WHAT IS AN ALCOHOL !!!!!
•Chemical terms = a class of organic compounds
containing hydroxyl (OH) groups
•Common Terms = ethyl alcohol (ethanol) =
intoxicating ingredient in beer, wine and
distilled spirits (hard liquor)
Where does it come from?
Fundamental metabolic processes:
extracting energy from sugar
- requires oxygen
- 36 ATP per glucose
- low energy waste
products, H2O and CO2
Where does it come from?
• We’re only concerned with alcoholic fermentation
• Many fungi and bacteria can perform alcoholic
• fermentation; fairly common amongst microorganisms
• Saccharomyces cerevisiae brewer’s and baker’s yeast
• water + sugar + yeast + time = alcoholic beverage
• Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism, it’s a waste product,
Alcohol Source = Yeast
• Source of ethanol: Saccharomyces species (yeasts)
- microorganism - fungus
- reproduce by fission (budding)
- food = simple sugars only
- anaerobic conditions degrade sugars to alcohol
Characteristics of alcohol
•Can dissolve lipids out of cell membranes
= fast cell penetration, destroys and kills
•Kills microbial cells
•Toxic in relatively small doses (ethanol
•Modifies body functions = a drug
•Potentially toxic and cannot be stored in
Alcohol - Chemistry
• Alcohol = organic compound with hydroxyl
Many different compounds that are alcohols
Beverage alcohol – specifically ethyl alcohol
Other common alcohols:
Methyl alcohol, methanol (wood alcohol):
Isopropyl alcohol, isopropanol (rubbing
• ALCOHOL is a general term for any organic
compound in which a hydroxyl group(-OH) is
bound to a carbon atom, which in turn may be
bound to other carbon atoms and further
• -Alcohols other than ethanol(such as propylene
glycol and the sugar alcohols) appear in food and
• -METHANOL(one carbon), the PROPANOLS(three
carbons giving two isomers), and the BUTANOLS
(four carbons, four isomers) are all commonly
found alcohols — these three toxic alcohols should
never be consumed in any form.
• It particular can cause blindness because of
accumulations and further chemical reactions that
occur in the eye.
• Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is the active ingredient in
• When produced for use in a beverage, ethanol is
always produced by means of fermentation, i.e.,
the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain
species of yeast in the absence of oxygen.
•Effects of alcohol on human physiology
- complex set of responses
- nervous system depressant
- interferes with specific neuroreceptors
1.Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor
prevents firing of neurons that produce tenseness
2.Increases dopamine, endorphines feeling of well-
Alcohol in the Body
• Does not need time for digestion
• Quickly absorbed
• On a full stomach the effects are delayed
• Begins in stomach – alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme
• Capillaries of digestive tract merge to veins and carry alcohol
*Goal is to get out of body as quickly as possible
At the Liver
– Veins make alcohols touch every liver cell
– Liver cells = enough alcohol dehydrogenase to work fast
enough to dispose of some alcohol before it moves on – Can
process ½ (one drink) ounce per hour
• The short-term effects on the circulatory system include decreased blood
pressure, pulse and respiration.
• Alcohol blocks the absorption of essential nutrients and contributes to
malnutrition among heavy drinkers.
• Alcohol use also impairs the functioning of the immune system—weakening the
body’s ability to fight off infectious disease.
• In the short-term, this will increase the number of colds you will experience.
• Alcohol impairs memory by inhibiting the transfer and consolidation of
information in long-term memory—so alcohol reduces our ability to remember
information that we learned before going out for drinks.
Short term cont…
•A person’s attention span is shorter for periods up to forty-eight
hours after drinking
•Alcohol affects many parts of the brain, but the most vulnerable cells
are those associated with memory, coordination, and judgment.
•May dull a person’s inhibitions
•Impair motor coordination, may stumble or fall
•May cause you to engage in unprotected, “regrettable” sex
• Evidence suggests that moderate consumption protects against
ischemic stroke. (Tied to consumption of alcohol not specific
• The evidence that moderate alcohol consumption protects against
diabetes and gallstones is also fairly strong.
• May also have cognitive benefits but this is problematic because the
effects of alcohol on the central nervous system are extremely
complex, in part because alcohol interacts with many different
neurotransmitter systems, and also because the effects on these
systems may be dose-dependent and variable across individuals.
