Distilled Liquors By Rahul Jain


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A Complete description about the production of Distilled Liquor & complete details of fermentation and Distillation.

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Distilled Liquors By Rahul Jain

  1. 1. ON BY
  2. 2. WHAT IS AN ALCOHOL !!!!! •Chemical terms = a class of organic compounds containing hydroxyl (OH) groups •Common Terms = ethyl alcohol (ethanol) = intoxicating ingredient in beer, wine and distilled spirits (hard liquor) 2
  3. 3. Where does it come from? Fundamental metabolic processes: extracting energy from sugar 3 aerobic respiration - requires oxygen - 36 ATP per glucose molecule - low energy waste products, H2O and CO2 alcoholic fermentation lactic acid fermentation
  4. 4. Where does it come from? • We’re only concerned with alcoholic fermentation • Many fungi and bacteria can perform alcoholic • fermentation; fairly common amongst microorganisms • Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer’s and baker’s yeast 4 • water + sugar + yeast + time = alcoholic beverage • Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism, it’s a waste product,
  5. 5. Alcohol Source = Yeast • Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts) - microorganism - fungus - reproduce by fission (budding) - food = simple sugars only - anaerobic conditions  degrade sugars to alcohol 5
  6. 6. Characteristics of alcohol •Can dissolve lipids out of cell membranes = fast cell penetration, destroys and kills cells •Kills microbial cells = disinfectants •Toxic in relatively small doses (ethanol less so) •Modifies body functions = a drug •Potentially toxic and cannot be stored in the body 6
  7. 7. Alcohol - Chemistry • Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl group (-OH) Many different compounds that are alcohols Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol (ethanol) CH3-CH2OH Other common alcohols: Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol): CH3OH Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol (rubbing alcohol): CH3CH3CHOH 7
  8. 8. • ALCOHOL is a general term for any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group(-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn may be bound to other carbon atoms and further hydrogen's. • -Alcohols other than ethanol(such as propylene glycol and the sugar alcohols) appear in food and beverages. • -METHANOL(one carbon), the PROPANOLS(three carbons giving two isomers), and the BUTANOLS (four carbons, four isomers) are all commonly found alcohols — these three toxic alcohols should never be consumed in any form. 8
  9. 9. • It particular can cause blindness because of accumulations and further chemical reactions that occur in the eye. • Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages. • When produced for use in a beverage, ethanol is always produced by means of fermentation, i.e., the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen. 9
  10. 10. •Effects of alcohol on human physiology - complex set of responses - nervous system depressant - interferes with specific neuroreceptors 1.Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor  prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness  calming effect 2.Increases dopamine, endorphines  feeling of well- being 10
  11. 11. Alcohol in the Body • Does not need time for digestion • Quickly absorbed • On a full stomach the effects are delayed Breakdown • Begins in stomach – alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme • Capillaries of digestive tract merge to veins and carry alcohol to liver *Goal is to get out of body as quickly as possible At the Liver – Veins make alcohols touch every liver cell – Liver cells = enough alcohol dehydrogenase to work fast enough to dispose of some alcohol before it moves on – Can process ½ (one drink) ounce per hour 11
  12. 12. • The short-term effects on the circulatory system include decreased blood pressure, pulse and respiration. • Alcohol blocks the absorption of essential nutrients and contributes to malnutrition among heavy drinkers. • Alcohol use also impairs the functioning of the immune system—weakening the body’s ability to fight off infectious disease. • In the short-term, this will increase the number of colds you will experience. • Alcohol impairs memory by inhibiting the transfer and consolidation of information in long-term memory—so alcohol reduces our ability to remember information that we learned before going out for drinks. 12
  13. 13. Short term cont… •A person’s attention span is shorter for periods up to forty-eight hours after drinking •Alcohol affects many parts of the brain, but the most vulnerable cells are those associated with memory, coordination, and judgment. •May dull a person’s inhibitions •Impair motor coordination, may stumble or fall •May cause you to engage in unprotected, “regrettable” sex 13
  14. 14. Long Term Effects of Alcoholism • Arthritis • Cancer- liver, pancreas, rectum, breast, mouth • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Heart Disease • Hyperglycemia • Hypoglycemia • Infertility • Kidney Disease • Liver Disease • Malnutrition • Nervous Disorders • Obesity • Psychological disturbances 14
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  16. 16. • Evidence suggests that moderate consumption protects against ischemic stroke. (Tied to consumption of alcohol not specific beverages.) • The evidence that moderate alcohol consumption protects against diabetes and gallstones is also fairly strong. • May also have cognitive benefits but this is problematic because the effects of alcohol on the central nervous system are extremely complex, in part because alcohol interacts with many different neurotransmitter systems, and also because the effects on these systems may be dose-dependent and variable across individuals. Reduced heart risk Reduce chances of coronary artery disease Stroke prevention Reduce development of blocked arteries in your legs 16
