JÜRGEN HOWALDT - Social Innovation. International Trends

  • 1,114 views
Uploaded on

Ponencia impartida por Jürgen Howaldt, director del Sozialforschungsstelle de Dortmund (SFS), el 3 de julio de 2013 en la II European Summer School of Social Innovation

Ponencia impartida por Jürgen Howaldt, director del Sozialforschungsstelle de Dortmund (SFS), el 3 de julio de 2013 en la II European Summer School of Social Innovation

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,114
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 1 Social Innovation: International trends II European School of Social Innovation San Sebastian2013 Prof. Dr. Jürgen Howaldt Social Research Center – TU Dortmund
  • 2. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 2 My Topics I want to  outline the main characteristics of a sociologically enlightened new paradigm of innovation  touch upon the increasing relevance of social innovation  provide a short overview of the main research fields and exciting examples  define mayor challenges regarding the promotion of social innovation  give a prospect for future research
  • 3. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 3 High-Tech Strategy for Germany Emerging technologies are the basis for new products, processes and services which can contribute to mastering current social challenges. Without them, innovation would be unthinkable today. Our country's economic future depends on how effectively we use the opportunities linked to key technologies. The Federal Government wants to further strengthen Germany's top position in the field of technology within the framework of its High-Tech Strategy.
  • 4. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 4 “The tracks of international research on innovation demonstrate that the technology-oriented paradigm – shaped by the industrial society – does not cover the broad range of innovations indispensable in the transition from an industrial to a knowledge and services-based society: Such fundamental societal changes require the inclusion of social innovations in a paradigm shift of the innovation system.” Vienna Declaration: The most relevant topics in social innovation research
  • 5. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 5 Basic assumption The transition from an industrial to a knowledge and services- based society corresponds with a paradigm shift of the innovation system. This paradigm shift also implies an increasing importance of social innovation as compared to technological innovation.
  • 6. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 6A New Nature of Innovation” (OECD 2010)
  • 7. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 7 Social Innovation moves from the margins to the mainstream At the start of 2009 President Obama announced the establishment of a new “Office for Social Innovation at the White House“ and allocated USD 50million to a fund for social innovation. The Fund will focus on priority policy areas, including education, health care, and economic opportunity.
  • 8. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 8 Social Innovation will play an important role in the Europe 2020 strategy "Creativity and innovation in general and social innovation in particular are essential factors for fostering sustainable growth, securing jobs and increasing competitive abilities, especially in the midst of the economic and financial markets crisis."
  • 9. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 9 blue: EU research partner, red: non-EU research partner, green: Advisory Board Map of the SI-DRIVE consortium members
  • 10. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 10 World region/ Value region Countries Asia/Confucian China Asia/Islamic Turkey Asia/South Asia India, Singapore, Thailand North America/English speaking Canada Latin America Chile, Colombia Oceania/English Australia, New Zealand Africa/Islamic Egypt Africa South-Africa Europe/English speaking UK, Ireland Europe/Orthodox Russia, Bulgaria, Romania Europe/Catholic Europe Spain, Czech Republic, Croatia, Austria, Italy, Lithuania Europe/Protestant Europe Germany, Netherlands, Sweden
  • 11. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 11© European Union/The Young Foundation 2010
  • 12. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 12 „Social innovations are innovations that are social in both their ends and their means. Specially we define social innovation as new ideas (products, services and models) that simultaneously meet social needs (more effectively than alternatives) and create new social relationsships or collaborations. They are innovations that are not only good for society but also enhance society‘ s capacity to act.“ (Bepa report 2010, 9) Social Innovation in the European Union „Empowering people,driving change“
  • 13. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 13 Social Innovation  a new combination or new configuration of social practices  in certain areas of action or social contexts  prompted by certain actors or constellations of actors  in an intentional targeted manner with the goal of better satisfying or answering needs and problems than is possible on the basis of established practices  socially accepted and diffused widely throughout society or in certain societal sub-areas  finally institutionalized as a new social practice
  • 14. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 14 In this light innovation can be understood “as a process of collective creation, in the course of which the members of a particular total population learn, i.e. invent and establish, new ways of playing the social game of collaboration and conflict, in a word a new social practice, and in the course of which they acquire the necessary … abilities to do this.” (Crozier/Friedberg 1993)