Reduced heart risk
Reduce chances of coronary artery disease
Reduce development of blocked arteries in your legs
Alcohol is predominantly a sedative of depressant drug
Alcohol has the same chemical and physiological effect on
everyone who drinks
Alcohol is harmful and poisonous to the Alcoholic
Craving for alcohol can be offset by eating high sugar
If Alcoholics eat three balanced meals a day, their
nutritional problems will eventually correct themselves
Alcohol stimulates the appetite
Beer is a great source of carbohydrates, vitamins,
minerals and fluids
Drinking alcohol reduces the risk of heart disease
If you take an aspirin before drinking, it decreases the
odds of a hangover
•Of 3 most used psychoactive drugs, alcohol,
nicotine & caffeine, alcohol is most popular.
•Alcohol has been known, manufactured and
used longer by far than nicotine or caffeine.
•Alcohol refers to Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing)
Methyl alcohol (wood) & Ethanol (drinking).
•Alcohol is almost always consumed in one of
three forms; beer, wine or hard liquor.
•Alcohol beverages are produced through
fermentation and distillation.
Alcohol Beverages continued
• Fermentation involves dissolving sugar in water, adding yeast that multiply and eat the
sugar, the yeast metabolize the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The CO2 bubbles
to top leaving ethanol.
• The yeast multiply and metabolize alcohol until the brew reaches 10% to 15% alcohol
• The alcohol content and type of beverage depend on sugar content and sugar containing
• Grapes/grape juice ferment to wine.
• Grains ferment to beer.
• Distillation increases ethanol content of fermented beverage.
• Distillation process-fermented mixture is heated to boiling (alcohol has lower boiling
point than water), the steam/vapor (high in alcohol) is condensed by cooling, the
condensed liquid has higher alcohol content than original.
• Process may be repeated several times to increase alcohol content.
Expressing Alcohol Content
•Alcohol content of beverage may be expressed by
volume or weight.
•In US alcohol percentage is denoted by volume.
•A 16 ounce beverage that contains 50% ethanol
contains 8 ounces of alcohol.
•Alcohol content can also be designated by proof.
•Proof used mainly for distilled spirits & is equal
to twice the percentage of alcohol by volume.
– 45% alcohol by volume= 90 proof
– Proof is the method used to designate alcohol content in
•Neutral spirit is basically purified, odorless, tasteless,
colorless ethanol (or ethyl alcohol -C2H5OH). It may be
produced from almost any fermentation feedstock if suitable
distillation and rectification techniques are used to remove
the other chemical compounds, or congeners, produced with
the ethanol in the fermentation process.
•Distilled liquor, also called distilled spirit, alcoholic
beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is
obtained by distillation from fermented fruit or plant juice
or from a starchy material (such as various grains)
•Distilled spirits are all alcoholic beverages in which the
concentration of ethyl alcohol has been increased above that
of the original fermented mixture by a method called
distillation. The principle of alcoholic distillation is based
upon the different boiling points of alcohol (78.5° C, or
173.3° F) and water (100° C, or 212° F). If a liquid
containing ethyl alcohol is heated to a temperature above
78.5° C but below 100° C and the vapour coming off the
liquid is condensed, the condensate will have a higher
alcohol concentration, or strength.
•Distilled beverages (spirits) having 35-50% alcohol represent a
substantial proportion of the market for alcoholic beverages.
Owing to their high ethanol content they are resistant to
microbial spoilage. They have been categorized into two broad
groups. One group is represented by those beverages where the
raw material has an important influence on the sensory quality
of the final product. This group includes whisky, which is derived
from cereals; rum, produced from sugarcane juice or molasses
and brandies, distilled from fermented juice of grapes or other
fruits. The second group includes products such as gin and
vodka, which consist of distilled alcohol–base that has been
processed to give specific flavour characteristics.
• The alcohol content of beer and wine is limited by the fact that an
alcohol concentration of 18% or more kills the yeast that produces it.
• To produce stronger alcohol, distillation is needed. The principle is
that ethanol boils at a temperature lower than water. So, the alcohol
boils off, leaving the water behind. You just need to capture the
alcohol vapor and condense it.
• Alcohol concentration is measured in proof, where each proof is 1/2
%. So, 80 proof means 40% alcohol. Most distilled spirits are 80-
• Alcohol can only be distilled to 95%. It is colorless and tasteless. The
color and taste of distilled spirits come from other by products of
fermentation and aging that remain after distillation.
• The word “alcohol” comes from Arabic: al’kuhul,
which refers to kohl, a preparation used to darken
the eyes. Alternatively, al’ghoul, which means
monster or spirit. This word origin is somewhat
• Distillation was invented by the Arabs around 700
• The first distilled spirits were made from sugar-
based materials, primarily grapes and honey to make
grape brandy and distilled mead, respectively. The
earliest use of starchy grains to produce distilled
spirits is not known, but their use certainly dates
from the Middle Ages. Some government control
dates from the 17th century. As production methods
improved and volume increased, the distilled spirits
industry became an important source of revenue.