  17. 17. Alcohol is predominantly a sedative of depressant drug Alcohol has the same chemical and physiological effect on everyone who drinks Alcohol is harmful and poisonous to the Alcoholic Craving for alcohol can be offset by eating high sugar foods If Alcoholics eat three balanced meals a day, their nutritional problems will eventually correct themselves Alcohol stimulates the appetite Beer is a great source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fluids Drinking alcohol reduces the risk of heart disease If you take an aspirin before drinking, it decreases the odds of a hangover 17
  19. 19. •Of 3 most used psychoactive drugs, alcohol, nicotine & caffeine, alcohol is most popular. •Alcohol has been known, manufactured and used longer by far than nicotine or caffeine. •Alcohol refers to Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing) Methyl alcohol (wood) & Ethanol (drinking). •Alcohol is almost always consumed in one of three forms; beer, wine or hard liquor. •Alcohol beverages are produced through fermentation and distillation. 19
  20. 20. Alcohol Beverages continued • Fermentation involves dissolving sugar in water, adding yeast that multiply and eat the sugar, the yeast metabolize the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The CO2 bubbles to top leaving ethanol. • The yeast multiply and metabolize alcohol until the brew reaches 10% to 15% alcohol then die. • The alcohol content and type of beverage depend on sugar content and sugar containing substance used. • Grapes/grape juice ferment to wine. • Grains ferment to beer. • Distillation increases ethanol content of fermented beverage. • Distillation process-fermented mixture is heated to boiling (alcohol has lower boiling point than water), the steam/vapor (high in alcohol) is condensed by cooling, the condensed liquid has higher alcohol content than original. • Process may be repeated several times to increase alcohol content. 20
  21. 21. Expressing Alcohol Content •Alcohol content of beverage may be expressed by volume or weight. •In US alcohol percentage is denoted by volume. •A 16 ounce beverage that contains 50% ethanol contains 8 ounces of alcohol. •Alcohol content can also be designated by proof. •Proof used mainly for distilled spirits & is equal to twice the percentage of alcohol by volume. – 45% alcohol by volume= 90 proof – Proof is the method used to designate alcohol content in Britain. 21
  23. 23. •Mineral water – served to guest cold and in a sealed bottle. •Carbonated drinks- pop/soda (coke) •Fruits and vegetables juices •Milk •MOCKTAILS:- Non alcoholic version of cocktail. 23
  24. 24. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES •It can be classified in 2 types…. 1) Non distilled liquors 2) Distilled liquors 24
  25. 25. Non distilled liquors •Wines :- Table wine, sparkling wine, fortified wine •Cider •Malt beverages :- Beer (lager), ale, porter…. 25
  26. 26. Distilled liquors •Grain spirit whiskey (scotch, Irish, American, Canadian) •Grain neutral spirit (vodka) •Plant liquor (Rum, Tequila) •Fruit liquor (Brandy) •Liqueurs •Gin 26
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  28. 28. •Neutral spirit is basically purified, odorless, tasteless, colorless ethanol (or ethyl alcohol -C2H5OH). It may be produced from almost any fermentation feedstock if suitable distillation and rectification techniques are used to remove the other chemical compounds, or congeners, produced with the ethanol in the fermentation process. •Distilled liquor, also called distilled spirit, alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from fermented fruit or plant juice or from a starchy material (such as various grains) 28
  29. 29. INTRO CONT.. •Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the concentration of ethyl alcohol has been increased above that of the original fermented mixture by a method called distillation. The principle of alcoholic distillation is based upon the different boiling points of alcohol (78.5° C, or 173.3° F) and water (100° C, or 212° F). If a liquid containing ethyl alcohol is heated to a temperature above 78.5° C but below 100° C and the vapour coming off the liquid is condensed, the condensate will have a higher alcohol concentration, or strength. 29
  30. 30. •Distilled beverages (spirits) having 35-50% alcohol represent a substantial proportion of the market for alcoholic beverages. Owing to their high ethanol content they are resistant to microbial spoilage. They have been categorized into two broad groups. One group is represented by those beverages where the raw material has an important influence on the sensory quality of the final product. This group includes whisky, which is derived from cereals; rum, produced from sugarcane juice or molasses and brandies, distilled from fermented juice of grapes or other fruits. The second group includes products such as gin and vodka, which consist of distilled alcohol–base that has been processed to give specific flavour characteristics. 30
  31. 31. INTRO CONTIN.. • The alcohol content of beer and wine is limited by the fact that an alcohol concentration of 18% or more kills the yeast that produces it. • To produce stronger alcohol, distillation is needed. The principle is that ethanol boils at a temperature lower than water. So, the alcohol boils off, leaving the water behind. You just need to capture the alcohol vapor and condense it. • Alcohol concentration is measured in proof, where each proof is 1/2 %. So, 80 proof means 40% alcohol. Most distilled spirits are 80- 100 proof. • Alcohol can only be distilled to 95%. It is colorless and tasteless. The color and taste of distilled spirits come from other by products of fermentation and aging that remain after distillation. 31
  32. 32. • The word “alcohol” comes from Arabic: al’kuhul, which refers to kohl, a preparation used to darken the eyes. Alternatively, al’ghoul, which means monster or spirit. This word origin is somewhat debatable. • Distillation was invented by the Arabs around 700 AD. • The first distilled spirits were made from sugar- based materials, primarily grapes and honey to make grape brandy and distilled mead, respectively. The earliest use of starchy grains to produce distilled spirits is not known, but their use certainly dates from the Middle Ages. Some government control dates from the 17th century. As production methods improved and volume increased, the distilled spirits industry became an important source of revenue. Rigid controls were often imposed on both production and sale of the liquor. 32