  • 15. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 15 Key elements of social innovation theory Objectives New practices, methods, processes and regulations Opening of the innovation process to society by co-creation, user involvement, empowerment of citizens, and cross-sector collaboration New demands, social needs and societal challenges, social value creation New Innovation Paradigm
  • 16. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 16 Areas of social innovation civil society: the increase in the significance of cohabitation or the environmental movement state action: the introduction of social security and national insurance business world: the advent of team work, knowledge management or new social services (Katrin Gillwald 2000)
  • 17. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 17 Social Innovation – Social Entrepreneurship  An innovative, pragmatic and sustainable entrepeneurial activity for a significant, positive change in society  Connection between entrepeneurial activity and social goals  Multitude of global initiatives (e.g. Ashoka, Grameen Bank) and a barely clear number of regional initiatives http://www.businesspj.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/socialentrepreneurship.jpg
  • 18. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 18 Social Innovators – Mohammad Yunus  Founder of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, that makes available microcredits for low-income clientele  The method of Grameen Bank is practice in 58 countries today  Bearer of the Nobel price for Peace www.grameen-info.org http://www.br-online.de/content/cms/Universalseite/8MIGRATION/ wissen-bildung/thema/nobelpreis/struktur/cumulus/ BR-online-Publikation--51823.jpg
  • 19. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 19 Social Innovators – Victoria Hale  Founder of Institute for OneWorld Health (IOWH), a welfare oriented pharmaceutical firm in the USA  IOWH develops pharmaceuticals, which are not financially profitable  In large part the projects are financed by the Gates foundation www.oneworldhealth.org http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_wuoU3fxG-Sc/RkE-tD2ltmI/AAAAAAAAACY/ 3OACCwc4AMw/s320/sos_hale_225.jpg
  • 20. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 20 Social Innovation – Carsharing  Common use of cars through the provision of vehicles in main areas  Carsharing-organisation professionalized the traditional „driving communities“  In Germany there are around 110 carsharing-organisations with 158.000 customers http://www.carsharing-vergleich.de/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/carsharing-münchen.jpg
  • 21. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 21 Social Innovation – Corporate Social Responsibilitiy (CSR)  Responsible entrepeunerial activity referering to the environment, employees and other stakeholders  Voluntary, ethical motivated acting that exceeds the legal duties by far  CSR influences economic success and earns social and ecological benefit in the long term www.sierraexpressmedia.net/Home/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/ Corporate-Social-Responsibility.jpg
  • 22. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 22 Social Innovation – Short-time work  Reduction of working time instead of dismissal  Developed in collaboration between economy and politics with the goal of maintaining workplaces in times of crises  In 2009 over 1.4 million short-time workers in Germany, which prevented a drastic rise of unemployment http://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2009/02/Bild/ diagramm-zur-konjunkturbedingten-kurzarbeit,property=poster.jpg
  • 23. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 23 Social Innovation – Fair Trade  Higher income for producers in developing countries  Prices over global market level  1.6 million producers profit of fair trade, which has an annually revenue over 3.4 billion € worldwide http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/de/8/8e/FairTrade-Logo.svg
  • 24. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 24 Un techo para mi país  TECHO is a youth led non-profit organization present in Latin America & the Caribbean  joint work of families living in extreme poverty with youth volunteers with the goal of overcoming poverty in slums  Started in Chile in 1997 by building transitional houses, has operated in 19 countries  Three strategic objectives:  The promotion of community development in slums (community strengthening by promoting leadership, participation)  Fostering social awareness and action (generating critical and determined volunteers working next to the families living in slums)  Political advocacy (promoting necessary structural changes) http://www.techo.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/06/LOGOTECHO_RGB_claim-01.jpg http://www.techo.org/
  • 25. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 25 Liter of light  “My shelter Foundation” began the liter of light project lighting 10000 homes in San Pedro, Laguna (Philippines)  More than 15000 solar bulbs were installed in 20 Philippine cities  Also implemented in other countries (Peru, Colombia)  A very simple technology: an empty plastic bottle, water and glue http://riomatters.files.wordpress.com/2012/0 6/img_6348.jpg http://aliteroflight.org/
  • 26. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 26 Social Innovation – The welfare programme of Krupp  Extensive social benefits for employees, e.g. flats and medical provision  Not only monetary rewards for employees  Long-term, generation-spanning attachment of the employees and innovator for the social responsibility of firms and corporations http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Ehem._Konsumanstalt_Margarethenh%C 3%B6he.jpg
