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Nutrients in aquaculture (Sources, Types, Dynamics, Effect, Quality and Quantity in aquatic ecosystem)
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Nutrients in aquaculture (Sources, Types, Dynamics, Effect, Quality and Quantity in aquatic ecosystem)


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Drafted and presented by the author himself. It is meant for aquaculture experts or scholars only. visit …

Drafted and presented by the author himself. It is meant for aquaculture experts or scholars only. visit
Seminar on Nutrients in Pond Fish Farming

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  • 1. Fertilizer andorganic derivednutrientsFoodnutrientsNutrientsfixed inbiomass
  • 2. SOURCE• Inorganic fertilizers (E.g.- urea, ssp, etc.)• Organic manures (E.g.- FYM, Animal excreta, etc.)• Benthic sediments (E.g.- Bottom muck, silt, etc.)• Dead and decaying organic matter (E.g.-Decomposing feed, dead plants/animals, etc.)• Run-off from adjacent fields & catchment areasSINK• Utilization by primary producers.• Assimilation by secondary & tertiaryconsumers.• Lost into the atmosphere or surroundingenvironment.• Locked or trapped within benthic sediments.
  • 3. SOURCE• Feed (E.g.- Natural, supplementary, artificial)• Absorption from environment (E.g.- Through skin,gills & during osmoregulatory processes)SINK• Proteins & enzymes.• Carbohydrates• Lipids• Vitamins, minerals & hormones.
  • 4. • Nitrogen (N),Phoshphorus (P),Pottasium (K),Inorganic carbon (C)(in Kg)Macro-nutrients(required in largerquantities, i.e.- inKg, gm, etc.)• Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Chlorine (Cl),Boron (B), Selenium (Se), Chromium (Cr),Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn),Sillicon (Si), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg). (in mg)• Vitamins A,D,E,K, (in µg ) B-complex, C, Choline,Inositol, biotin, etc. (in I.U.)Micro-nutrients(required in minutequantities, i.e.- inmg, µg, I.U., etc.)• Sulphur (S), Calcium (Ca),Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O)(in gm)
  • 5. SOURCE• Natural food (E.g.- Phytoplankton, plants,zooplankton, bacterioplankton)• Supplementary feed (E.g.- larval feed, grow outfeed, broodstock feed.)• DetritusSINK• Fixed into biomass or standing crop.• Lost through harvested biomass or crop.• Recycled into environment by bacterioplankton.• Locked or trapped within benthic sediments.
  • 6. SOURCE (in aquatic systems)Weathering ofphosphoruscontaining rocks,Phosphate fertilizersAgriculturaland urbandrainageAtmosphericdustAnimal wasteDecomposition oforganic matter
  • 7. (From Knud-Hansen, 1998)
  • 8. (From Knud-Hansen, 1998)
  • 9. SOURCE (in aquatic systems)Fertilisation Precipitation Run-off N-fixing algaeDecomposition oforganic matterSeepage
  • 10. (From Knud-Hansen, 1998)
  • 11. (From Knud-Hansen, 1998)
  • 12. Forms of CarbonCarbon dioxide(CO2)Bicarbonate(HCO3-)Carbonate (CO32-)
  • 13. SOURCES (in aquatic systems)Solution of atmosphericCO2Dissolution of thecommon rock limestoneDecomposition of organicmatter
  • 14. Relationship between pH and approximate relative percentages oftotal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (Knud-hansen, 1998)
  • 15. Diel (24-hour) curves of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), ammonia-N, alkalinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in a productive pond.(Knud-hansen, 1998)
  • 16. Oxygen & Water Cycle in Pond
  • 17. Oxygen consumption pattern (Principles of aquaculture, 1998)IdealDuring algal bloom orweed infestationDuring cloudy dayDuringcontinuouscloudy day
  • 18. Element % of dry weight Source FunctionCarbon 50organiccompounds orCO2Main constituent of cellular materialOxygen 20H2O, organiccompounds,CO2, and O2Constituent of cell material and cellwater; O2 is electron acceptor inaerobic respirationNitrogen 14NH3, NO3,organiccompounds, N2Constituent of amino acids, nucleicacids nucleotides, and coenzymesHydrogen 8H2O, organiccompounds, H2Main constituent of organiccompounds and cell waterPhosphorus 3inorganicphosphates(PO4)Constituent of nucleic acids,nucleotides, phospholipids, LPS,teichoic acids
  • 19. Sulfur 1SO4, H2S, S, organicsulfur compoundsConstituent of cysteine,methionine, glutathione, severalcoenzymesPotassium 1 Potassium saltsMain cellular inorganic cation andcofactor for certain enzymesMagnesium 0.5 Magnesium saltsInorganic cellular cation, cofactorfor certain enzymatic reactionsCalcium 0.5 Calcium saltsInorganic cellular cation, cofactorfor certain enzymes and acomponent of endosporesIron 0.2 Iron saltsComponent of cytochromes andcertain nonheme iron-proteinsand a cofactor for some enzymaticreactions
  • 20. Micronutrient Utility Active Form
  • 21. InorganicMajor nutrients: Nitrogen,Phosphorus, Potash andCalciumMinor elements:Manganese, Boron,Sulphur, Iron, Cobalt,Copper, ZincOrganicAnimal wasteGreen manureCompost