  33. 33. HISTORY CONT… • The earliest stills were composed simply of a heated closed container, a condenser, and a receptacle to receive the condensate. These evolved into the pot still, which is still in use, particularly for making malt whiskeys and some gins. The next refinement was heating the alcohol- containing liquid in a column made up of a series of vaporization chambers stacked on top of one another. By the early 19th century large-scale continuous stills, very similar to those used in the industry today, were operating in France and England. In 1831 the Irishman Aeneas Coffey designed such a still, which consisted of two columns in series. 33
  34. 34. TYPES OF DISTILLED LIQUORS 1)VODKA 2) WHISKEY 3) RUM 4) COUNTRY LIQUOR (Desi Daru) 5) Brandy 6) Gin 7) Tequila 8) Absinthe 9) LIQUEURS 34
  35. 35. Spirits are made from four main ingredients: 1. Base Ingredient — A sugary or starchy base ingredient, whose sugars can be fermented, as in the process of making beer or wine. 2. Yeast — A single-celled organism that converts the sugar from starchy or sweet base ingredients into alcohol. 3. Water — As with brewing, local water is frequently a key factor in the quality and style of the spirit, especially for grain- based spirits such as whisk(e)y and vodka. 4. Flavorings — Some spirits owe their character to the addition of distinctive flavoring ingredients. These can include herbs, spices, honey, fruits, and vegetables. 35
  36. 36. •Vodka is the traditional distilled spirit of Russia, Poland, Finland, and other Eastern European countries. •Vodka is made from fermented grains (mostly wheat and rye), or from potatoes. It is distilled repeatedly until it is almost pure alcohol (95% = 190 proof). Then, it is diluted to a drinkable concentration, around 40% alcohol. Flavoring is sometimes added at this point, but pure vodka is unflavored. •Vodka is not aged. 36
  37. 37. VODKA •Vodka was rarely consumed outside Europe before 1950, but it has become very popular in the United States since then. •It is a grain neutral spirit. •Distilled continuously to remove congeners. •Congeners produce distinctive and sometime harsh taste plus colour. 37
  38. 38. PROFILE Vodka originated in the Nordic countries and Russia in the 14th century. The name vodka is derived from the Polish phrase, meaning the “water of life.” INGREDIENT: Traditionally vodka was made from the cheapest and most plentiful starch available locally — originally potatoes in Russia and Poland. Most commercial vodkas today are based on grains such as barley, rye or wheat (potato vodka remains as a specialty style). PRODUCTION: Most vodkas are distilled repeatedly in a continuous still to achieve the clean, neutral taste that makes them such popular mixers. To further enhance the flavor purity, many vodkas are refined by charcoal filtration, leaving only the slight scent and flavor. Flavoring essences such as fruits and spices may be added at this point to make them flavoured vodkas. 38
  39. 39. CLASSIFICATION Although there are no official classifications, many vodkas tout the quality of the grain or water source used, and their purity owed to multiple distillations and painstaking filtration. AGEING: Vodka is almost always bottled without aging. PURPOSE: The ultimate mixer, vodka plays a starring role in many classic cocktails including the Martini, the Screwdriver, the Cosmopolitan and the Bloody Mary. 39
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  41. 41. • Gin is a distilled spirit flavored with juniper berries. Juniper is a gymnosperm, and the “berries” are actually the cones (reproductive structures). • Gin is made by fermenting wheat, corn, and rye with malted barley, and then distilling it with juniper berries and other spices mixed in. It does not need to be aged, which made it an attractive product during Prohibition. • Gin was invented in Holland, and came to England during a war in the early 1600’s. It was the original “Dutch courage”, a term that means courage gained from being drunk. • “Distilled” gin produced by batch distillation (45-60% Abv) with botanicals; heads and tails fractions are recycled through a rectifying column before returning to the gin still. 41
  42. 42. • Gin became very popular among working class people in England, because it could be brewed from grain unfit for making bread or beer, and it wasn’t taxed, unlike other distilled spirits. It was often flavored with turpentine. Lots of extreme drunkenness and otherwise immoral behavior during the Gin Craze (1700-1750). • The English in India prevented malaria with quinine. Since quinine is very bitter, they mixed it with carbonated water and gin, with a lime : the gin-and-tonic. • “Compound” gin uses essences or flavourings that are added directly to the neutral spirit 42
  43. 43. SPIRIT MADE FROM COMES FROM Classification or Aged Cocktail Brand Name GIN Grains Flavored with “botanicals ” Different plants flavorings such as juniper, pepper, coriander and citrus England Not aged Types include Dutch Gin- very aromatic-not good for mixing London dry-Neutral Flavor Plymouth Gin – Dry gin – best for Pink Gin Golden Gin – aged and hence straw colour Sloe Gin – Sloe berries infused in distillation – more a liqueur than a Gin Bronx Cocktail Gimlet Gin and Tonic Gin Rickey Martini Tom Collins Beefeater Bombay Boodles Gordon’s Tanqueray Van Gogh 43
  44. 44. GIN • SERVICE OF GIN: Served in Old Fashioned Glass mostly with Tonic Water, a slice of lemon or Lime TRIVIA- Tonic Water originated in India – when British invaded India, they needed Quinine to keep them healthy from Mosquito Bites – Quinine is the main ingredient in Tonic Water 44