Rigid controls were often imposed on both production
and sale of the liquor.
• The earliest stills were composed simply of a
heated closed container, a condenser, and a
receptacle to receive the condensate. These
evolved into the pot still, which is still in use,
particularly for making malt whiskeys and some
gins. The next refinement was heating the alcohol-
containing liquid in a column made up of a series of
vaporization chambers stacked on top of one
another. By the early 19th century large-scale
continuous stills, very similar to those used in the
industry today, were operating in France and
England. In 1831 the Irishman Aeneas Coffey
designed such a still, which consisted of two
columns in series.
TYPES OF DISTILLED LIQUORS
4) COUNTRY LIQUOR (Desi Daru)
Spirits are made from four main ingredients:
1. Base Ingredient — A sugary or starchy base ingredient, whose
sugars can be fermented, as in the process of making beer or
2. Yeast — A single-celled organism that converts the sugar from
starchy or sweet base ingredients into alcohol.
3. Water — As with brewing, local water is frequently a key
factor in the quality and style of the spirit, especially for grain-
based spirits such as whisk(e)y and vodka.
4. Flavorings — Some spirits owe their character to the addition
of distinctive flavoring ingredients. These can include herbs,
spices, honey, fruits, and vegetables.
•Vodka is the traditional distilled spirit of
Russia, Poland, Finland, and other Eastern
•Vodka is made from fermented grains (mostly
wheat and rye), or from potatoes. It is
distilled repeatedly until it is almost pure
alcohol (95% = 190 proof). Then, it is diluted
to a drinkable concentration, around 40%
alcohol. Flavoring is sometimes added at this
point, but pure vodka is unflavored.
•Vodka is not aged.
•Vodka was rarely consumed outside
Europe before 1950, but it has become very
popular in the United States since then.
•It is a grain neutral spirit.
•Distilled continuously to remove
•Congeners produce distinctive and
sometime harsh taste plus colour.
Vodka originated in the Nordic countries and Russia in the 14th
century. The name vodka is derived from the Polish phrase,
meaning the “water of life.”
Traditionally vodka was made from the cheapest and most
plentiful starch available locally — originally potatoes in
Russia and Poland. Most commercial vodkas today are based on
grains such as barley, rye or wheat (potato vodka remains as a
Most vodkas are distilled repeatedly in a continuous still to
achieve the clean, neutral taste that makes them such popular
mixers. To further enhance the flavor purity, many vodkas are
refined by charcoal filtration, leaving only the slight scent
and flavor. Flavoring essences such as fruits and spices may be
added at this point to make them flavoured vodkas.
Although there are no official classifications, many vodkas
tout the quality of the grain or water source used, and
their purity owed to multiple distillations and painstaking
Vodka is almost always bottled without aging.
The ultimate mixer, vodka plays a starring role in many
classic cocktails including the Martini, the Screwdriver,
the Cosmopolitan and the Bloody Mary.
• Gin is a distilled spirit flavored with juniper berries. Juniper is
a gymnosperm, and the “berries” are actually the cones
• Gin is made by fermenting wheat, corn, and rye with malted
barley, and then distilling it with juniper berries and other
spices mixed in. It does not need to be aged, which made it
an attractive product during Prohibition.
• Gin was invented in Holland, and came to England during a
war in the early 1600’s. It was the original “Dutch courage”, a
term that means courage gained from being drunk.
• “Distilled” gin produced by batch distillation (45-60% Abv) with
botanicals; heads and tails fractions are recycled through a
rectifying column before returning to the gin still.
• Gin became very popular among working class people in England,
because it could be brewed from grain unfit for making bread or
beer, and it wasn’t taxed, unlike other distilled spirits. It was often
flavored with turpentine. Lots of extreme drunkenness and
otherwise immoral behavior during the Gin Craze (1700-1750).
• The English in India prevented malaria with quinine. Since quinine
is very bitter, they mixed it with carbonated water and gin, with a
lime : the gin-and-tonic.
