0
Diversity of Organisms and
Classification
Classification of Organisms
Kingdom
Phylum / Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Species
The smallest group of organisms
classified which can interbreed with
each other to produce fertile offspring
Five Kingdom System
Bacteria
Protists
Fungi
Animals
Plants
Bacteria Kingdom
Unicellular,
microscopic
No nucleus
– Prokaryotic
No chlorophyll
– Saprophytic or
parasitic
Protist kingdom
Unicellular; microscopic
Nucleus present
– Eukaryotic
Autotrophic or heterotrophic
Fungus kingdom
Eukaryotic
Made up of hyphae
No root, stem and
leaf
No chlorophyll
– Saprophytic or
parasitic
Reproduce by
...
Animal Kingdom
Eukaryotic
Divided into two groups according to the
presence or absence of backbone:
– Invertebrates : with...
Invertebrate
Coelenterates
•2 layers of cells
•Have tentacles with
sting cells
•One opening
Flatworm
•Long and flattened body
•Free living or parasitic
Ringed worms
•Long and segmented body
•Have chaetae for locomotion
Roundwoms
Long, cylindrical and segmented body
Most of them are parasites
•Molluscs
•Soft and unsegmented body
•Covered by a hard shell
Echinoderms
•Marine animals with 5-radial plan body
•Have external spines
Arthropods
• Segmented body
• Have a hard exoskeleton and several pairs
of jointed legs
• Divided into 4 classes
1. Crusta...
Crustaceans
Arachnids
Myriapods
Insects
Vertebrates
Divided into 5 groups:
– Fish
– Amphibians
– Reptiles
– Birds
– Mammals
Fish
Aquatic
Cold-blooded
Body covered with
wet and slimy scales
Streamline body for
easy movement
through water
Fins for ...
Amphibians
Cold-blooded
Moist, scaleless skin
Limbs present
– tetrapods
Larvae (tadpoles)
use gills for
breathing; adults ...
Reptiles
Cold-blooded
Body covered with
dry, hard scales
Live on land
Breathe with lungs
Internal fertilization;
lay shell...
Birds
Warm-blooded
With feathers and
wings
Beak for feeding
Lungs for breathing
Internal fertilization;
lay shelled eggs
Mammals
Warm-blooded
Hairs on skin
Females have
mammary glands for
producing milk
Lungs for breathing
Diaphragm present
In...
Plant Kingdom
Eukaryotic
Most plants contains photosynthetic
pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for
photosynthesis
– Autotrophic
...
Non-flowering plants
4 groups:
– Algae
– Mosses
– Ferns
– Gymnosperms
Algae
Aquatic
May be unicellular or
multicellular
No root, stem or leaf
Contain photosynthetic
pigments (e.g.
chlorophyll)...
Mosses
With simple leaves and stems
No root; with rhizoids for anchorage and
absorption of water
Reproduce by spores
No va...
Ferns
With true roots,
stems, leaves and
vascular tissues
Reproduce by
spores
Live in damp
places
Gymnosperms
Reproduction by
producing seeds
– Seeds develop in
cones, not enclosed
by fruits
⇒ naked seeds
Needle-shaped
l...
Angiosperms (Flowering plants)
With flowers for
reproduction
Seeds are
produced inside
the fruit (matured
ovary)
Two groups of flowering plants
MonocotyledonsDicotyledons
Cotyledons Two One
Leaf venation Netted Parallel
Root system Tap...
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02 diversity of_life_and_clas

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Transcript of "02 diversity of_life_and_clas"

  1. 1. Diversity of Organisms and Classification
  2. 2. Classification of Organisms Kingdom Phylum / Division Class Order Family Genus Species
  3. 3. Species The smallest group of organisms classified which can interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring
  4. 4. Five Kingdom System Bacteria Protists Fungi Animals Plants
  5. 5. Bacteria Kingdom Unicellular, microscopic No nucleus – Prokaryotic No chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic
  6. 6. Protist kingdom Unicellular; microscopic Nucleus present – Eukaryotic Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  7. 7. Fungus kingdom Eukaryotic Made up of hyphae No root, stem and leaf No chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic Reproduce by forming spores
  8. 8. Animal Kingdom Eukaryotic Divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of backbone: – Invertebrates : without backbone – Vertebrates : with backbone
  9. 9. Invertebrate Coelenterates •2 layers of cells •Have tentacles with sting cells •One opening
  10. 10. Flatworm •Long and flattened body •Free living or parasitic
  11. 11. Ringed worms •Long and segmented body •Have chaetae for locomotion
  12. 12. Roundwoms Long, cylindrical and segmented body Most of them are parasites
  13. 13. •Molluscs •Soft and unsegmented body •Covered by a hard shell
  14. 14. Echinoderms •Marine animals with 5-radial plan body •Have external spines
  15. 15. Arthropods • Segmented body • Have a hard exoskeleton and several pairs of jointed legs • Divided into 4 classes 1. Crustaceans 2. Arachnids 3. Myriapods 4. Insects
  16. 16. Crustaceans
  17. 17. Arachnids
  18. 18. Myriapods
  19. 19. Insects
  20. 20. Vertebrates Divided into 5 groups: – Fish – Amphibians – Reptiles – Birds – Mammals
  21. 21. Fish Aquatic Cold-blooded Body covered with wet and slimy scales Streamline body for easy movement through water Fins for balance and to control movement Gills for breathing External fertilization
  22. 22. Amphibians Cold-blooded Moist, scaleless skin Limbs present – tetrapods Larvae (tadpoles) use gills for breathing; adults use lungs External fertilization
  23. 23. Reptiles Cold-blooded Body covered with dry, hard scales Live on land Breathe with lungs Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  24. 24. Birds Warm-blooded With feathers and wings Beak for feeding Lungs for breathing Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  25. 25. Mammals Warm-blooded Hairs on skin Females have mammary glands for producing milk Lungs for breathing Diaphragm present Internal fertilization; embryos develop inside mothers’ bodies
  26. 26. Plant Kingdom Eukaryotic Most plants contains photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis – Autotrophic Can be divided into two groups: – Non-flowering plants – Flowering plants
  27. 27. Non-flowering plants 4 groups: – Algae – Mosses – Ferns – Gymnosperms
  28. 28. Algae Aquatic May be unicellular or multicellular No root, stem or leaf Contain photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis
  29. 29. Mosses With simple leaves and stems No root; with rhizoids for anchorage and absorption of water Reproduce by spores No vascular tissues Found in damp area
  30. 30. Ferns With true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissues Reproduce by spores Live in damp places
  31. 31. Gymnosperms Reproduction by producing seeds – Seeds develop in cones, not enclosed by fruits ⇒ naked seeds Needle-shaped leaves to reduce water loss
  32. 32. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) With flowers for reproduction Seeds are produced inside the fruit (matured ovary)
  33. 33. Two groups of flowering plants MonocotyledonsDicotyledons Cotyledons Two One Leaf venation Netted Parallel Root system Tap root system Fibrous root system
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