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  46. 46. RUM • The starting material for rum is molasses, the main byproduct in sugar manufacture. It is first fermented (by adding yeast) to generate alcohol, and then distilled. Aging it in wooden barrels gives it color and flavor. • Rum was invented on the sugar plantations in the Caribbean by the slaves. • It got popular in the American colonies, and rum distilling was an early industry in America. – One version of the Triangular Trade route was: rum from the American colonies shipped to Africa and sold for slaves, who were shipped to the Caribbean to work on the sugar plantations. The sugar and molasses then went to the American colonies. – Early elections in the US were often accompanied (and influenced) by a generous supply of rum. 46
  47. 47. RUM –It is a plant liquor. –Distilled spirit made from sugarcane or molasses –After distillation rum is aged in oak casks Available in three colours.. –1) Amber –2) Dark –3) Light no colour…clear like water. 47
  48. 48. Uses sugar cane juice or molasses as a feedstock: •Cane juice (12-16% sugar) is easy to use (requires no processing), gives a cleaner distillation than molasses but very prone to microbial contamination and only available during the cane harvest •Molasses stores reasonably well, contains a more concentrated sugar solution (up to 80%), and provides greater character to the distilled product; requires clarification and dilution prior to fermentation 48
  49. 49. Distillation: Dark and Light Rum •Dark rum production uses batch distillation, either as a double or triple process; large scale production includes a combined batch and column still •Light rum production uses continuous distillation with a Barbet still and additional columns for production of a highly rectified spirit •Maturation is variable –little or none for light rums (may also be treated with activated charcoal) –five years or more for heavy rums 49
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  51. 51. Country liquor /Desi Sharaab/Daroo •Commonly called as ‘Desi Sharaab/Daroo’, it is molasses based rectified spirit diluted to 30-33% ethanol, by volume. The product is coloured generally with caramel (burnt sugar or glucose) and bottled. Depending upon the State Excise Policies, the concentration of ethanol in these liquors may vary from one State to another. 51
  52. 52. •In the State of Haryana, although many variants of this liquor with different additives under various brand names are available, yet they are popularly called as ‘Jagadhari Brand’. It is perhaps because of the oldest brand ‘Jagadhari’, a product of the distillery located at Jagadhari in the State. This brand has, over the years, been extremely popular in the state. 52
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  55. 55. Brandy •Brandy is distilled grape wine that has been aged in oak barrels for up to 50 years. –Cognac is brandy produced in the Cognac district of France. •Brandy is consumed using a large glass to concentrate the fumes. •Other fermented fruits can be distilled to produce fruit brandies of various kinds: peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, etc. 55
  56. 56. BRANDY • Brandy was produced shortly after distillation was invented, as a way to avoid taxes based on the volume of product and to make it easier to transport. • The gunpowder test: if brandy had been distilled to a high enough alcohol concentration, a pinch of gunpowder put in the brandy would ignite when the brandy was set afire. • These products are the distillates of fermented fruit juices normally of grapes. The well known products Cognac and Armagnac are produced from grapes in specific regions of France. Yeasts are responsible for alcoholic fermentation of the fruit juice to produce a wine-base for distillation. Malolactic fermentation during wine making may or may not be desired before distillation using pot stills. 56
  57. 57. BRANDY •The wine-base for distillation may or may not include yeast lees, which impacts on product sensory quality. Finally, a period of maturation in oak barrels may be required, as for most high-quality brandies. The brandies are also produced from other fruits and are accordingly named after the fruit. 57
  58. 58. TEQUILA •The cabeza, large flowering head of a variety of Mexican agave called maguey, is cooked for a several hours then shredded and pressed. •The juice ferments spontaneously for about four days to give puique. •This is distilled to give the rough spirit mescal, which can be hallucinatory. Double distillation gives tequila which can be matured 3-5 years (tequila nuevo) or up to 10 years in a cask (tequila maduro). •It is a plant liquor. 58
  59. 59. TEQUILA • Made from the fermented juice of the blue Agave plant (a type of cactus) grown in the Tequila region of Mexico. • After distillation, it is filtered through charcoal. • Tequila has no colour if it is not aged • When aged, develops gold colour • It has an average of 40% alcohol by volume. 59
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  61. 61. Absinthe • Absinthe is a bitter tasting distilled spirit flavored with wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). Anise and fennel are also added for flavoring. It is usually green, and in literature it is often called the Green Fairy. • Absinthe was traditionally made by soaking wormwood leaves in concentrated alcohol, then distilling the mixture. • It was invented in Switzerland and became very popular with artists and avant-garde types in France in the late 1800’s. Preparation involved pouring the liquor into a glass, then adding cold water poured over a sugar cube. 61
  62. 62. Absinthe •Absinthe contains thujone, which is alleged to induce hallucinations. Absinthism was considered a problem separate from alcoholism. •For this reason, absinthe was banned in the US and most of Europe in about 1910. However, the quantities of thujone present in absinthe seem too low to be dangerous beyond the normal dangers of alcohol. Thujone-free absinthe is now legal in the US. 62