  • 27. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 27 “There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new order of things…Whenever his enemies have the ability to attack the innovator, they do so with the passion of partisans, while the others defend him sluggishly, so that the innovator and his party alike are vulnerable.” Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince (1513)
  • 28. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 28 The Process of Social Innovation The Open Book of Social Innovation
  • 29. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 29 Overall scientific advancement required to meet expectations and developments in social innovation practices  Elaboration on the particular features of the concept and clarification of definitions  Embedding the concept of social innovation in a comprehensive theory of innovation  Development of coherent methodologies to identify and measure social innovations Vienna Declaration: The most relevant topics in social innovation research Challenge 1: We have to develop a clear concept of social innovation
  • 30. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 30 Challenge 2: „Redraw the boundaries” “What is required here is to redraw boundaries (both in terms of differences as well as overlaps and interactions) between business innovations and new technologies on the one hand, and social innovations on the other hand. Increasingly, innovation blossoms where sectors, systems and concepts converge.” Vienna Declaration: The most relevant topics in social innovation research
  • 31. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 31 Cross-sector collaborations “Increasingly, innovation blossoms where the sectors converge. At these intersections, the exchanges of ideas and values, shifts in roles and relationships, and the integration of private capital with public and philanthropic support generate new and better approaches to creating social value. To support cross-sector collaborations we have to examine policies and practices that impede the flow of ideas, values, capital, and talent across sector boundaries and constrain the roles and relationships among the sectors.” (Phills et al., 2008: 43)
  • 32. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 32  Combine the potential of social innovation in the social economy, civil society, business firms and the state (Multi-level governance)  Promote alliances between universities, companies and the state around social innovation  Opening the process of innovation to society including all stakeholders in the development and diffusion of innovation  Empowering people: Include citizens, clients, social movements, communities in the process of social innovation  Innovation „bottom up“: learning from experiences of innovation research and business and public service innovation  Ameliorate the conditions of participation and self-management in social innovations aimed at overcoming poverty and pauperisation Vienna Declaration: The most relevant topics in social innovation research
  • 33. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 33 Challenge 3: Networks as Success Factor for Social Innovation Networks can be described as one of the most important features of the new innovation paradigm, a result of a profound transformation of the innovation process. (Howaldt and Schwarz, 2010)
  • 34. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 34 “It was the time when talented and energetic engineers could make enormous contributions and, for a while, they were the ‘superstars’ of their age. Thereafter, mayor projects became increasingly complex and grew beyond the grasp of a single person.” (London, Science Museum) http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/visitmuseum.aspx
  • 35. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 35 Social Innovators – Mohammad Yunus “Most social businesses are likely to originate with one person, or perhaps with a small group of people - friends, work colleagues, or people with a shared interest in a particular social problem. Within such a small group, you may not have all the expertise, experience, ideas and resources needed to make your social business idea into a reality. Don’t let that stop you! Look around for others you can partner with.” http://www.br- online.de/content/cms/Universalseite/8MIGRATION /wissen-bildung/ thema/nobelpreis/struktur/cumulus/BR-online- Publikation--51823.jpg
  • 36. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 36 Challenge 4: We have to find new ways of diffusion and scaling up of social innovation One critical question is “whether and how networks can help facilitate innovations to bridge the seemingly insurmountable chasms that separate local solutions from broad system transformation: that is, how they help innovations to ’cross scales’”. (Moore and Westley, 2011)
  • 37. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 37  Organise learning processes between social economy, civil society, business firms and the state  Share knowledge and promising practices  Use opportunities of social media for enabling large scale and systemic social innovations  Develop a Knowledge Bank for social innovation  Identify venture capital for social entrepreneurs