• “Compound” gin uses essences or flavourings that are added
directly to the neutral spirit
England Not aged
Dutch Gin- very
Plymouth Gin – Dry
gin – best for Pink
Golden Gin – aged
and hence straw
Sloe Gin – Sloe
berries infused in
distillation – more a
liqueur than a Gin
Gin and Tonic
• SERVICE OF GIN:
Served in Old Fashioned Glass mostly with Tonic Water, a slice
of lemon or Lime
TRIVIA- Tonic Water originated in India – when British invaded India,
they needed Quinine to keep them healthy from Mosquito Bites –
Quinine is the main ingredient in Tonic Water
• The starting material for rum is molasses, the main
byproduct in sugar manufacture. It is first fermented (by
adding yeast) to generate alcohol, and then distilled.
Aging it in wooden barrels gives it color and flavor.
• Rum was invented on the sugar plantations in the Caribbean
by the slaves.
• It got popular in the American colonies, and rum distilling
was an early industry in America.
– One version of the Triangular Trade route was: rum from
the American colonies shipped to Africa and sold for
slaves, who were shipped to the Caribbean to work on the
sugar plantations. The sugar and molasses then went to
the American colonies.
– Early elections in the US were often accompanied (and
influenced) by a generous supply of rum.
–It is a plant liquor.
–Distilled spirit made from sugarcane or
–After distillation rum is aged in oak casks
Available in three colours..
–3) Light no colour…clear like water.
Uses sugar cane juice or molasses as a feedstock:
•Cane juice (12-16% sugar) is easy to use (requires no
processing), gives a cleaner distillation than
molasses but very prone to microbial contamination
and only available during the cane harvest
•Molasses stores reasonably well, contains a more
concentrated sugar solution (up to 80%), and
provides greater character to the distilled product;
requires clarification and dilution prior to
Distillation: Dark and Light Rum
•Dark rum production uses batch distillation, either
as a double or triple process; large scale production
includes a combined batch and column still
•Light rum production uses continuous distillation
with a Barbet still and additional columns for
production of a highly rectified spirit
•Maturation is variable
–little or none for light rums (may also be treated
with activated charcoal)
–five years or more for heavy rums
Country liquor /Desi Sharaab/Daroo
•Commonly called as ‘Desi
Sharaab/Daroo’, it is molasses based
rectified spirit diluted to 30-33%
ethanol, by volume. The product is
coloured generally with caramel
(burnt sugar or glucose) and bottled.
Depending upon the State Excise
Policies, the concentration of ethanol
in these liquors may vary from one
State to another.
•In the State of Haryana, although many
variants of this liquor with different
additives under various brand names are
available, yet they are popularly called as
‘Jagadhari Brand’. It is perhaps because of
the oldest brand ‘Jagadhari’, a product of the
distillery located at Jagadhari in the State.
This brand has, over the years, been
extremely popular in the state.
•Brandy is distilled grape wine that has been
aged in oak barrels for up to 50 years.
–Cognac is brandy produced in the Cognac
district of France.
•Brandy is consumed using a large glass to
concentrate the fumes.
•Other fermented fruits can be
distilled to produce fruit brandies
of various kinds: peach, apricot,
plum, cherry, blackberry, etc.
• Brandy was produced shortly after distillation was invented,
as a way to avoid taxes based on the volume of product and
to make it easier to transport.
• The gunpowder test: if brandy had been distilled to a high
enough alcohol concentration, a pinch of gunpowder put in
the brandy would ignite when the brandy was set afire.
• These products are the distillates of fermented fruit juices
normally of grapes. The well known products Cognac and
Armagnac are produced from grapes in specific regions of
France. Yeasts are responsible for alcoholic fermentation of
the fruit juice to produce a wine-base for distillation.
Malolactic fermentation during wine making may or may not
be desired before distillation using pot stills.
•The wine-base for distillation may or may not
include yeast lees, which impacts on product
sensory quality. Finally, a period of maturation
in oak barrels may be required, as for most
high-quality brandies. The brandies are also
produced from other fruits and are accordingly
named after the fruit.
•The cabeza, large flowering head of a variety of
Mexican agave called maguey, is cooked for a
several hours then shredded and pressed.
•The juice ferments spontaneously for about four
days to give puique.
•This is distilled to give the rough spirit mescal,
which can be hallucinatory. Double distillation gives
tequila which can be matured 3-5 years (tequila
nuevo) or up to 10 years in a cask (tequila maduro).
•It is a plant liquor.
• Made from the fermented juice of the blue Agave plant
(a type of cactus) grown in the Tequila region of Mexico.
• After distillation, it is filtered through charcoal.
• Tequila has no colour if it is not aged
• When aged, develops gold colour
• It has an average of 40% alcohol by volume.