  63. 63. Liqueurs • Liqueurs are sweet or bitter, strongly aromatic, and often very alcoholic (20-50% alcohol). • It is combination of brandy or pure alcohol, sugar and flavoring agents. • Flavoring agents may be fruits, aromatic plants or herbs. • Can be any color of spectrum • It is served in small portions • The liqueurs are strong and sweet alcoholic drinks consumed in small quantities usually after meals and are often called ‘digestif’ • Liqueurs with large concentration of sugar are often called ‘cremes’. • Flavouring substances include: Apricot, cherry, peach, chocolate, peppermint, coffee, almond etc. 63
  64. 64. Popular Liqueurs • Frangelico, Amaretto- nut flavored • Triple sec, Grand Marnier- fruit (orange) flavored. • Benedictine, Crème de Menthe- herb flavored • Bailey`s Irish Cream- cream flavored • Southern comfort- whiskey flavored • Crème de cacao- chocolate flavored 64
  65. 65. WHISKEY • Whiskey is a distilled spirit made from fermented grain. It is aged in wooden barrels, usually made from white oak that have been charred. Some whiskies are distilled several times. • As in beer making, the starches in the grain need to be converted into sugars before yeast can ferment them. Malt whiskey is made using only malted barley, without other grains. In contrast, grain whiskey is made by mixing malted barley with other grains. – Malted barley: allow the barley kernels to germinate, which produces the enzymes that convert starch to sugar. Then, the kernels are dried and ground up. 65
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  67. 67. WHISKEY – Bourbon whiskey is made from corn. It was invented in Bourbon County, Kentucky and is a distinctly American product. – Scotch whiskey is made in Scotland from malted barley plus other grains. The smoky flavor comes from drying the malted barley over a peat fire. – Rye, wheat, and corn whiskies are made from the respective grain. 67
  68. 68. Canadian Whisky •Mashing may be carried out using malt and/or microbial enzymes (e.g. thermostable -amylase from Bacillus licheniformis) •Enzymes may also be added at the fermentation stage (e.g., fungal glucoamylase), especially if malt was not used during mashing •Lactic acid bacteria are used together with the yeast in fermentation (lactic acid bacteria may provide growth factors for the yeast) •Continuous distillation (including extractive distillation) is used in rye spirit production 68
  69. 69. 69 Bourbon, rye, wheat, malt whiskey At least 51% corn, rye, wheat, malted barley, respectively; distilled at not more than 80% abv; new oak casks (with charring) used for maturation (minimum of two years) Corn whiskey At least 80% corn; distilled not more than 80% abv; matured in new (uncharred) or used casks (minimum of two years)
  70. 70. American Whiskies 70 Light whiskey Distilled at 80-95% abv; matured in used casks (minimum of two years) Tennessee whiskey As for other American whiskies, but must be produced in Tennessee; filtration through maple charcoal is also used to produce a “cleaner” spirit
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  75. 75. MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMISTRY ; • Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of saccharine or oligo- saccharide materials by yeast under suitable conditions. Sugar available in grains is recovered in the process of distillation. • Sugar present in grains is disaccharide, which can be hydrolyzed. This hydrolysis is brought about by certain enzymes called invertase, found in yeast. The chemical reaction involved in process is as under ; Yeast Enzyme Invertase • C12H22O11 + H2O 2C6H12O6 ………(1) (Sucrose) (Glucose Fructose) 75
  76. 76. MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMISTRY ; • The mixture of sugars after hydrolysis of sucrose is called invert sugars. This sugar is utilized by yeast to produce ethyl alcohol with the liberation of CO2 according to the following exothermic reaction : Yeast • C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 26 Cal …... (2) 76
  77. 77. PRODUCTION DETAILS Description Details Product 5000 LPD of ENA/RS obtained by process of fermentation and distillation of grain/grain flour. Ethyl Alcohol is consumed for industrial production. Rectified spirit has an even wider application in the field of medicine with many pharmaceutical units having alcohol as basic raw material for manufacturing medicine. By-Product (Cattle Feed) By-Product (Cattle Feed)/CO2 Raw Material Grain --- 112 – 132 T/Day (based on available starch content) (Grain consumption at 100% capacity utilization) Processes Fermentation, Distillation & Evaporation 77
  78. 78. ABOUT THE RAW MATERIALS GRAINS What are grains? • - Angiosperm, grasses, Poaceae, (flowering plants) • - the fruit of the grass, but starchy not sugary • - Hordeum vulgare, barley 78
  79. 79. GRAINS • other grains used in brewing: • - wheat • - corn • - rice • - rye • - oats 79
  80. 80. GRAINS • Grain is the principal raw material for the production of alcohol. The company proposes to procure grain from the nearby areas as the grain cultivation is abundant in the area. The total requirement of grain will be 112 - 132 MT/day with a starch content of 60 – 70 % w/w. Raw material should be free from fermentation inhibiting substances and micro-organism producing side products, sand and other foreign particles. There is no dearth of good quality raw materials in the vicinity of the proposed site. 80
  81. 81. GRAIN FLOUR • 112 - 132 MT/Day of grain flour is required for the manufacturing of 45 KLPD ENA / RS. Raw material will be free from fermentation inhibiting substances & microorganisms producing side products, free from sand and other foreign particles. The raw material will have an average starch content of 64% w/w with moisture content of maximum 12 % and particle size distribution(max.) as below ; • 81 a. 0.1 mm. – 0.3 mm. 20% (Fines) b. 0.3 mm. – 0.8 mm. 70% (medium) c. 0.8 mm. – 1.0 mm. 10% (Coarse)
  82. 82. Chemicals a. Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic) 100 Kg/day b. Sulphuric Acid Concentrated Commercial grade, required in small quantity c. Antifoam agent 25 Kg/Day d. Urea 110 Kg/Day 82
  83. 83. ENZYMES a. Liquozyme 30 ltrs./day b.Alpha & Gluco Amylase 15 Kg/day c.Saccharifying Enzyme 50 Kg/Day d. Protease 4 Kg/Day 83