  • 38. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 38 Institutional Entrepreneurs in Social Innovation Networks  “One type of entrepreneurship may be the inventor of a novel norm, idea, or product (sometimes called the social entrepreneur).”  “A second type is the institutional entrepreneur, whose job it is to manage the context, complex as it is, in such a way that the innovation has a chance to flourish, widening the circle of its impact.”  “An institutional entrepreneur, therefore, not only introduces a certain innovation but also works to change the broader context so that the innovation has widespread appeal and impact.” (Moore and Westley, 2011)
  • 39. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 39 Challenge 5: Social Innovation must become a priority on the political agenda  Multi-level governance and receptivity of governments to social innovations  Incentives from government to promote social innovation  More resources (incl. research programmes) to foster/promote social innovation  Establish a multi-national evidence base of promising practices for inclusion and integration
  • 40. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 40 Social innovation moves from the margins to the mainstream  1985: Institute for social Inventions, London  1986: Centre de recherche sur les innovations sociales, (CRISIS), Montreal  1990: Zentrum für Soziale Innovation (ZSI), Wien  1995: Soziale Innovation GmbH, Dortmund  2000: Stanford University – Center for Social Innovation  2004: Centre for Social Innovation (CSI), Toronto  2004: Institut für Sozialinnovation, Berlin  2005: Institut für soziale Innovationen, Solingen  2005: Young Foundation, London  2005: Preis für soziale Innovation, Wien  2006: Nederlands Centre for Social Innovation (NCSI), Utrecht  2006: New Zealand Centre for Social Innovation (NZCSI), Auckland  2008: „Management Sozialer Innovationen“; Hochschule München  2009: The Australian Centre for Social Innovation (TACSI), Adelaide  2010: Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship Centre, New Zealand
  • 41. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 41 Centre for Social Innovation (Toronto)  A social enterprise (founded 2004) with a mission to catalyze social innovation in Toronto and around the world is acting as a venture capitalist for social change  Is comprehending itself as “an engine for impact”, which goes beyond the mere functions of an incubator for projects  Provides strategic advice, full-on management and back-end administrative services (“whatever it takes to help an initiative find its feet and actualize its potential”)  Projects include: social entrepreneurship among youth, artivism as a strategy to engage citizens in the transformation of their local environment while building a strong community  Models developed: shared spaces for social innovation, community bonds, constellation model of governance http://www.citizencapitalism.com/wp- content/uploads/2010/09/explosion- squiggle-white-back.jpg http://socialinnovation.ca
  • 42. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 42 Tilburg Social Innovation Lab  Four institutions for higher education join forces to make a visible contribution to the development of the region Brabant as the Region for Social Innovation  Involving regional stakeholders to (co-) create innovative solutions for societal challenges through creative knowledge, unexpected inputs and daring experiments  Providing suitable interdisciplinary knowledge of the Social Sciences and Humanities in co- creation with education, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders  Social Innovation Initiatives program: problem finding, brainstorm forum “Blue Sky Session”, explorer teams, test teams/living lab  Social Innovation Dialogues: promoting a continuous dialogue and interaction between knowledge institutions and society (entrepreneurs, administrators, the general public) http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/profiles5/157781 /projects/2031587/641c6a625419af174c6d6 fc696e147e7.jpg http://www.tilburguniversity.edu/about-tilburg-university/partnerships/tilburg-social-innovation- lab/
  • 43. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 43 ANSPE - Colombia’s National Agency to Overcome Extreme Poverty  A governmental institution to support and encourage Colombia’s most vulnerable families to overcome poverty and exclusion, in partnership with local authorities, government institutions, social organizations, and private sector (strategy “Red Unidos”)  ANSPE’s Center for Social Innovation articulates actors in order to generate innovative, pertinent, sustainable and scalable solutions to improve quality of life of the population living in extreme poverty  Criteria for social innovation projects: scalable, sustainable and replicable  Three strategic lines: • Develop and finance social innovation projects using Public- Private Partnerships • Strengthen promotion, diffusion and Knowledge Management of Social Innovation as a strategy to overcome extreme poverty • Generate a favorable environment for social innovation to overcome extreme poverty http://pueblonuevo-cordoba.gov.co/apc-aa- files/366333663735306531323038323434 66/anspe.png http://www.anspe.gov.co/
  • 44. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 44 SI-DRIVE – Extending knowledge about social innovation  Integrating theories and research methodologies to advance understanding of SI leading to a comprehensive new paradigm of innovation.  Undertaking European and global mapping of SI, thereby addressing different social, economic, cultural, historical and religious contexts in eight major world regions.  Ensuring relevance for policy makers and practitioners through in-depth analyses and case studies in seven policy fields, with cross European and world region comparisons, foresight and policy round tables.
