Assessment for Classroom Management MA TEFL & ICT Program Classroom Management CourseProfessor. Naima TrimassePrepared by:Asma Askaoui; Ikram Ait Draa; Naima Sellam;Yassine Ait Hammou; Zakaria Jamaati
• A definition of Evaluation and Assessment. Outline• What is “Formative Assessment” and “Summative Assessment”?• Formative Assessment: • Quick tips for a successful classroom management when • Mentoring Students‟ Progress. doing a written quiz / test. • Assessment for Learning • Developing an Effective (AfL). “Homework” Routine (Children • Assessment for Motivation and teens): (feedback): • Homework Setting and Time. • How much do I write? • Homework Rules. (for feedback) • The power of verbal • Doing the Homework and motivation. Rewarding with privilege.• Working with Individuals and • Providing Assistance. Small groups.• Self- and Peer Assessment.
1. Formative Assessment Vs.Summative Assessment• 1.1. Formative Assessment:• Informative type of assessment.• it explains where a piece of work is located at a particular time and what action is needed to improve that piece of work before a final assessment.• Gauge Ss level of understanding.
1. Formative Assessment Vs.Summative Assessment• Help raise Ss motivation.• Demonstrates the effectiveness of teaching1.2. Summative Assessment:• Designed to determine what Ss know after a specific learning time. The feedback is used to inform future work, but not the piece of work we are assessing.
2. Formative Assessment:2.1. Monitoring Ss Progress.• T is required to track and monitor his Ss progress based on academic, social and behavioral criteria.• Helps them make better-informed instructional decisions grounded on data (Collected before hand and analyzed)• This requires frequent individual monitoring of Ss.
2. Formative Assessment:2.1. Monitoring Ss Progress.• Helps T adjusts his lessons and increase accuracy in formative classroom assessment ➔ Increase in Ss achievement.• Grades are not an accurate and reliable measure of Ss progress.
2. Formative Assessment:2.2. Assessment for Learning (AFL).• “AFL is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, and where they need to go and how to get there” Assessment Reform Group (2002)• Sometimes formative assessment is referred to as AFL.
2. Formative Assessment:2.2. Assessment for Learning (AFL).• “Acknowledges the critical importance of the instructional decisions made by students and their teachers working as a team”. (Stiggings 2005)
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• One of the frequently neglected uses of assessment is –for motivation, as it can affect classroom management.• The way T handles written assessment can impact positively or negatively Ss self-esteem and motivation;• Written assessment should be continuous to reflect Ss progress.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• T should respect Ss work and give it needed attention, and the benefit of his expertise.• when grading, a written work, T needs to invest for the future;• It is recommended to accompany the grade with a written feedback.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Be Positive. Never start with a Negative comment in your comment on the work.• “Pupils who encounter difficulties and poor results are led to believe that they lack ability, and this belief leads them to attribute their difficulties to a defect in themselves about which they cannot do a great deal. So they „retire hurt‟ avoid investing effort in learning which could only lead to disappointment. And will try to build up their self-esteem in other ways” (Black & William 1998, P.9)
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Write something positive, informative and constructive about S work.• Do not overload S with much suggestions.• Acknowledge the progress made after S has made the changes you suggested.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• This has short- / long-term benefit for S: 1. Quality of work will be improving as S will be willing to implement T suggestions. 2. More in-class engagement, 3. S self-esteem and Self-confidence rise. 4. Risk-taker. 5. Self-critical.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• “Feedback has shown to improve learning where it gives each pupils specific guidance on strengths and weaknesses, preferably without and overall marks” (Black & William 1998, P.12)• Using grades alone without feedback can be with no benefit to S.• Avoid negative comments ➔ Demotivation and disengagement from learning.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.A/ How to present assessment grades?:• Respect the confidentiality of S grades.• Reduce the status of how you display the grade to S, put much emphasis on the feedback.• Careful and sensitive sharing of S grades can turn out to be effective and motivational.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.B/ How much T should write for a comment?:• Be concise and succinct; do not write more than what you can write on post it note.• Start with a positive comment, than suggest few comments for improvement.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.C/ The power of verbal motivation.• There should be a correlation between instruction and assessment.• Starter Activity: should be as much as possible linked to what you will teach, to grab Ss attention and calm them.• It is the first opportunity to assess Ss ➔ create a positive working environment.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Be verbally positive to your Ss responses whatever they are.• Lesson: Direct appropriate question to the right S. Praise for right answers.• Safe learning environment: Encourage less confident Ss to participate.• Establish a class participation routine.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Class activities may vary b/w individual work and small groups (Pair / group work).• It is a good opportunity to raise self-esteem of individuals and encourage shy students to participate.• Develop Ss social skills.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.How to manage group work activities:• Time group work activities,• Move between groups to monitor their work: prompt questions, check which Ss are active and which are not.• Ensure individuals do not dominate groups, assign tasks.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Determine the size and the make-up of the group: (mix genders, abilities, and known opinions.)• Bad making of groups will push timid students to withdraw, because of the fear to make mistakes.• When groups share their findings, Target questions to within the group itself and not to the group.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Make sure to give an • Be supportive, check appropriate feedback understanding to the group. constantly, offer suggestions and• Assess within the encouragements, give group not all the directions and clarify group: how each ambiguities before the individual understands student submits his final and says what he has work ➔ Formative learnt. Assessment.