  84. 84. POWER REQUIREMENT ; Estimated Power Consumption Connected Load (KW) Operating Load (KW) a. Grain Cleaning & Milling 185 175 b. Liquefaction Section 163 95 c. Fermentation Section 136 140 d.Distillation 90 45 e. Decantation 78 65 f. Evaporation Plant with Auxiliaries 195 150 g. Spirit Storage 30 20 h.Auxiliaries (liqn+Ferm+Distn) 450 350 i. Boiler & Accessories 250 225 j.Office Building & Misc. 40 30 k. Water Treatment Plant & Borewells 70 50 l. Plant & Yard Lightning 30 30 TOTAL POWER LOAD 1717KW 1375KW 84
  85. 85. EQUIPMENT USED IN PROCESS ; Grain and flour handling Section - Bucket Elevator - Grain storage silos with rotary air lock valves - Screw Conveyors - Batch tipping machines - Aspiration system for silos Slurry Preparation & Liquefaction Section - Fermentors - Beer Well - Cleaning jets - Plate heat exchangers Distillation Section - Analyser column – beer / degasifying column - Stripper rectifier column - Extractive column - ENA column - Recovery column - Polishing column - Condensers and coolers - Reboilers 85
  86. 86. EQUIPMENT USED IN PROCESS ; Evaporation Section - Calenderias (Falling film evaporator) - Feed Pump - Vapour Separator Spirit Storage Section - ENA daily receivers - Impure product daily receivers - ENA bulk storage tank - Impure product bulk storage tank - Issue measures 86
  87. 87. (%) Raw material Fermentable carbohydrate (Starch %) Alcohol yield (Lit. of alcohol/MT) Rice 62-67 380-418 Sorghum 62-65 380-410 Wheat 62-65 380-410 Potato 19-20 127-134 Malt 58-59 389-395 Maize 62-65 380-410 87
  88. 88. Composition of various grains: Grain Starch Gluten Dextrin, Glucose, Etc. Fatty matter Cellulose Inorganic salts (silica, phosphates, Etc. ) Wheat 65.99 18.03 7.63 2.16 3.50 2.69 Rye 65.65 13.50 12.00 2.15 4.10 2.60 Barley 65.43 13.96 10.00 2.76 4.75 3.10 Oats 60.59 14.39 9.25 5.50 7.06 3.25 Corn 67.55 12.50 4.00 8.80 5.90 1.25 Rice 89.15 7.05 1.00 0.80 1.10 0.90 88
  90. 90. FLOWCHART 90
  91. 91. 91 Corn Corn Dry-Milling Process Overview Alpha-amylase enzyme CO2 Yeast and Gluco-amylase enzyme Whole Stillage Thin Stillage Coarse Solids Feed Industry Co-products (Source: Kelly Davis, Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company) Corn Cleaning Hammermill Mix Slurry Liquefaction Cooker Centrifuge Evaporator Fermentation Dist illat ion Ethyl Alcohol Conditioned Distillers Solubles Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Distillers Wet Grains Rotary Dryer
  92. 92. Raw materials • The raw materials used for making a distilled spirit are of two basic types: (1) those containing a high concentration of natural sugars or (2) those containing other carbohydrates that can easily be converted to sugars by enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts to promote chemical reactions. Very small amounts of an enzyme can cause a fundamental change in a large amount of material. Most enzymes are specific in their action, so that a system of several enzymes is necessary, for example, to convert starch into sugar and ultimately into ethyl alcohol. The amylases are enzymes that convert starches into sugars; sprouting grains—especially barley— are natural sources of these enzymes. Yeast has a complex enzyme system that converts sugar into carbon dioxide and a multiplicity of other products, including ethyl alcohol. • Enzymes are easily poisoned by certain compounds; they are also sensitive to temperature variations and to the degree of acidity of the medium. 92
  93. 93. SUGARY MATERIALS 1) Grapes Grapes, cultivated in most of the subtropic and warm temperate zones of the world, are the major fruit employed as the raw material of distilled spirits, and the final product of their fermentation is brandy. Other natural fruits, such as apples and peaches, are used to a lesser extent, 93
  94. 94. SUGARY MATERIALS 2) Sugary vegetables include sugarcane, sugar beets, and Agave tequilana (a type of cactus). Sugarcane and Enzymes are easily poisoned by certain compounds; they are also sensitive to temperature variations and to the degree of acidity of the medium.its products, including cane juices, molasses, and sugar, are the most important of the vegetable group. Grown throughout the tropics and semitropics, sugarcane is used in making rum and an alcohol derived from rum. Sugarcane juice can be pressed from the cane for use as the base raw material for fermentation, or the juice may be concentrated for sugar production, with the molasses residue from the sugar crystallization used as a base for fermentation. This process is also applied to sugar beets. 94
  95. 95. SUGARY MATERIALS 3) CORN(MAIZE) Corn (maize) is the most important cereal grain employed; it is produced worldwide. Rye grain, though less efficient in fermentation than corn, is used extensively in whiskey production, primarily for the flavour characteristics it imparts to the final product. It is particularly employed in Canada and the United States. 95
  96. 96. SUGARY MATERIALS 4) Barley grain, probably the first cereal employed for distillation in large quantities, was formerly a major crop throughout Ireland and western Europe. 5) Wheat, because of its high cost, is used only where corn is in short supply and is then limited to production of grain alcohol for blending or in production of liqueurs. 6) Potatoes have been used in distilled spirits production primarily in central Europe; in the tropics, other starchy roots are employed. 96
  97. 97. GRAIN STORAGE • Grains in various forms, broken or damaged grains, are procured from various sources and stored in Grain Silos or in open grain yard covered with tarpoline. Usually, it is a practice to store at least 30 days of Raw materials. All types of grains like broken rice, damaged wheat, Jowar, Maize / Corn are used in this industry and the Plant & Machinery is suitably designed. 97
