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Dense wavelength division multiplexing

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  • 1. WELCOME
  • 2. A POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

    ON
    DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISION
    MULTIPLEXING
    --PRESENTED BY
    NITESH SRIVASTAVA
    DEPT- ECE
    SEM- 6TH
    ROLL- 32
  • 3. Wavelength division
    Multiplexing :
    • WDM is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical
    carrier signals on a single optical fiber by using different
    wavelengths of laser light to carry different signals.
    • There are two types of WDM—
    > Coarse WDM
    > Dense WDM
  • 4. What is dwdm ??
    > Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a
    technology that uses more than eight multiplexed signals
    to transmit many wavelengths of light simultaneously
    over a single optical fiber .
  • 5. HISTORY OF DWDM ::
    64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window
    Next generation DWDM system
    Channel spacing of 0.2 to 0.4 nm
    16 to 40 channels in 1550nm window
    DWDM (Dense wdm)
    Channel spacing of 0.8 to 1.6
    2 to 8 channels in 1550nm window
    Passive (or) 2nd generation WDM
    Channel spacing of~ 3.2nm
    2 channels WWDM (Wideband WDM)
    1310nm & 1550nm
    Late
    1990’s
    Mid
    1990’s
    Early
    1990’s
    1980’s
  • 6. A dwdm system::
    *A basic DWDM system contains several main components:
    (a) A DWDM terminal multiplexer
    (b) An intermediate line repeater
    (c) An intermediate optical terminal
    (d) A DWDM terminal demultiplexer
    (e) Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)
  • 7. Block diagram of
    dwdm system ::
  • 8. Itu-tg ::
    • ITU standards suggest that the OSC should utilize an OC-3 signal
    structure, though some vendors have opted to use 100 megabit
    Ethernet or another signal format.
    • Transponders in some systems supporting 40 GHz nominal operation
    may also perform forward error correction (FEC) via 'digital wrapper'
    technology, as described in the ITU-TG.709 standard.
    • Through ITU-TG.694.1frequency grid , it is easier to integrate WDM
    with older but more standard SONET/SDH systems.
  • 9. WAVELENGTH
    CONVERTING TRANSPONDERS ::
    • Wavelength converting transponders translate the transmitted
    wavelength of a client-layer signal into one of the DWDM system's
    equivalent internal wavelengths.
    • In the mid-1990s,wavelength converting transponders rapidly took
    on the additional function of signal regeneration.
    Signal regeneration in transponders quickly evolved through 1R
    to 2R to 3R .
    1R 2R 3R
    Retransmission Re-time,
    Re-transmit
    Re-time,
    Re-transmit,
    Re-shape
  • 10. RECONFIGURABLE OPTICAL
    ADD-DROP MULTIPLEXER ::
    • Intermediate optical amplification sites in DWDM systems may allow
    for the dropping and adding of certain wavelength channels. Adding or
    dropping wavelengths requires manually inserting or replacing
    wavelength-selective cards.
  • 11. OPTICAL CROSS CONNECTS::
    (OXC)
    • When the network topology is a mesh ,an additional fibre
    interconnection device is needed to route the signals from an input
    port to the desired output port.These devices are called optical
    crossconnectors(OCXs).Various categories of OXCs include electronic,
    optical, and wavelength selective devices.
  • 12. CHANNEL SPACING ::
    • The minimum frequency separation between two different
    multiplexed signals is known as the Channel Spacing. Since the
    wavelength of operation is inversely proportional to the frequency,
    a corresponding difference is introduced in the wavelength of each
    signal.
  • 13. CATeGORIES OF WAVELENGTH
    SWITCHeS::
    • Non-reconfigurable switch.
    • 14. Wavelength-Independent Reconfigurable switch.
    • 15. Wavelength-Selective Reconfigurable Switch.
    • 16. DWDM , ideally it should have additional optical switching capability
    to implement dynamically reconfigurable interconnections necessary
    for the next generation systems.
  • 17. SONET WITH DWDM ::
    • By using DWDM as a transport for TDM, existing SONET equipment
    investments can be preserved. Often new implementations can
    eliminate layers of equipment.
    SONET
    TERMINAL
    WDM
    OC-n
    FIBER
    OC-48C
    ATM
    SWITCH
    OC-48C
    LAYER -3
    SWITCH
  • 18. DWDM-FM ::
    • DWDM-FM (95.5 MHz Metro Manila) was a music FM radio station
    owned by Eagle Broadcasting Corporation in the Philippines. The
    station's studio was located in EDSA, Quezon City and its transmitter
    located at Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City.
  • 19. IP OVER DWDM ::
    * The problem: The explosive growth of the Internet spurred by high
    speed access networks and flat-rate mobile billing plans has caused
    ferocious competition in the telecom service provider market.
    * Solutions: One potential answer is IP over DWDM.
  • 20. REQUIRMENTS IN THE
    METROPOLITAN AREA ::
    • The requirements in the metropolitan market may differ in some
    respects from those in the long-haul network market.
    > Some key requirements for DWDM systems in the MAN include
    the following----
    • Multiprotocol support
    • Scalability
    • Reliability and availability
    • Openness (interfaces, network management, standard fiber
    types,electromagnetic compatibility)
    • Ease of installation and management
    • Size and power consumption
    • Cost effectiveness
  • 21. VALUE OF DWDM IN
    METROPOLITAN AREA ::
    • It was first deployed on long-haul routes in a time of fiber scarcity.
    Then the equipment savings made it the solution of choice for new
    long-haul routes, even when ample fiber was available. Alternatives
    for capacity enhancement exist, such as pulling new cable and SONET
    overlays, but DWDMcan do more.
  • 22. WHY DWDM ??
    • From both technical and economic perspectives, the ability to provide
    potentially unlimited transmission capacity is the most obvious
    advantage of DWDM technology. The current investment in fiber plant
    can not only be preserved, but optimized by a factor of at least 32.
    capacity can be obtained for the cost of the equipment, and existing
    fiber plant investment is retained.
  • 23. benefits OF DWDM ::
    • Capacity increase : Large aggregate transmission capacity.
    • 24. Upgradability : Customer growth without requiring additional fiber
    to be laid.
    • Flexibility : Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (OADM)
    Optical Cross connect (OXC)
    • Scalability : The possibility to add new nodes to the network.
    • 25. Network Transparency : Independence of data rate, format &
    protocols.
  • 26. REFERENCES :
    .www.wikipedia.com
    .www.google.com
  • 27. Thank you
    ....
  • 28. queries
    ??

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