• Absinthe is a bitter tasting distilled spirit flavored with wormwood
(Artemisia absinthium). Anise and fennel are also added for flavoring. It is
usually green, and in literature it is often called the Green Fairy.
• Absinthe was traditionally made by soaking wormwood leaves in
concentrated alcohol, then distilling the mixture.
• It was invented in Switzerland and became very
popular with artists and avant-garde types in France
in the late 1800’s. Preparation involved pouring the
liquor into a glass, then adding cold water poured
over a sugar cube.
•Absinthe contains thujone, which is alleged to induce hallucinations.
Absinthism was considered a problem separate from alcoholism.
•For this reason, absinthe was banned in the US and most of Europe
in about 1910. However, the quantities of thujone present in
absinthe seem too low to be dangerous beyond the normal dangers
of alcohol. Thujone-free absinthe is now legal in the US.
• Liqueurs are sweet or bitter, strongly aromatic, and often very
alcoholic (20-50% alcohol).
• It is combination of brandy or pure alcohol, sugar and flavoring
• Flavoring agents may be fruits, aromatic plants or herbs.
• Can be any color of spectrum
• It is served in small portions
• The liqueurs are strong and sweet alcoholic drinks consumed in
small quantities usually after meals and are often called ‘digestif’
• Liqueurs with large concentration of sugar are often called
• Flavouring substances include: Apricot, cherry, peach, chocolate,
peppermint, coffee, almond etc.
• Frangelico, Amaretto- nut flavored
• Triple sec, Grand Marnier- fruit (orange) flavored.
• Benedictine, Crème de Menthe- herb flavored
• Bailey`s Irish Cream- cream flavored
• Southern comfort- whiskey flavored
• Crème de cacao- chocolate flavored
• Whiskey is a distilled spirit made from fermented
grain. It is aged in wooden barrels, usually made
from white oak that have been charred. Some
whiskies are distilled several times.
• As in beer making, the starches in the grain need
to be converted into sugars before yeast can
ferment them. Malt whiskey is made using only
malted barley, without other grains. In contrast,
grain whiskey is made by mixing malted barley
with other grains.
– Malted barley: allow the barley kernels to
germinate, which produces the enzymes that
convert starch to sugar. Then, the kernels are
dried and ground up.
– Bourbon whiskey is made from corn. It was invented in
Bourbon County, Kentucky and is a distinctly American
– Scotch whiskey is made in Scotland from malted barley
plus other grains. The smoky flavor comes from drying
the malted barley over a peat fire.
– Rye, wheat, and corn whiskies are made from the
•Mashing may be carried out using malt and/or
microbial enzymes (e.g. thermostable -amylase from
•Enzymes may also be added at the fermentation stage
(e.g., fungal glucoamylase), especially if malt was not
used during mashing
•Lactic acid bacteria are used together with the yeast
in fermentation (lactic acid bacteria may provide
growth factors for the yeast)
•Continuous distillation (including extractive
distillation) is used in rye spirit production
Bourbon, rye, wheat,
At least 51% corn, rye, wheat,
malted barley, respectively;
distilled at not more than 80% abv;
new oak casks (with charring) used
for maturation (minimum of two
Corn whiskey At least 80% corn; distilled not
more than 80% abv; matured in
new (uncharred) or used casks
(minimum of two years)
Light whiskey Distilled at 80-95% abv; matured in
used casks (minimum of two
Tennessee whiskey As for other American whiskies,
but must be produced in
Tennessee; filtration through
maple charcoal is also used to
produce a “cleaner” spirit
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMISTRY ;
• Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of saccharine or oligo-
saccharide materials by yeast under suitable conditions. Sugar
available in grains is recovered in the process of distillation.
• Sugar present in grains is disaccharide, which can be hydrolyzed.
This hydrolysis is brought about by certain enzymes called
invertase, found in yeast. The chemical reaction involved in process
is as under ;
Yeast Enzyme Invertase
• C12H22O11 + H2O 2C6H12O6 ………(1)
(Sucrose) (Glucose Fructose)
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CHEMISTRY ;
• The mixture of sugars after hydrolysis of sucrose is called invert
sugars. This sugar is utilized by yeast to produce ethyl alcohol with
the liberation of CO2 according to the following exothermic reaction
• C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + 26 Cal …... (2)
Product 5000 LPD of ENA/RS obtained by process of
fermentation and distillation of grain/grain flour. Ethyl
Alcohol is consumed for industrial production.