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  100. 100. DRY MILLING • Dry mills produce ethanol, distillers' grain and carbon dioxide • The carbon dioxide is a co-product of the fermentation, and the distillers’ dried grain with solubles • (DDGS) is a animal based, high protein livestock feed supplement, produced from the distillation and dehydration process. • If distillers' grains are not dried, they are referred to as distillers' wet grain (DWG). • In dry milling, the entire corn kernel or other starchy grain is first ground into flour, which is referred to in the industry as "meal" and processed without separating out the various component parts of the grain. The meal is slurried with water to form a "mash." Enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to dextrose, a simple sugar. Ammonia is added for pH control and as a nutrient to the yeast. 100
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  102. 102. WET MILLING • Wet mill facilities are ‘bio-refineries’ producing a host of high-valued products. • Wet mill processing plants produce more valuable by-products than the dry mill process. • For example, in wet mill plants, using corn as feedstock, they produce: • ethanol; • corn gluten meal (which can be used as a natural herbicide or as a high protein supplement in animal feeds); • corn gluten feed (also used as animal feed); • corn germ meal; • corn starch; • corn oil; and • corn syrup and high fructose corn syrups. 102
  103. 103. MILLING • The purpose of milling and pressing is to make the starch or sugar more available for enzyme action. Crushing and pressing (grapes and other fruits), milling (cereal grains), or a combination of milling and pressing (sugarcane) are used. • In milling, grains are reduced to a meal to allow wetting of their starch cells. Various types of mills are used. Roller mills, where the grain passes through a series of corrugated rollers, was long the most common type. The grinding action of the rollers is mainly a shearing action. More efficient and economical impact-type mills (such as hammer mills) are now gaining in importance. • After the Industrial Revolution, steam replaced water as the power source for milling. Since the mid-20th century, electricity has been almost the exclusive power source in milling. 103
  104. 104. MILLING • The cleaned grain is sent to milling machines for grinding grain flour (size 400-700μ) is conveyed to pre-masher for slurry preparation. In pre-masher, flour & required water of ratio 1:2 are mixed by agitator. Uniform grain slurry is made and transferred to another low shear tank (slurry tank) for proper mixing. In slurry tank required pH of 6.0-6.2 is maintained by using lime if required and temperature as 550C to 600C. An enzyme called α- amylase is added here in small (20-25%) dose before the cooking process starts. 104
  105. 105. SLURRY PREPARATION •Grain flour and process water is fed at controlled rate to Slurry Tank. Mixed slurry is taken to the Initial Liquefaction tank where additional quantity of water is added as per requirement. Viscosity reduction Enzyme and stabilizing chemicals and a portion of liquefying enzyme are also added at this stage. The slurry is then “cooked” in the jet cooker. 105
  106. 106. COOKING SECTION/Primary Liquefaction • The slurry is continuously pumped to a steam jet cooker where high-pressure steam at 7.5 bar(g) rapidly raises the slurry temperature. The mixture of slurry and steam is then passed through the Retention loop. The retention loop has several “U” bends in series with sufficient capacity to provide the desired retention time at a given flow rate. The cooked mash is discharged to a Flash Tank. • The cooking process, accomplished in the above manner, converts the slurry into a hydrated, sterilized suspension and is therefore susceptible to enzyme attack for liquefaction. 106
  107. 107. Secondary Liquefaction • The gelatinized mash from the Flash Tank is liquefied in the initial and final liquefaction tank where liquefying enzyme (alpha-amylase) is added. • After the flash condensation cooling, the mixture is held for 1–2 hours at 180–190°F to give the alpha-amylase enzyme time to break down the starch into short chain dextrins. • After pH and temperature adjustment, a second enzyme, glucoamylase, is added as the mixture is pumped into the fermentation tanks. 107
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  109. 109. FERMENTATION 109
  110. 110. Pre FERMENTATION- YEAST ACTIVATION • In the Pre Fermentation stage, yeast is activated and propagated. • Two pre fermentors are provided but only one is in operation at any time. • All the materials, process water, and nutrients are added to the yeast for activation and growth of yeast cell mass. • Filtered air is sparged and provision is made for the addition of acid to maintain pH and anti foam agent to reduce foaming. 110
  111. 111. Fermentation cont.. • The fermentation process operates in batch mode and converts the fermentable sugar in the feedstock into alcohol using yeast. • During fermentation, sugar is broken down into alcohol and co2. • Significant heat is released during the fermentation process. • The temperature is kept constant at 32C by forced recirculation flow of mash coolers for Fermentors using fermented recirculation cum transfer pumps. • After a total cycle time of 48 hours, the fermented beer is transferred to the beer tank to be sent for distillation 111
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  114. 114. Fermentation Process Flexi mode – Continuous / Fed Batch (depending on molasses quality) 88–90 % 8-10 % v/v Recycled (Quantity depends on quality of molasses) 114 Fermentation Efficiency Fermentation Process Alcohol Concentration Recycling of Spent wash
  115. 115. Fermentation Process Detailed analysis is utilized for process design Multi feed – Molasses, g r a i n Accounted ;Recycled a n d R e u115 Molasses Composition Feedstock Waste Water Generation Control Over Contamination
  116. 116. Distillation •Distillation is a kind of seperation technique of two or more volatile liquid compunds by using the difference in boiling points and relative volatility. •The process takes place in a column, and two heat exchangers. •In the column two phases, liquid and gas, are distributed to enrich the vapor in more volatile compounds and enrich the liquid phase on less volatile compounds. •Mass transfer is the key to a successful distillation. 116