4. Self- & Peer Assessment• Self-Assessment:Gives an opportunity to a S to step back and look athis own work, assess his own progress anddeficiencies, set their own targets with a providedclear framework ➔ Autonomous learning• Peer Assessment:A good way to look at individuals‟ work and assessthrough swapping it between two Ss.
Developing An Effective Homework RoutineHomework Problems are various:• Not willing to or not doing the homework.• Not staying on task.• Depending on others to do the homework…. Homework-related problems are caused by various factors related to:- School and Classroom instruction- The Home
• An effective strategy to address homework- related problems require a combination of interventions to be implemented within the classroom and at the home. Present yourself as a person who is willing to help not a blaming person!
Methods of Addressing Homework-related Problems I. Homework Setting & Time: A. Homework Setting: It should be conductive to effective homework completion! Kids Teenagers- Free from distractions - Free from distractions- Close enough to parents - Private place and Quiet- Quiet but not isolated - …-…
B. Homework Time: Keep it consistent from day to day! Kids Teenagers- Same homework time everyday - Flexible homework time- Times which work best: (Half an - May change from day to dayhour after kids get home from - Parents can work out a dailyschool/ an hour before diner/ schedule with teenagers.immediately after diner) HOWEVER…- Times which do not work: (before Do everything BUT Homework!bedtime, late in the day, in the - Establishing a study period bymorning before going to school…) teachers for students with history of homework-related completion problems.
• II. Homework Journal (Checklist): It is an affective means of regular written communication between the teachers and the parents. It is a system of assisting students keeping track of homework.*Homework Journal can be in form of:- Daily or weekly homework journals or planners (notebook)
- Daily or weekly assignments record sheet.NB: By experience, most of teenagers resist the idea of having a Homework Journal, instead they rely on their memory or on their notes. Thus, Teachers are to present the Homework Journal to teenagers as a tool grown-ups / adults use just like a Calendar.
III. Homework Rules:The rules are to be set after the homework journal has been arranged with students and parents.- Students must bring the homework journal home each day with all the work to be done (Handouts, books, notebooks…)
- Parents are to check the homework journal at the beginning of homework time.- Students would not get any sort of help or assistance if they forget to bring back home materials needed to complete the homework.
VI. Doing The Homework and Rewarding with Privilege:• When doing the homework, parents can help their kids or adolescents organize the assignments by: - locating and categorizing , by subject, all work to be done. - grouping all needed materials.
• Students should show their parents each completed assignment to check briefly if it is correct, legible and neat.• Parents should consider the after-homework previlige by rewarding their kids after the completion of each assignement or a set of assignments.• Parents are to restrict certain priviliges if their kids did not complete their assignments.
V. Providing Assistance:• Parents can provide assistance occasionally. If their kids keep asking for assistance everytime they sit down to do the homework, parents should inform the teacher to check the nature of the problem.• Parents should not complete the assignment for the students. They should just do a starter item…