Rectified spirit has an even wider application in the
field of medicine with many pharmaceutical units
having alcohol as basic raw material for manufacturing
By-Product (Cattle Feed)/CO2
Raw Material Grain --- 112 – 132 T/Day (based on available starch
(Grain consumption at 100% capacity utilization)
Processes Fermentation, Distillation & Evaporation
ABOUT THE RAW MATERIALS
What are grains?
• - Angiosperm, grasses, Poaceae,
• - the fruit of the grass, but
starchy not sugary
• - Hordeum vulgare, barley
• other grains used in brewing:
• - wheat
• - corn
• - rice
• - rye
• - oats
• Grain is the principal raw material for the
production of alcohol. The company proposes to
procure grain from the nearby areas as the grain
cultivation is abundant in the area. The total
requirement of grain will be 112 - 132 MT/day with
a starch content of 60 – 70 % w/w. Raw material
should be free from fermentation inhibiting
substances and micro-organism producing side
products, sand and other foreign particles.
There is no dearth of good quality raw
materials in the vicinity of the proposed site.
• 112 - 132 MT/Day of grain flour is required for the
manufacturing of 45 KLPD ENA / RS. Raw material will be
free from fermentation inhibiting substances &
microorganisms producing side products, free from sand and
other foreign particles. The raw material will have an average
starch content of 64% w/w with moisture content of maximum
12 % and particle size distribution(max.) as below ;
a. 0.1 mm. – 0.3 mm. 20% (Fines)
b. 0.3 mm. – 0.8 mm. 70% (medium)
c. 0.8 mm. – 1.0 mm. 10% (Coarse)
a. Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic) 100 Kg/day
b. Sulphuric Acid Concentrated
Commercial grade, required in
c. Antifoam agent 25 Kg/Day
d. Urea 110 Kg/Day
Corn Dry-Milling Process Overview
Feed Industry Co-products
(Source: Kelly Davis, Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company)
Hammermill Mix Slurry Liquefaction
Dist illat ion
• The raw materials used for making a distilled spirit are of two basic
types: (1) those containing a high concentration of natural sugars or
(2) those containing other carbohydrates that can easily be converted
to sugars by enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts to
promote chemical reactions. Very small amounts of an enzyme can
cause a fundamental change in a large amount of material. Most
enzymes are specific in their action, so that a system of several
enzymes is necessary, for example, to convert starch into sugar and
ultimately into ethyl alcohol. The amylases are enzymes that
convert starches into sugars; sprouting grains—especially barley—
are natural sources of these enzymes. Yeast has a complex enzyme
system that converts sugar into carbon dioxide and a multiplicity of
other products, including ethyl alcohol.
• Enzymes are easily poisoned by certain compounds; they are also
sensitive to temperature variations and to the degree of acidity of the
Grapes, cultivated in most of the
subtropic and warm temperate zones of the
world, are the major fruit employed as the
raw material of distilled spirits, and the final
product of their fermentation is brandy. Other
natural fruits, such as apples and peaches, are
used to a lesser extent,
2) Sugary vegetables include sugarcane, sugar beets,
and Agave tequilana (a type of cactus).
Sugarcane and Enzymes are easily poisoned by
certain compounds; they are also sensitive to
temperature variations and to the degree of acidity of
the medium.its products, including cane juices, molasses,
and sugar, are the most important of the vegetable
group. Grown throughout the tropics and semitropics,
sugarcane is used in making rum and an alcohol derived
from rum. Sugarcane juice can be pressed from the cane
for use as the base raw material for fermentation, or the
juice may be concentrated for sugar production, with the
molasses residue from the sugar crystallization used as a
base for fermentation. This process is also applied to sugar
Corn (maize) is the most important cereal grain
employed; it is produced worldwide. Rye grain, though less
efficient in fermentation than corn, is used extensively
in whiskey production, primarily for the flavour characteristics it
imparts to the final product. It is particularly employed in
Canada and the United States.
4) Barley grain, probably the first cereal employed for
distillation in large quantities, was formerly a major crop
throughout Ireland and western Europe.
5) Wheat, because of its high cost, is used only where corn is
in short supply and is then limited to production of grain
alcohol for blending or in production of liqueurs.
6) Potatoes have been used in distilled spirits production
primarily in central Europe; in the tropics, other starchy roots
• Grains in various forms, broken or damaged grains, are procured
from various sources and stored in Grain Silos or in open grain
yard covered with tarpoline. Usually, it is a practice to store at
least 30 days of Raw materials. All types of grains like broken
rice, damaged wheat, Jowar, Maize / Corn are used in this
industry and the Plant & Machinery is suitably designed.