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  118. 118. DISTILLATION CONT… • This process utilizes following columns namely Analyser, Degassifier, Pre-Rectifier Column, Rectifier-cum Exhaust, Extractive Distillation Column, Recovery Column and Simmering Column in ideal heat integration in order to reduce the energy consumption. • The arriving wash is first preheated in beer heater and fed to Analyzer column Vapor draw-containing alcohol from wash from Analyzer column top is fed to Pre-rectifier column (if required), which too is working under vacuum. • Liquid is refluxed. The impure spirit is drawn from top of column and that collected at bottom is fed to top of the Exhaust portion of the Rectifier cum Exhaust column. • Under pressure heat is given through Re boiler. Alcohol is enriched towards the top and drawn out as Rectified Spirit about 95% v/v concentration. 118
  119. 119. Distillation Process Multi pressure- “Heat integration”- Use of reboiler 98.5 % Extra Neutral Alcohol ; Absolute Alcohol Available & Practiced; 119 Distillation Process Distillation Efficiency Product Preference Automation
  120. 120. DISTILLATION Multi Product – RS / ENA 3.2 – 3.5 Kg / Ltr of Alcohol for ENA YES 5-8 % of total alcohol for ENA 120 Plant Type Steam Consumption Focus on Energy Conservation TA cut
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  122. 122. Dehydration • This is to produce anhydrous Alcohol from Rectified Spirit • Rectified Spirit is preheated and fed to evaporation/ regeneration column. • Vapors drawn, sent to Sieve Bed, dehydrated, condensed and cooled. Thus forms • Absolute Alcohol of desired 99.8% v/v purity. • There is alternate Sieve Bed 2 ready for next operation. 122
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  124. 124. Molecular sieve Dehydration unit •The wet ethanol (Neutral alcohol) containing about 95% (v/v) alcohol is pumped from the wet alcohol storage tank to the Molecular sieve Dehydration unit. •This unit removes the water content of the wet alcohol to produce the ethanol of strength of not less than 99.9%. 124
  125. 125. 125 ETHANOL (R.S) 96% V/V PURE ETHANOL 99%
  126. 126. DENATURING •ETHANOL that will be used for fuel is then denatured with a small amount (2-5%) of some products, like gasoline to make it unfit for human consumption 126
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  129. 129. CO-PRODUCTS Stillage Separation After fermentation and distillation, the residual mash, termed ‘whole stillage’ is separated by centrifugation or pressing and extrusion into wet grain (containing heavy particulate matter) and thin stillage (containing water and small particulate matter). The thin stillage fraction is dried to a syrup, then mixed with the wet grain fraction and dried further to form Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS). 129
  130. 130. Decantation Section Decantation section comprises of Centrifuge Decanter for separation of suspended solids from whole Stillage (Spent wash) coming out of Distillation Plant, Wet cake has 32-35% w/w solids as removed from bottom of Decanter and is directly loaded on the trolley parked below the centrifuge. Thin Slops coming out of Decanter are collected in a tank and transferred for further treatment and recycle. 130
  131. 131. Liquid/Solid separation The stillage from the distillation system is pumped into centrifuges to separate the majority of the solid matter from the solution. This creates two products: A semi-solid product called wet cake is removed and conveyed to rotary dryers. A mostly-water process stream, called thin stillage, is pumped to the evaporation system. 131
  132. 132. Evaporation The thin stillage from the centrifuges is pumped into a series of evaporators where a majority of the water in the solution is removed. The resulting product stream is called syrup. The syrup can be sold as a stand-alone product or added to the wet cake before moving into the dryer system. 132
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  134. 134. DDG(Dried distillers grains) 134
  135. 135. ELECTRICITY 135
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  137. 137. REVERSE OSMOSIS (R.O) PLANT 137
  139. 139. ADVANTAGES OF DRINKING DISTILLED LIQUORS •1. Aids in digestion •2. Promotes cardiovascular health •3. Reduces diabetes risk •4. Lowers high blood pressure •5. Anti-inflammation properties 139
  140. 140. WAY AHEAD.. • Perfect existing waste water treatment technologies • Develop innovative technologies which will help to operate ETP solutions in more ‘economical’ way • Technology for reducing ‘water footprint’ to greater extent • Contribute to environment by reducing GHG emissions 140
  141. 141. 141 • La Coruña • Cartagena • Salamanca • AB France Abengoa Bioenergy is the only international producer of ethanol Production Facilities in EU
  142. 142. York, NE Colwich, KS • Portales, NM • Ravenna, NE) Abengoa Bioenergy is the only international producer of ethanol Production Facilities in U.S.
  143. 143. ABOUT INDIA • IN India there,s a huge list of companies. •In each state there are at least 5-6 plants producing Distilled liquor. •Close to us we have Radico Nv Distilleries plant situated in Aurangabad. 143
  144. 144. Radico Nv Distilleries,Aurangabad 144
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  149. 149. •As discussed, it is safe to say that the project is not likely to cause any significant impact on the ecology of the area, as adequate preventive measures will be adopted to contain the various pollutants within permissible limits. Green belt development around the area will be taken up as an effective pollution mitigative technique. Community impacts will be beneficial, as the project will generate significant economic benefits for the region. With the effective implementation of the Environment Management Plan (EMP) during the Plant activities, the proposed project can proceed without any significant negative impact on environment. 149
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