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Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
Copy of radionavigation radar
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Copy of radionavigation radar

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RADAR FUNDAMENTALS

RADAR FUNDAMENTALS

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  • Cathode ray tube radar display
  • Liquid crystal radar display
  • Furuno’s new “black box” radar with flat screen computer monitor display, $15,000.
    Uses personal computer to process radar signals and then display them on any computer monitor.
  • Shorter pulse length permits detection of closer in targets - some radar units change pulse length as range selection is decreased, this is an important feature
    Power output determines range capability to some degree, also ability to “see through” fog and rain - minimum 4 KW recommended for fog and rain
    Horizontal beam width determines ability to discriminate between targets close together and provides more accurate bearings - the narrower the beam the better
    Receiver sensitivity determines ability to “see” targets - the higher the sensitivity the better
  • Open array radar antenna provides narrow radar beam width - the larger the antenna, the narrower the radar beam width
  • Radomes provide smaller size, lighter weight, and less windage than open arrays. Provide protection of the rotating element within from the elements - wider beam width than open arrays
  • Radar range is generally limited by the curvature of the earth - Radar beam distance to the horizon is equal to the square root of the height of the antenna times the constant, 1.22
    In the example given the antenna height is 36 feet, the square root of which is 6 - the radar range to a short target is therefore only about 7 miles - the taller the target, the farther the distance at which it can be “seen”
  • This demonstrates how own vessel and target vessel actually move over time - movement is plotted on a maneuvering board display for convenience and comparison purposes
  • This demonstrates how own vessel and target vessel actually move over time - movement is plotted on a maneuvering board display - relative motion actual radar plot is shown in red compared to actual geographic movement of vessels
  • This animated slide combines both the actual motion and the relative motion plots of a target on the radar screen.
  • A TARGET WHOSE RANGE
    IS DECREASING AND
    RELATIVE BEARING IS
    NOT CHANGING IS ON A
    COLLISION COURSE
  • Closest point of approach (CPA) is the shortest distance between vessels that will occur provide both vessels maintain course and speed
  • A typical LCD radar display set on one mile range (R 1) showing 0.25 mile range rings ( RR .25)and two electron bearing lines (EBL) and two variable range markers (VRM)plus a GPS on-screen lat/lon input
  • Land on the left and on the right. Buoy line indicating the harbor channel is visible on the radar. Most major harbor buoys are equipped with radar reflectors making them good radar targets.
  • A racon is a radar beacon which produces a coded response in the form of a morse code character on the radar screen, when triggered by a radar signal. Racons are becoming more prevalent as an aid to navigation to mark bridges or superstructures that present a significant hazard to navigation. Racons provide radar enhancement, improve aid identification, and help during the transition from ocean to inland navigation. A racon on an aid to navigation assists the mariner in distinguishing that aid from other aids and vessels.
  • Order from:
    http://WWW.oceannavigator.com/cur/store/#
    $20.00
  • Left side: Firdell Blipper Radar reflector
    Lower right - typical corner reflectors - use in the “catch rain” position for maximum effectiveness
    Upper right - Collision Avoidance Radar Detector - listens for and reports the presence of other vessels radar beams
  • Transcript