  • 45. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 45 Social innovation cycle The key dimensions of social innovation The Five Key Dimensions of Social Innovation
  • 46. Howaldt Chile 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 46 Key Dimensions Cross-cutting Themes Concepts and understanding of social innovation Including the relationship to transformative social change and technology; ICT (online networks, social media) Objectives and social demands, societal challenges and systemic change addressed Related to policy fields, including general objectives regarding gender, equality, diversity (re. EU2020 targets) Social innovation cycle (cf. ‘Open Book of Social Innovation’) Role of innovation networks and drivers at each stage of the social innovation cycle, cultures of innovation Drivers, barriers and governance of social change and development Social entrepreneurship, networks, user involvement, demographic change, human resources, policy instruments Resources, capabilities and constraints including finance and finance industries Human resources, knowledge, scientific research, financial resources, legal conditions, empowerment
  • 47. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 47 European/International Networking of the SI-DRIVE Consortium
  • 48. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 48
  • 49. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 49 “The world needs more social innovation - and so all who aspire to solve the world’s most vexing problems - entrepreneurs, leaders, managers, activists, and change agents - regardless of whether they come from the world of business, government, or nonprofits, must shed old patterns of isolation, paternalism, and antagonism and strive to understand, embrace, and leverage cross-sector dynamics to find new ways of creating social value.” (Phills et al. 2008)
  • 50. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 50 “You can resist an invading army; you cannot resist an idea whose time has come.” Victor Hugo
  • 51. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 51 www.sfs-dortmund.de howaldt@sfs-dortmund.de Social Innovation: Concepts, Research Fields and International Trends Studies for Innovation in a Modern Working Environment 5 Jürgen Howaldt/Michael Schwarz Challenge Social Innovation Potentials for Business, Social Entrepreneurship, Welfare and Civil Society Franz, Hans Werner/ Hochgerner, Josef/ Howaldt, Jürgen
  • 52. Howaldt San Sebastian 2013 Sozialforschungsstelle Dortmund Central Scientific Institute 52 Literature 2 Fagerberg, Jan/ Mowery, David C./ Nelson, Richard (2005) (Eds.): The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press Franz, Hans Werner/ Hochgerner, Josef/ Howaldt, Jürgen (2012)(Eds.): Challenge Social Innovation, Springer FORA (2010). New Nature of Innovation. Report to the OECD. Download von: New Nature of Innovation (http://www.newnatureofinnovation.org/, 13.02.2012) Murray, Robin/ Caulier-Grice, Julie/ Mulgan, Geoff: The Open Book of Social Innovation, 2010, Download von: http://www.nesta.org.uk/publications/assets/features/the_open_book_of_social_i nnovation. 23.06.2012) Nowotny, Helga/ Scott, Peter/ Gibbons, Michael (2001). Re-Thinking Science. Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press. Rogers, Everett M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press