• Dry mills produce ethanol, distillers' grain and carbon dioxide
• The carbon dioxide is a co-product of the fermentation, and the
distillers’ dried grain with solubles
• (DDGS) is a animal based, high protein livestock feed
supplement, produced from the distillation and dehydration
• If distillers' grains are not dried, they are referred to as distillers'
wet grain (DWG).
• In dry milling, the entire corn kernel or other starchy grain is first
ground into flour, which is referred to in the industry as "meal"
and processed without separating out the various component
parts of the grain. The meal is slurried with water to form a
"mash." Enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to
dextrose, a simple sugar. Ammonia is added for pH control and
as a nutrient to the yeast.
• Wet mill facilities are ‘bio-refineries’ producing a host of high-valued
• Wet mill processing plants produce more valuable by-products than the dry
• For example, in wet mill plants, using corn as feedstock, they produce:
• corn gluten meal (which can be used as a natural herbicide or as a high
protein supplement in animal feeds);
• corn gluten feed (also used as animal feed);
• corn germ meal;
• corn starch;
• corn oil; and
• corn syrup and high fructose corn syrups.
• The purpose of milling and pressing is to make the starch or sugar more
available for enzyme action. Crushing and pressing (grapes and other
fruits), milling (cereal grains), or a combination of milling and pressing
(sugarcane) are used.
• In milling, grains are reduced to a meal to allow wetting of their starch
cells. Various types of mills are used. Roller mills, where the grain passes
through a series of corrugated rollers, was long the most common type. The
grinding action of the rollers is mainly a shearing action. More efficient
and economical impact-type mills (such as hammer mills) are now gaining
• After the Industrial Revolution, steam replaced water as the power source
for milling. Since the mid-20th century, electricity has been almost the
exclusive power source in milling.
• The cleaned grain is sent to milling machines for grinding grain flour (size
400-700μ) is conveyed to pre-masher for slurry preparation. In pre-masher,
flour & required water of ratio 1:2 are mixed by agitator. Uniform grain
slurry is made and transferred to another low shear tank (slurry tank) for
proper mixing. In slurry tank required pH of 6.0-6.2 is maintained by using
lime if required and temperature as 550C to 600C. An enzyme called α-
amylase is added here in small (20-25%) dose before the cooking process
•Grain flour and process water is fed at controlled
rate to Slurry Tank. Mixed slurry is taken to the
Initial Liquefaction tank where additional quantity
of water is added as per requirement. Viscosity
reduction Enzyme and stabilizing chemicals and a
portion of liquefying enzyme are also added at this
stage. The slurry is then “cooked” in the jet
COOKING SECTION/Primary Liquefaction
• The slurry is continuously pumped to a steam
jet cooker where high-pressure steam at 7.5
bar(g) rapidly raises the slurry temperature.
The mixture of slurry and steam is then passed
through the Retention loop. The retention
loop has several “U” bends in series with
sufficient capacity to provide the desired
retention time at a given flow rate. The
cooked mash is discharged to a Flash Tank.
• The cooking process, accomplished in the
above manner, converts the slurry into a
hydrated, sterilized suspension and is
therefore susceptible to enzyme attack for
• The gelatinized mash from the Flash Tank is
liquefied in the initial and final liquefaction
tank where liquefying enzyme (alpha-amylase) is
• After the flash condensation cooling, the
mixture is held for 1–2 hours at 180–190°F to give
the alpha-amylase enzyme time to break down
the starch into short chain dextrins.
• After pH and temperature adjustment, a second
enzyme, glucoamylase, is added as the mixture is
pumped into the fermentation tanks.
Pre FERMENTATION- YEAST ACTIVATION
• In the Pre Fermentation stage, yeast
is activated and propagated.
• Two pre fermentors are provided but
only one is in operation at any time.
• All the materials, process water, and
nutrients are added to the yeast for
activation and growth of yeast cell
• Filtered air is sparged and provision is
made for the addition of acid to
maintain pH and anti foam agent to
• The fermentation process operates in batch mode and
converts the fermentable sugar in the feedstock into
alcohol using yeast.
• During fermentation, sugar is broken down into alcohol
• Significant heat is released during the fermentation
• The temperature is kept constant at 32C by forced
recirculation flow of mash coolers for Fermentors using
fermented recirculation cum transfer pumps.
• After a total cycle time of 48 hours, the fermented beer is
transferred to the beer tank to be sent for distillation
Flexi mode –
Continuous / Fed Batch
(depending on molasses
8-10 % v/v
(Quantity depends on
quality of molasses)
Recycling of Spent
Detailed analysis is
Multi feed – Molasses,
•Distillation is a kind of seperation technique of two
or more volatile liquid compunds by using the
difference in boiling points and relative volatility.