  • 22. Item Organic fertilizers Inorganic fertilizersStorage Difficult, only short time Easy, possibly for long timeDistribution Difficult, esp. on larger scale EasyMineral content Variable, low Consistent, high to very highOrganic matter Present AbsentEffect on soil structure Improvement NoDirect food for fish Yes NoDecomposition process Yes, with oxygen consumption NoPrice Low to medium High to very highCost per nutrient unit Higher LowerAvailabilityPossibly in neighbourhood oreven on own farmCommercial suppliers only;sometimes importedDirect pond fertilizationPossible by raising animals onor near the pondNot feasible
  • 23. Poor:<0.5%Medium:0.5-1.5%High: 1.5-2.5%Excessive: >2.5%Organic Carbon content vs. Productivity of pond(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 24. Available-Nitrogen content vs. Productivity of pondLow:<250ppmMedium: 250-500ppmHigh:>500ppm(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 25. Available-Phosphorus content vs. Productivity of pondPoor:<30ppmAverage:30-60ppmGood: 60-120ppmHigh:>120ppm(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 26. C:N Ratio vs. Productivity of pond via MineralizationUnsuitable: <10Best: 10-15Good: 15-20Bad: >20(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 27. Poor:>12Bad: 8-12Good : 4-8Best: <4N:P Ratio vs. Productivity of pond via Assimilation(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 28. Desirableconcentrationsfor good algalproduction:Phosphates> 0.2 mg/lTotal P > 0.4mg/lNitrates> 2 mg/lTotal N > 1.5-3mg/lPotassium> 1 mg/lOxygen> 4 mg/litBest P:N ratio =1:4 to 1:8Total alkalinity60 – 400 ppmTotal Hardness40 – 300 ppmpH – 7.5 to 8.5(Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 29. Fertilizer Phosphorus PotassiumEq. P2O5 Total P(P2O5 x0.44)Eq. K2O Total K(K2O x 0.83)PHOSPHATE FERTILISERSBasic slag 16-20 7.0-8.8 - -Superphosphate 14-20 6.2-8.8 - TraceTriple superphosphate 44-54 19.4-23.8 - -
  • 30. Fertilizer Phosphorus NitrogenEq. P2O5 Total P(P2O5 x 0.44)NNITROGENOUS FERTILISERSAmmonium nitrate - - 33-35Ammonium sulphate - - 20-22Ammonium phosphate 20-48 8.8-21.1 11-16Di-ammonium phosphate 48-52 21.1-22.9 18-21Calcium nitrate - - 15-16Sodium nitrate - - 15-16Urea - - 42-47
  • 31. Fertilizer Nitrogen PotassiumN Eq. K2O Total K(K2O x 0.83)POTASSIC FERTILIZERSKainite (MgS04+KCI) - 20 16.6Potassium nitrate 13-14 44-46 36.5-38.2Potassium sulphate - 45-54 37.4-44.8Muriate of potash - 50-62 41.5-51.5
  • 32. Animal/Poultry Country N P Kpercent of oven-dry weightBuffalo Dung India 0.750.20 2.00Horse Dung India 1.88 0.52 1.00Cattle Dung India 1.65 0.44 0.83Sheep Dung India 1.55 0.70 0.72Goat Dung India 2.04 0.73 0.47
  • 33. Animal/Poultry Country N P KPig Dung China 2.66 1.37 1.47Duck Droppings India 2.15 1.13 1.15Chicken Droppings India 2.87 1.28 1.95
  • 34. Pond Types(Productivity)Organic Carbon(%)AvailableNutrients(mg/100g)Nutrientrequirement(Kg/ha)Total quantity offertilizer ormanure(Kg/ha/yr)Low Below 0.5 N: below 25P2O5: below 3N: 200-250P2O5: 100-125Org. C: 600-720Urea @225-290SSP@315-405Cow dung@10000-12000Medium 0.5 – 1.5 N: 25 - 50P2O5: 3 - 6N: 150-200P2O5: 75-100Org. C: 480-600Urea @156-225SSP@219-315Cow dung@8000-10000High 1.5 – 2.5 N: above 25P2O5: above 3N: 150-200P2O5: 75-100Org. C: 480-600Urea @112-156SSP@156-219Cow dung@5000-8000
  • 35. (Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 36. Amino acid % of protein % of dietArginine 4.2 1.6Histadine 2.1 0.8Isoleucine 2.3 0.9Leucine 3.4 1.3Lysine 5.7 2.2Methionine 3.1 1.2Phenylalanine 6.5 2.5Threonine 3.9 1.5Tryptophan 0.8 0.3Valine 3.6 1.4
  • 37. (Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 38. (Handbook of Fisheries, 2011, ICAR Publ.)
  • 39. Vitamin Requirement (mg/kg diet)Major vitamin deficiencysymptomsFAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINSVitamin A 10 000 IUFaded colour, exophthalmia, hemorrhageson fin and skinVitamin D N None detectedVitamin E 200–300 Muscular dystrophy, mortalityVitamin K N None detected
  • 40. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINSThiamin Na Nervousness and fading of body colour.Riboflavin 7.0 Hemorrhages on skin, fin, mortalityPyridoxine 5–6 Nervous disordersPantothenicacid30–50Poor growth, anaemia, skin hemorrhages,exophthalmiaNidcotinic acid 28 Hemorrhages on skin, mortalityBiotin 1 Poor growthFolic acid N None detectedVitamin B12 N None detectedCholine 4 000 Fatty liverInositol 440 Skin lesionsAscorbic acid Na Impaired collagen formation
  • 41. Minerals Quantity/Kg of dietPrimary mineralsCalcium 10-18 gPhosphorus 18 gMagnesium 0.8-1 gSodium 6 gPotassium 9 gSulphur 0.2 g
  • 42. Minerals Quantity/Kg of dietTrace ElementsManganese 20 mgZinc 50-100 mgIron 5-20 mgCobalt 10 mgSelenium 1 mgChlorine TracesCopper 25 mgMolybdenum TracesChromium TracesFluorine Traces