02 diversity of_life_and_clas


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02 diversity of_life_and_clas

  1. 1. Diversity of Organisms and Classification
  2. 2. Classification of Organisms Kingdom Phylum / Division Class Order Family Genus Species
  3. 3. Species The smallest group of organisms classified which can interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring
  4. 4. Five Kingdom System Bacteria Protists Fungi Animals Plants
  5. 5. Bacteria Kingdom Unicellular, microscopic No nucleus – Prokaryotic No chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic
  6. 6. Protist kingdom Unicellular; microscopic Nucleus present – Eukaryotic Autotrophic or heterotrophic
  7. 7. Fungus kingdom Eukaryotic Made up of hyphae No root, stem and leaf No chlorophyll – Saprophytic or parasitic Reproduce by forming spores
  8. 8. Animal Kingdom Eukaryotic Divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of backbone: – Invertebrates : without backbone – Vertebrates : with backbone
  9. 9. Invertebrate Coelenterates •2 layers of cells •Have tentacles with sting cells •One opening
  10. 10. Flatworm •Long and flattened body •Free living or parasitic
  11. 11. Ringed worms •Long and segmented body •Have chaetae for locomotion
  12. 12. Roundwoms Long, cylindrical and segmented body Most of them are parasites
  13. 13. •Molluscs •Soft and unsegmented body •Covered by a hard shell
  14. 14. Echinoderms •Marine animals with 5-radial plan body •Have external spines
  15. 15. Arthropods • Segmented body • Have a hard exoskeleton and several pairs of jointed legs • Divided into 4 classes 1. Crustaceans 2. Arachnids 3. Myriapods 4. Insects
  16. 16. Crustaceans
  17. 17. Arachnids
  18. 18. Myriapods
  19. 19. Insects
  20. 20. Vertebrates Divided into 5 groups: – Fish – Amphibians – Reptiles – Birds – Mammals
  21. 21. Fish Aquatic Cold-blooded Body covered with wet and slimy scales Streamline body for easy movement through water Fins for balance and to control movement Gills for breathing External fertilization
  22. 22. Amphibians Cold-blooded Moist, scaleless skin Limbs present – tetrapods Larvae (tadpoles) use gills for breathing; adults use lungs External fertilization
  23. 23. Reptiles Cold-blooded Body covered with dry, hard scales Live on land Breathe with lungs Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  24. 24. Birds Warm-blooded With feathers and wings Beak for feeding Lungs for breathing Internal fertilization; lay shelled eggs
  25. 25. Mammals Warm-blooded Hairs on skin Females have mammary glands for producing milk Lungs for breathing Diaphragm present Internal fertilization; embryos develop inside mothers’ bodies
  26. 26. Plant Kingdom Eukaryotic Most plants contains photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis – Autotrophic Can be divided into two groups: – Non-flowering plants – Flowering plants
  27. 27. Non-flowering plants 4 groups: – Algae – Mosses – Ferns – Gymnosperms
  28. 28. Algae Aquatic May be unicellular or multicellular No root, stem or leaf Contain photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis
  29. 29. Mosses With simple leaves and stems No root; with rhizoids for anchorage and absorption of water Reproduce by spores No vascular tissues Found in damp area
  30. 30. Ferns With true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissues Reproduce by spores Live in damp places
  31. 31. Gymnosperms Reproduction by producing seeds – Seeds develop in cones, not enclosed by fruits ⇒ naked seeds Needle-shaped leaves to reduce water loss
  32. 32. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) With flowers for reproduction Seeds are produced inside the fruit (matured ovary)
  33. 33. Two groups of flowering plants MonocotyledonsDicotyledons Cotyledons Two One Leaf venation Netted Parallel Root system Tap root system Fibrous root system