•The process takes place in a column, and two heat
•In the column two phases, liquid and gas, are
distributed to enrich the vapor in more volatile
compounds and enrich the liquid phase on less
•Mass transfer is the key to a successful distillation.
• This process utilizes following columns namely Analyser,
Degassifier, Pre-Rectifier Column, Rectifier-cum Exhaust, Extractive
Distillation Column, Recovery Column and Simmering Column in
ideal heat integration in order to reduce the energy consumption.
• The arriving wash is first preheated in beer heater and fed to
Analyzer column Vapor draw-containing alcohol from wash from
Analyzer column top is fed to Pre-rectifier column (if required),
which too is working under vacuum.
• Liquid is refluxed. The impure spirit is drawn from top of column
and that collected at bottom is fed to top of the Exhaust portion of
the Rectifier cum Exhaust column.
• Under pressure heat is given through Re boiler. Alcohol is enriched
towards the top and drawn out as Rectified Spirit about 95% v/v
Use of reboiler
Extra Neutral Alcohol ;
Available & Practiced;
Multi Product –
RS / ENA
3.2 – 3.5 Kg / Ltr of
Alcohol for ENA
5-8 % of total alcohol
Focus on Energy
• This is to produce anhydrous Alcohol from
• Rectified Spirit is preheated and fed to
evaporation/ regeneration column.
• Vapors drawn, sent to Sieve Bed, dehydrated,
condensed and cooled. Thus forms
• Absolute Alcohol of desired 99.8% v/v purity.
• There is alternate Sieve Bed 2 ready for next
Molecular sieve Dehydration unit
•The wet ethanol (Neutral alcohol) containing
about 95% (v/v) alcohol is pumped from the
wet alcohol storage tank to the Molecular
sieve Dehydration unit.
•This unit removes the water content of the
wet alcohol to produce the ethanol of
strength of not less than 99.9%.
After fermentation and distillation, the
residual mash, termed ‘whole stillage’ is
separated by centrifugation or pressing and
extrusion into wet grain (containing heavy
particulate matter) and thin stillage (containing
water and small particulate matter). The thin
stillage fraction is dried to a syrup, then mixed
with the wet grain fraction and dried further to
form Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS).
Decantation section comprises of Centrifuge
Decanter for separation of suspended solids from whole
Stillage (Spent wash) coming out of Distillation Plant, Wet
cake has 32-35% w/w solids as removed from bottom of
Decanter and is directly loaded on the trolley parked
below the centrifuge. Thin Slops coming out of Decanter
are collected in a tank and transferred for further
treatment and recycle.
The stillage from the distillation system is
pumped into centrifuges to separate the
majority of the solid matter from the solution.
This creates two products: A semi-solid product
called wet cake is removed and conveyed to
rotary dryers. A mostly-water process stream,
called thin stillage, is pumped to the
The thin stillage from the centrifuges is
pumped into a series of evaporators where a
majority of the water in the solution is removed.
The resulting product stream is called syrup.
The syrup can be sold as a stand-alone product
or added to the wet cake before moving into the
ADVANTAGES OF DRINKING DISTILLED LIQUORS
•1. Aids in digestion
•2. Promotes cardiovascular
•3. Reduces diabetes risk
•4. Lowers high blood pressure
•5. Anti-inflammation properties
• Perfect existing waste water treatment technologies
• Develop innovative technologies which will help to operate
ETP solutions in more ‘economical’ way
• Technology for reducing ‘water footprint’ to greater extent
• Contribute to environment by reducing GHG emissions
Abengoa Bioenergy is the only international producer of ethanol
Production Facilities in EU
Abengoa Bioenergy is the only international producer of ethanol
Production Facilities in U.S.
• IN India there,s a huge list of companies.
•In each state there are at least 5-6 plants
producing Distilled liquor.
•Close to us we have Radico Nv
Distilleries plant situated in Aurangabad.
•As discussed, it is safe to say that the project is not likely
to cause any significant impact on the ecology of the area,
as adequate preventive measures will be adopted to
contain the various pollutants within permissible limits.
Green belt development around the area will be taken up
as an effective pollution mitigative technique. Community
impacts will be beneficial, as the project will generate
significant economic benefits for the region. With the
effective implementation of the Environment Management
Plan (EMP) during the Plant activities, the proposed
project can proceed without any significant negative
impact on environment.