sl. No. Satellite Launch Date Mission Status 10 INSAT – 2E 3 April 1999 In service 11 INSAT – 3A 10 April 2003 In service 12 INSAT – 3B 22 May 2000 In service 13 INAST – 3C 24 January 2002 In service 14 KALPANA – 1 12 September 2002 In service 15 GSAT – 1 8 May 2003 In service 16 INSAT – 3E 28 September 2003 In service 17 EDUSAT 20 September 2004 In service 18 INSAT – 4A 22 December 2005 In service 19 INSAT – 4CR 2 September 2007 In geosynchronous orbit Contd. 14
    9. 9. 15 BHASKARA - 1 • BHASKARA-1 Launched in June 1979 • BHASKARA-2 Launched in November 1981 • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (1988)  IRS - 1A  IRS – 1B  IRS – 1C (Civilian RS satellite)  IRS – 1D (Civilian RS satellite)  IRS – P3  IRS – P4 (OCEANSAT)  IRS – P5 (Cartographic applications)  IRS – P6 (Resource Survey)
    10. 10. Images derived from INSAT 3A and Kalpana 16 a) Atmospheric Motion Vector(m/s), b) Upper Tropospheric Humidity(%), c) Outgoing Longwave Radiation, d) Quantitative Precipitation Index (mm)
    11. 11. Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) GSLV at the Launch Site - Sriharikota
    12. 12. 18 GSLV-F04 at Vehicle Assembly Building GSLV-F04 lifts off from the Second Launch Pad carrying INSAT-4CR
    13. 13. Expendable launch vehicle ISRO India 49 m (160 ft) 2.8 m (9.1 ft) 402,000 kg (886,000 lb) 3 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) 2,500 kg (5,500 lb) Active 19 Sriharikota 5 4 1 18 April 2001  4 L40H Vikas, S139, GS2 Vikas, RD-56M 262s, 166s, 295s, 406s 160 s, 100 s, 150 s, 720 s N2O4/UDMH, HTPB (solid), LOX/LH2
    14. 14. 20 Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload Mission Status D1 GSLV Mk.I(a) 18 April 2001 Sriharikota GSAT-1 Success, Developmental Flight. D2 GSLV Mk.I(a) 8 May 2003 Sriharikota GSAT-2 Success, Developmental Flight F01 GSLV Mk.I(b) 20 September 2004 Sriharikota EDUSAT Success, First operational flight. F02 GSLV Mk.I(b) 10 July 2006 Sriharikota INSAT-4C Unsuccessful; both rocket and satellite had to be destroyed over the Bay of Bengal after the rocket's trajectory veered outside of permitted limits.
    15. 15. 21 Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload F?? GSLV MK.?? 2009 Sriharikota Healthsat TAUVEX-2 F?? GSLV MK.?? 2009 Sriharikota Insat-3D F?? GSLV MK.?? 2012 Sriharikota Aditya (space craft)
    16. 16. 22
    17. 17. 23 There are two types of remote sensing :- I. Passive Remote Sensing:- Sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding area being observed. Example:- infra-red, charge-coupled devices. II. Active Remote Sensing:- Active collection emits energy in order to scan objects and areas whereupon a passive sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target. RADAR is an example of active remote sensing.
    18. 18. 24  Conventional radar is mostly associated with aerial traffic control and large scale meteorological data. Types of active collection includes plasmas in the ionosphere. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar is used to produce precise digital elevation models of large scale terrain.  Laser and radar altimeters on satellites have provided a wide range of data. By measuring the bulges of water caused by gravity, they map features on the seafloor to a resolution of a mile or so. By measuring the height and wave-length of ocean waves, the altimeters measure wind speeds and direction, and surface ocean currents and directions.  LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) - is well known in the examples of weapon ranging, laser illuminated homing of projectiles. LIDAR is used to detect and measure the concentration of various chemicals in the atmosphere, while airborne LIDAR can be used to measure heights of objects and features on the ground more accurately than with radar technology.
    19. 19. 25 This image reveals the spatial extent of river sediments on the Louisiana shelf after a cold front passage event. Red, green and blue channels are continued in this "true colour" enhancement (Feb 23, 2003). Satellite Image from the Terra-1 Modis
    20. 20. Ocean Chlorophyll Parameter 26 Image shows chlorophyll-a distribution on the Louisiana shelf on 22 March 2003. The image was captured by the Oceansat-1 ocean colour monitor.
    21. 21. 27 Image from the SeaWiFs onboard SeaStar satellite. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image of the Cape Adare region.
    22. 22. 28  Imagery from Google Earth is provided by a company called DigitalGlobe.  A new spacecraft known as WorldView is now launched. The new ‘craft’ provides high definition satellite, which means more accuracy for us users.  Together with the company’s existing Quickbird satellite, it offers half-meter resolution and collects over 6 million km2 of imagery each day, up from the current collection of that amount each week.
    23. 23. 29 Satellite Image of San Francisco from LANDSAT
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