    • 1. Compiled by 3/O Moises T. Teñosa CLICK TO PROCEED TO PRESENTATION Click to end ?
    • 2. COURSE OBJECTIVES CONTENTS SUMMARY
    • 3. • On completion of the subject, the students should be able to plot positions by means of radar, making them capable of navigating safely in all parts of the world. They will have specific knowledge the operating principles, limitations, sources of error and methods of correction to radar to obtain accurate position fixing. They will have enough skills in radar plotting for collision avoidance.
    • 4. CONTENTS • 1. Fundamental of Radar • 2. Radar Components and System • 3. Radar Motion Display • 4. Radar Controls • 5. Introduction to Radar Plotting and Tracking Problems NEXT RETURN
    • 5. RADAR
    • 6. How does RADAR work?
    • 7. Components of a radar system INDICATOR- OR PPI TRANSMITTERMODULATOR ANTENNA CREATES HIGH ENERGY RADIO FREQUENCY WAVES TURNS RADIO FREQUENCIES ON AND OFF RECEIVER TRANSMIT RECEIVE ROTATING ANTENNA
    • 8. CRT
    • 9. LCD
    • 10. Color Black Box
    • 11. Pulse Length Receiver Sensitivity Frequency Power Output Horizontal Beam Width
    • 12. THETHE PPLANLAN PPOSITIONOSITION IINDICATORNDICATOR OROR PPIPPI wide beam widthwide beam width RADARRADARBeam width is moreBeam width is more important than powerimportant than power
    • 13. THETHE PPLANLAN PPOSITIONOSITION IINDICATORNDICATOR OROR PPIPPI RADARRADARBeam width is moreBeam width is more important than powerimportant than power narrow beam widthnarrow beam width
    • 14. large antenna narrow beam width
    • 15. small antenna wide beam width
    • 16. Maximum Radar Range D = 1.22 H D = 1.22 X 5.48 = 6.68 nm where radar is 30 feet above the water
    • 17. It can display the location of certain fixed and moving objects in relation to your vessel Radar -- is not electronic Navigation Radar cannot tell you where you are Radar -- is electronic plotting
    • 18. animation
    • 19. but RADAR generates a relative motion picture
    • 20. Geographic Plot shown on Maneuvering Board
    • 21. Radar Plot 2300 2200Relative Motion Radar Plot Geographic Plot shown on Maneuvering Board FormRadar Plot
    • 22. animation
    • 23. animation
    • 24. The Plan Position Indicator Or PPI A target whose range is decreasing and relative bearing is not changing is on a collision course
    • 25. Make a RADICAL Course Change in order for it TO BE OBVIOUS on Radar
    • 26. CPA Closest Point of Approach CPA
    • 27. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION VESSEL IS STEAMING ON A COURSE OF 280 T AT 9 KNOTS THE PPI SHOWS TARGETS at 1305 323 R 9.0 nm at 1313 324 R 6.5 nm at 1320 327 R 4.4 nm at 1325 331 R 3.0 nm
    • 28. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION HOW CLOSE WILL THIS TARGET COME TO OUR VESSEL, AND AT WHAT TIME WILL IT APPROACH CLOSEST TO OUR VESSEL
    • 29. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 13051305 13131313 13201320 13251325 CONVERT RELATIVE BEARINGS TO TRUE BEARINGS 322 + 280 = 242 324 + 280 = 244 327 + 280 = 247 334 + 280 = 251 PLOT ON MANEUVERING BOARD LABEL EACH WITH TIME OBSERVED
    • 30. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => DRAW A LINE THROUGH ALL 4 POINTS
    • 31. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => D = 6.1 RELATIVE SPEED OF TARGET T = 1325 - 1305 T = 0020 S = 60 X D T S = 60 X 6.1 20 S = 18.3 kts RELATIVE SPEED =18.3 kts
    • 32. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => RELATIVE COURSE = 058 RELATIVE COURSE = 058
    • 33. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => YOUR SHIP IS AT THE CENTER CLOSEST POINT OF APPROACH IS FROM THE CENTER OF MANEUVERING BOARD TO THE LINE OF RELATIVE MOTION (AT RIGHT ANGLES) 058 - 90 = 328
    • 34. RADAR PILOTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => MEASURE CPA DISTANCE CPA DISTANCE IS 0.7 nm at 1328
    • 35. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 1313 1320 1325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => T = 60 D S T = 60 X 9 = 30 MIN 18.3 MEASURE DISTANCE FROM 1305 POINT TO CPA POINT COMPUTE TIME TO TRAVERSE FROM 1305 PT TO CPA ADD TIME TO 1305 1305 + 0030 = 1335 CPA OCCURS AT 1335 COMPUTE TIME TO CPA DISTANCE FROM 1305 POINT TO CPA IS 9 nm.
    • 36. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 13051305 13131313 13201320 13251325 DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => DIRECTION OF RELATIVE MOTION => THE RADAR TARGET WILL APPROACH CLOSEST TO THE SHIP AT 1335 THE CLOSEST IT WILL COME WILL BE 0.7 nm
    • 37. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION WHAT IS THE SPEED AND DIRECTION OF THE TARGET?
    • 38. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION C280 S9 THIS IS NOW A VELOCITY PLOT ON THE MANEUVERING BOARD PLOT YOUR VESSEL’S VELOCITY VECTOR OWN CRS AND SPD
    • 39. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION C280 S9 PLOT RELATIVE VELOCITY VECTOR OF TARGET 058 at 18.3 kts REL CRS 058 REL VEL 18.3
    • 40. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION C280 S9 DRAW VECTOR FROM CENTER TO HEAD OF RELATIVE VELOCITY VECTOR OF TARGET
    • 41. RADAR PILOTING AND RELATIVE MOTION C280 S9 THIS IS THE TARGET’S TRUE COURSE 030 AND ITS TRUE SPEED 13 kts
    • 42. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN REAL TIME ON THE WATER
    • 43. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED OWN SHIP POSITION AT 1305 HOURS TARGET IS 242 T AT 9 MILES Target Position at 1305 242 T 9 nm Own SHIP Position at 1305
    • 44. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED OUR SHIP POSITION AT 1313 TARGET IS 244 T AT 6.5 nm Target Position at 1313 Advance own SHIP from the 1305 position to the 1313 position 1305 1313 - 1305 = 8 60 D = S x T D = S x T / 60 D = 9 x 8 / 60 D = 1.2 nm 244 T 6.5 nm 242 T 9 nm 1313
    • 45. 1305 WHAT REALLY HAPPENED Advance own ship from the 1305 position to the 1320 position 1320 OUR SHIP POSITION AT 1320 TARGET IS 247 T AT 4.4 nm 1320 - 1305 = 15 60 D = S x T D = S x T / 60 D = 9 x 15 / 60 D = 2.25 nm 247 T 4.4 nm 244 T 6 nm 242 T 9 nm
    • 46. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED Advance own ship from the 1305 position to the 1325 position 1325 OUR SHIP POSITION AT 1325 TARGET IS 251 T AT 3 nm 1325 - 1305 = 20 60 D = S x T D = S x T / 60 D = 9 x 20 / 60 D = 3 nm 244 T 6 nm 242 T 9 nm 247 T 4.4 nm 251 T 3 nm 1305
    • 47. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TARGET SHIP DIRECTION IS 030 TRUE 1325 OWN SHIP WILL THE TWO SHIPS COLLIDE? TARGET SHIPSHIP 242 T 9 nm 244 T 6 nm 247 T 4.4 nm 251 T 3 nm 1305
    • 48. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED CALCULATED CLOSEST POINT OF APPROACH OCCURS AT 1335 TARGET SHIPSHIP 242 T 9 nm 251 T 3 nm OWN SHIPT 1325 1305 TARGET SHIP COURSE DIRECTION IS 030 TRUE WILL THE TWO SHIPS COLLIDE?
    • 49. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TARGET SHIPSHIP 1305 1335 OWN SHIP 242 T 9 nm 251 T 3 nm WILL THE TWO SHIPS COLLIDE? AT 1335 OWN SHIP POSITION IS: 1335 - 1305 = 30 D = S X T / 60 D = 9 X 30 / 60 D = 4.5
    • 50. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED 242 T 9 nm 251 T 3 nm 1335 TARGET SHIPSHIP OWN SHIPSHIP 1335 1305 WILL THE TWO SHIPS COLLIDE? AT 1335 TARGET SHIP POSITION IS: 1335 - 1305 = 30 D = S X T / 60 D = 13 X 30 / 60 D = 4.5 ADVANCE THE TARGET SHIP FROM 1305 TO 1335 POSITION
    • 51. .7 MILES.7 MILES WHAT REALLY HAPPENED WILL THE TWO SHIPS COLLIDE? OWN SHIPSHIP 1335 1305 TARGET SHIPSHIP MEASURE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE BLUE AND ORANGE DOTS 1335 0.7 MILES0.7 MILES NO!
    • 52. RADAR PLOTTING AND RELATIVE MOTION 1305 328 OWN SHIPSHIP TARGET SHIPSHIP 0.7 MILES 0.7 MILES 328 DEGREES TRUE TO THE CLOSEST POINT OF APPROACH
    • 53. Order of preference for accuracy To determine position •Visual observation of object’s relative bearing and distance Determined by radar •Radar range to two objects •Radar range and radar relative bearing on same object •Radar relative bearings to two Different objects
    • 54. Range
    • 55. Bearing
    • 56. Entering Harbor
    • 57. RACON
    • 58. Steering and Sailing Rules Rule 7 Risk of Collision (a) Every vessel shall use all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any doubt such risk shall be deemed to exist. (b) Proper use shall be made of radar equipment if fitted and operational, including long-range scanning to obtain early warning of risk of collision and radar plotting or equivalent systematic observation of detected signals. (c) Assumptions shall not be made on the basis of scanty information, especially scanty radar information.
    • 59. Steering and Sailing Rules Rule 7 Risk of Collision (continued) (d) In determining if risk of collision exists the following considerations shall be among those taken into account. (I) such risk shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change; (ii) such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large vessel or a tow or when approaching a vessel at close range.
    • 60. Re-Usable Maneuvering Board
    • 61. RETURN
    • 62. The following paragraphs summarize the important points of this chapter. • RADAR is an electronic system that uses reflected electromagnetic energy to detect the presence and position of objects invisible to the eye. • TARGET POSITION is defined in reference to true north, the horizontal plane, and the vertical plane.
    • 63. • TRUE BEARING is the angle between true north and the line of sight to the target, measured in a clockwise direction in the horizontal plane. • ELEVATION ANGLE is the angle between the horizontal plane and the line of sight, measured in the vertical plane.
    • 64. • RANGE is the distance from the radar site to the target measured along the line of sight. The concepts are illustrated in the figure.
    • 65. • BEARING RESOLUTION is the ability of a radar to separate targets at the same range but different bearings. The degree of bearing resolution is dependent on beam width and range. The accuracy of radar is largely dependent on resolution.
    • 66. RETURN ?Click to proceed to test

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